Abstract

This work discusses the development and calibration of the x-ray reflective and diffractive elements for the Soft X-ray Materials Science (SXR) beamline of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free-electron laser (FEL), designed for operation in the 500 to 2000 eV region. The surface topography of three Si mirror substrates and two Si diffraction grating substrates was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical profilometry. The figure of the mirror substrates was also verified via surface slope measurements with a long trace profiler. A boron carbide (B4C) coating especially optimized for the LCLS FEL conditions was deposited on all SXR mirrors and gratings. Coating thickness uniformity of 0.14 nm root mean square (rms) across clear apertures extending to 205 mm length was demonstrated for all elements, as required to preserve the coherent wavefront of the LCLS source. The reflective performance of the mirrors and the diffraction efficiency of the gratings were calibrated at beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron. To verify the integrity of the nanometer-scale grating structure, the grating topography was examined by AFM before and after coating. This is to our knowledge the first time B4C-coated diffraction gratings are demonstrated for operation in the soft x-ray region.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Soufli, M. J. Pivovaroff, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, A. L. Aquila, J. Ayers, M. A. McKernan, and R. M. Bionta, “Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 707716 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, B. Woods, R. M. Bionta, R. Soufli, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Opto-mechanical design considerations for the Linac Coherent Light Source x-ray mirror system,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770E (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Barty, R. Soufli, T. McCarville, S. L. Baker, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, and R. Bionta, “Predicting the coherent x-ray wavefront focal properties at the Linac Coherence Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser,” Opt. Express 17, 15508–15519 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Kelez, J. Bozek, Y.-D. Chuang, R. Duarte, D. E. Lee, W. McKinney, V. V. Yashchuk, and S. Yuan, “Design, modeling, and optimization of precision bent refocus optics—LCLS AMO KB mirror assembly,” in Proceedings of FEL2009 (2009), pp. 546–549.
  9. S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, A. Graf, S. L. Baker, R. Soufli, R. Sobierajski, T. Burian, J. Chalupsky, L. Juha, J. Gaudin, J. Krzywinski, S. Moeller, M. Messerschmidt, J. Bozek, and Ch. Bostedt, “Interaction of low-Z inorganic solids with short x-ray pulses at the LCLS free-electron laser,” Opt. Express 18, 23933–23938 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. L. Kirschman, E. E. Domning, W. R. McKinney, G. Y. Morrison, B. V. Smith, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Performance of the upgraded LTP-II at the ALS Optical Metrology Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770A (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. V. Yashchuk, S. Barber, E. E. Domning, J. L. Kirschman, G. Y. Morrison, B. V. Smith, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, R. Geckeler, and A. Just, “Sub-microradian surface slope metrology with the ALS Developmental Long Trace Profiler,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 212–223 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, W. A. Podgorski, and L. Golub, “Atomic force microscopy characterization of Zerodur mirror substrates for the extreme ultraviolet telescopes aboard NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3156–3163 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. L. Windt, “Topo-surface topography analysis,” http://www.rxollc.com/idl/index.html .
  15. R. Soufli, R. M. Hudyma, E. Spiller, E. M. Gullikson, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, C. C. Walton, and J. S. Taylor, “Sub-diffraction-limited multilayer coatings for the 0.3 numerical aperture micro-exposure tool for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3736–3746 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. H. Underwood and E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265–272 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 363–373 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, S. P. Hau-Riege, and R. Bionta, “Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7361, 73610U (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Soufli, A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, M. Fernández-Perea, and E. M. Gullikson, “Optical constants of magnetron sputtered boron carbide thin films from photoabsorption data in the range 30 to 770 eV,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4633–4639 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: A software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 013705 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Grating Solver Development Company website, http://www.gsolver.com/ .
  22. D. L. Windt, “IMD: Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370, 1998.
    [CrossRef]
  23. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmittance, and reflection at E=50–30000   eV, Z=1–92,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data 54, 181–342 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

P. Heimann, O. Krupin, W. F. Schlotter, J. Turner, J. Krzywinski, F. Sorgenfrei, M. Messerschmidt, D. Bernstein, M. Holmes, N. Kelez, D. Nordlund, M. Fernandez-Perea, R. Soufli, W. Wurth, and M. Rowen, “Linac Coherent Light Source soft x-ray materials science optical design and monochromator commissioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

V. V. Yashchuk, S. Barber, E. E. Domning, J. L. Kirschman, G. Y. Morrison, B. V. Smith, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, R. Geckeler, and A. Just, “Sub-microradian surface slope metrology with the ALS Developmental Long Trace Profiler,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 212–223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, A. Graf, S. L. Baker, R. Soufli, R. Sobierajski, T. Burian, J. Chalupsky, L. Juha, J. Gaudin, J. Krzywinski, S. Moeller, M. Messerschmidt, J. Bozek, and Ch. Bostedt, “Interaction of low-Z inorganic solids with short x-ray pulses at the LCLS free-electron laser,” Opt. Express 18, 23933–23938 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

A. Barty, R. Soufli, T. McCarville, S. L. Baker, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, and R. Bionta, “Predicting the coherent x-ray wavefront focal properties at the Linac Coherence Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser,” Opt. Express 17, 15508–15519 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, S. P. Hau-Riege, and R. Bionta, “Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7361, 73610U (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

R. Soufli, M. J. Pivovaroff, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, A. L. Aquila, J. Ayers, M. A. McKernan, and R. M. Bionta, “Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 707716 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, B. Woods, R. M. Bionta, R. Soufli, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Opto-mechanical design considerations for the Linac Coherent Light Source x-ray mirror system,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770E (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Kirschman, E. E. Domning, W. R. McKinney, G. Y. Morrison, B. V. Smith, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Performance of the upgraded LTP-II at the ALS Optical Metrology Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770A (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, M. Fernández-Perea, and E. M. Gullikson, “Optical constants of magnetron sputtered boron carbide thin films from photoabsorption data in the range 30 to 770 eV,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4633–4639 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

2001 (1)

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 363–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. H. Underwood and E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265–272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Windt, “IMD: Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370, 1998.
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmittance, and reflection at E=50–30000   eV, Z=1–92,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aquila, A. L.

R. Soufli, A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, M. Fernández-Perea, and E. M. Gullikson, “Optical constants of magnetron sputtered boron carbide thin films from photoabsorption data in the range 30 to 770 eV,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4633–4639 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, M. J. Pivovaroff, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, A. L. Aquila, J. Ayers, M. A. McKernan, and R. M. Bionta, “Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 707716 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ayers, J.

R. Soufli, M. J. Pivovaroff, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, A. L. Aquila, J. Ayers, M. A. McKernan, and R. M. Bionta, “Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 707716 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bajt, S.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baker, S. L.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, A. Graf, S. L. Baker, R. Soufli, R. Sobierajski, T. Burian, J. Chalupsky, L. Juha, J. Gaudin, J. Krzywinski, S. Moeller, M. Messerschmidt, J. Bozek, and Ch. Bostedt, “Interaction of low-Z inorganic solids with short x-ray pulses at the LCLS free-electron laser,” Opt. Express 18, 23933–23938 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, S. P. Hau-Riege, and R. Bionta, “Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7361, 73610U (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Barty, R. Soufli, T. McCarville, S. L. Baker, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, and R. Bionta, “Predicting the coherent x-ray wavefront focal properties at the Linac Coherence Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser,” Opt. Express 17, 15508–15519 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, M. J. Pivovaroff, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, A. L. Aquila, J. Ayers, M. A. McKernan, and R. M. Bionta, “Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 707716 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, W. A. Podgorski, and L. Golub, “Atomic force microscopy characterization of Zerodur mirror substrates for the extreme ultraviolet telescopes aboard NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3156–3163 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, R. M. Hudyma, E. Spiller, E. M. Gullikson, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, C. C. Walton, and J. S. Taylor, “Sub-diffraction-limited multilayer coatings for the 0.3 numerical aperture micro-exposure tool for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3736–3746 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barber, S.

V. V. Yashchuk, S. Barber, E. E. Domning, J. L. Kirschman, G. Y. Morrison, B. V. Smith, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, R. Geckeler, and A. Just, “Sub-microradian surface slope metrology with the ALS Developmental Long Trace Profiler,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 212–223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baro, A. M.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: A software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barty, A.

Bergh, M.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernstein, D.

P. Heimann, O. Krupin, W. F. Schlotter, J. Turner, J. Krzywinski, F. Sorgenfrei, M. Messerschmidt, D. Bernstein, M. Holmes, N. Kelez, D. Nordlund, M. Fernandez-Perea, R. Soufli, W. Wurth, and M. Rowen, “Linac Coherent Light Source soft x-ray materials science optical design and monochromator commissioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bionta, R.

A. Barty, R. Soufli, T. McCarville, S. L. Baker, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, and R. Bionta, “Predicting the coherent x-ray wavefront focal properties at the Linac Coherence Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser,” Opt. Express 17, 15508–15519 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, S. P. Hau-Riege, and R. Bionta, “Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7361, 73610U (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bionta, R. M.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, M. J. Pivovaroff, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, A. L. Aquila, J. Ayers, M. A. McKernan, and R. M. Bionta, “Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 707716 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, B. Woods, R. M. Bionta, R. Soufli, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Opto-mechanical design considerations for the Linac Coherent Light Source x-ray mirror system,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770E (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Pivovaroff, R. M. Bionta, T. J. Mccarville, R. Soufli, and P. M. Stefan, “Soft x-ray mirrors for the Linac Coherent Light Source,” Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bostedt, Ch.

Bozek, J.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, A. Graf, S. L. Baker, R. Soufli, R. Sobierajski, T. Burian, J. Chalupsky, L. Juha, J. Gaudin, J. Krzywinski, S. Moeller, M. Messerschmidt, J. Bozek, and Ch. Bostedt, “Interaction of low-Z inorganic solids with short x-ray pulses at the LCLS free-electron laser,” Opt. Express 18, 23933–23938 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Kelez, J. Bozek, Y.-D. Chuang, R. Duarte, D. E. Lee, W. McKinney, V. V. Yashchuk, and S. Yuan, “Design, modeling, and optimization of precision bent refocus optics—LCLS AMO KB mirror assembly,” in Proceedings of FEL2009 (2009), pp. 546–549.

Burian, T.

Caleman, C.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chalupsky, J.

Chalupský, J.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, Y.-D.

N. Kelez, J. Bozek, Y.-D. Chuang, R. Duarte, D. E. Lee, W. McKinney, V. V. Yashchuk, and S. Yuan, “Design, modeling, and optimization of precision bent refocus optics—LCLS AMO KB mirror assembly,” in Proceedings of FEL2009 (2009), pp. 546–549.

Cihelka, J.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Colchero, J.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: A software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmittance, and reflection at E=50–30000   eV, Z=1–92,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Domning, E. E.

V. V. Yashchuk, S. Barber, E. E. Domning, J. L. Kirschman, G. Y. Morrison, B. V. Smith, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, R. Geckeler, and A. Just, “Sub-microradian surface slope metrology with the ALS Developmental Long Trace Profiler,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 212–223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Kirschman, E. E. Domning, W. R. McKinney, G. Y. Morrison, B. V. Smith, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Performance of the upgraded LTP-II at the ALS Optical Metrology Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duarte, R.

N. Kelez, J. Bozek, Y.-D. Chuang, R. Duarte, D. E. Lee, W. McKinney, V. V. Yashchuk, and S. Yuan, “Design, modeling, and optimization of precision bent refocus optics—LCLS AMO KB mirror assembly,” in Proceedings of FEL2009 (2009), pp. 546–549.

Fernández, R.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: A software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez-Perea, M.

P. Heimann, O. Krupin, W. F. Schlotter, J. Turner, J. Krzywinski, F. Sorgenfrei, M. Messerschmidt, D. Bernstein, M. Holmes, N. Kelez, D. Nordlund, M. Fernandez-Perea, R. Soufli, W. Wurth, and M. Rowen, “Linac Coherent Light Source soft x-ray materials science optical design and monochromator commissioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fernández-Perea, M.

Gaudin, J.

Geckeler, R.

V. V. Yashchuk, S. Barber, E. E. Domning, J. L. Kirschman, G. Y. Morrison, B. V. Smith, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, R. Geckeler, and A. Just, “Sub-microradian surface slope metrology with the ALS Developmental Long Trace Profiler,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 212–223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Golub, L.

Gómez-Herrero, J.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: A software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gómez-Rodríguez, J. M.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: A software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Graf, A.

Gullikson, E. M.

R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, S. P. Hau-Riege, and R. Bionta, “Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7361, 73610U (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, M. Fernández-Perea, and E. M. Gullikson, “Optical constants of magnetron sputtered boron carbide thin films from photoabsorption data in the range 30 to 770 eV,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4633–4639 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, M. J. Pivovaroff, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, A. L. Aquila, J. Ayers, M. A. McKernan, and R. M. Bionta, “Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 707716 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, W. A. Podgorski, and L. Golub, “Atomic force microscopy characterization of Zerodur mirror substrates for the extreme ultraviolet telescopes aboard NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3156–3163 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, R. M. Hudyma, E. Spiller, E. M. Gullikson, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, C. C. Walton, and J. S. Taylor, “Sub-diffraction-limited multilayer coatings for the 0.3 numerical aperture micro-exposure tool for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3736–3746 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 363–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood and E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265–272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmittance, and reflection at E=50–30000   eV, Z=1–92,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hájková, V.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hau-Riege, S. P.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, A. Graf, S. L. Baker, R. Soufli, R. Sobierajski, T. Burian, J. Chalupsky, L. Juha, J. Gaudin, J. Krzywinski, S. Moeller, M. Messerschmidt, J. Bozek, and Ch. Bostedt, “Interaction of low-Z inorganic solids with short x-ray pulses at the LCLS free-electron laser,” Opt. Express 18, 23933–23938 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, S. P. Hau-Riege, and R. Bionta, “Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7361, 73610U (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heimann, P.

P. Heimann, O. Krupin, W. F. Schlotter, J. Turner, J. Krzywinski, F. Sorgenfrei, M. Messerschmidt, D. Bernstein, M. Holmes, N. Kelez, D. Nordlund, M. Fernandez-Perea, R. Soufli, W. Wurth, and M. Rowen, “Linac Coherent Light Source soft x-ray materials science optical design and monochromator commissioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmittance, and reflection at E=50–30000   eV, Z=1–92,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, M.

P. Heimann, O. Krupin, W. F. Schlotter, J. Turner, J. Krzywinski, F. Sorgenfrei, M. Messerschmidt, D. Bernstein, M. Holmes, N. Kelez, D. Nordlund, M. Fernandez-Perea, R. Soufli, W. Wurth, and M. Rowen, “Linac Coherent Light Source soft x-ray materials science optical design and monochromator commissioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Horcas, I.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: A software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hudyma, R. M.

Juha, L.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, A. Graf, S. L. Baker, R. Soufli, R. Sobierajski, T. Burian, J. Chalupsky, L. Juha, J. Gaudin, J. Krzywinski, S. Moeller, M. Messerschmidt, J. Bozek, and Ch. Bostedt, “Interaction of low-Z inorganic solids with short x-ray pulses at the LCLS free-electron laser,” Opt. Express 18, 23933–23938 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jurek, M.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Just, A.

V. V. Yashchuk, S. Barber, E. E. Domning, J. L. Kirschman, G. Y. Morrison, B. V. Smith, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, R. Geckeler, and A. Just, “Sub-microradian surface slope metrology with the ALS Developmental Long Trace Profiler,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 212–223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaufmann, B. B.

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 363–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kelez, N.

P. Heimann, O. Krupin, W. F. Schlotter, J. Turner, J. Krzywinski, F. Sorgenfrei, M. Messerschmidt, D. Bernstein, M. Holmes, N. Kelez, D. Nordlund, M. Fernandez-Perea, R. Soufli, W. Wurth, and M. Rowen, “Linac Coherent Light Source soft x-ray materials science optical design and monochromator commissioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Kelez, J. Bozek, Y.-D. Chuang, R. Duarte, D. E. Lee, W. McKinney, V. V. Yashchuk, and S. Yuan, “Design, modeling, and optimization of precision bent refocus optics—LCLS AMO KB mirror assembly,” in Proceedings of FEL2009 (2009), pp. 546–549.

Kirschman, J. L.

V. V. Yashchuk, S. Barber, E. E. Domning, J. L. Kirschman, G. Y. Morrison, B. V. Smith, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, R. Geckeler, and A. Just, “Sub-microradian surface slope metrology with the ALS Developmental Long Trace Profiler,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 212–223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Kirschman, E. E. Domning, W. R. McKinney, G. Y. Morrison, B. V. Smith, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Performance of the upgraded LTP-II at the ALS Optical Metrology Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krása, J.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krupin, O.

P. Heimann, O. Krupin, W. F. Schlotter, J. Turner, J. Krzywinski, F. Sorgenfrei, M. Messerschmidt, D. Bernstein, M. Holmes, N. Kelez, D. Nordlund, M. Fernandez-Perea, R. Soufli, W. Wurth, and M. Rowen, “Linac Coherent Light Source soft x-ray materials science optical design and monochromator commissioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krzywinski, J.

P. Heimann, O. Krupin, W. F. Schlotter, J. Turner, J. Krzywinski, F. Sorgenfrei, M. Messerschmidt, D. Bernstein, M. Holmes, N. Kelez, D. Nordlund, M. Fernandez-Perea, R. Soufli, W. Wurth, and M. Rowen, “Linac Coherent Light Source soft x-ray materials science optical design and monochromator commissioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, A. Graf, S. L. Baker, R. Soufli, R. Sobierajski, T. Burian, J. Chalupsky, L. Juha, J. Gaudin, J. Krzywinski, S. Moeller, M. Messerschmidt, J. Bozek, and Ch. Bostedt, “Interaction of low-Z inorganic solids with short x-ray pulses at the LCLS free-electron laser,” Opt. Express 18, 23933–23938 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuba, J.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. E.

N. Kelez, J. Bozek, Y.-D. Chuang, R. Duarte, D. E. Lee, W. McKinney, V. V. Yashchuk, and S. Yuan, “Design, modeling, and optimization of precision bent refocus optics—LCLS AMO KB mirror assembly,” in Proceedings of FEL2009 (2009), pp. 546–549.

London, R. A.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, A. Graf, S. L. Baker, R. Soufli, R. Sobierajski, T. Burian, J. Chalupsky, L. Juha, J. Gaudin, J. Krzywinski, S. Moeller, M. Messerschmidt, J. Bozek, and Ch. Bostedt, “Interaction of low-Z inorganic solids with short x-ray pulses at the LCLS free-electron laser,” Opt. Express 18, 23933–23938 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McCarville, T.

McCarville, T. J.

R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, S. P. Hau-Riege, and R. Bionta, “Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7361, 73610U (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, B. Woods, R. M. Bionta, R. Soufli, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Opto-mechanical design considerations for the Linac Coherent Light Source x-ray mirror system,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770E (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, M. J. Pivovaroff, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, A. L. Aquila, J. Ayers, M. A. McKernan, and R. M. Bionta, “Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 707716 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Pivovaroff, R. M. Bionta, T. J. Mccarville, R. Soufli, and P. M. Stefan, “Soft x-ray mirrors for the Linac Coherent Light Source,” Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050O (2007).
[CrossRef]

McKernan, M. A.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, M. J. Pivovaroff, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, A. L. Aquila, J. Ayers, M. A. McKernan, and R. M. Bionta, “Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 707716 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McKinney, W.

N. Kelez, J. Bozek, Y.-D. Chuang, R. Duarte, D. E. Lee, W. McKinney, V. V. Yashchuk, and S. Yuan, “Design, modeling, and optimization of precision bent refocus optics—LCLS AMO KB mirror assembly,” in Proceedings of FEL2009 (2009), pp. 546–549.

McKinney, W. R.

J. L. Kirschman, E. E. Domning, W. R. McKinney, G. Y. Morrison, B. V. Smith, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Performance of the upgraded LTP-II at the ALS Optical Metrology Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Messerschmidt, M.

P. Heimann, O. Krupin, W. F. Schlotter, J. Turner, J. Krzywinski, F. Sorgenfrei, M. Messerschmidt, D. Bernstein, M. Holmes, N. Kelez, D. Nordlund, M. Fernandez-Perea, R. Soufli, W. Wurth, and M. Rowen, “Linac Coherent Light Source soft x-ray materials science optical design and monochromator commissioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, A. Graf, S. L. Baker, R. Soufli, R. Sobierajski, T. Burian, J. Chalupsky, L. Juha, J. Gaudin, J. Krzywinski, S. Moeller, M. Messerschmidt, J. Bozek, and Ch. Bostedt, “Interaction of low-Z inorganic solids with short x-ray pulses at the LCLS free-electron laser,” Opt. Express 18, 23933–23938 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moeller, S.

Morrison, G. Y.

V. V. Yashchuk, S. Barber, E. E. Domning, J. L. Kirschman, G. Y. Morrison, B. V. Smith, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, R. Geckeler, and A. Just, “Sub-microradian surface slope metrology with the ALS Developmental Long Trace Profiler,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 212–223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Kirschman, E. E. Domning, W. R. McKinney, G. Y. Morrison, B. V. Smith, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Performance of the upgraded LTP-II at the ALS Optical Metrology Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mrowka, S.

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 363–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nietubyc, R.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nordlund, D.

P. Heimann, O. Krupin, W. F. Schlotter, J. Turner, J. Krzywinski, F. Sorgenfrei, M. Messerschmidt, D. Bernstein, M. Holmes, N. Kelez, D. Nordlund, M. Fernandez-Perea, R. Soufli, W. Wurth, and M. Rowen, “Linac Coherent Light Source soft x-ray materials science optical design and monochromator commissioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pelka, J. B.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pivovaroff, M.

M. Pivovaroff, R. M. Bionta, T. J. Mccarville, R. Soufli, and P. M. Stefan, “Soft x-ray mirrors for the Linac Coherent Light Source,” Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pivovaroff, M. J.

R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, S. P. Hau-Riege, and R. Bionta, “Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7361, 73610U (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Barty, R. Soufli, T. McCarville, S. L. Baker, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, and R. Bionta, “Predicting the coherent x-ray wavefront focal properties at the Linac Coherence Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser,” Opt. Express 17, 15508–15519 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, M. J. Pivovaroff, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, A. L. Aquila, J. Ayers, M. A. McKernan, and R. M. Bionta, “Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 707716 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, B. Woods, R. M. Bionta, R. Soufli, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Opto-mechanical design considerations for the Linac Coherent Light Source x-ray mirror system,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770E (2008).
[CrossRef]

Podgorski, W. A.

Robinson, J. C.

R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, S. P. Hau-Riege, and R. Bionta, “Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7361, 73610U (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, M. J. Pivovaroff, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, A. L. Aquila, J. Ayers, M. A. McKernan, and R. M. Bionta, “Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 707716 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, W. A. Podgorski, and L. Golub, “Atomic force microscopy characterization of Zerodur mirror substrates for the extreme ultraviolet telescopes aboard NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3156–3163 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, R. M. Hudyma, E. Spiller, E. M. Gullikson, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, C. C. Walton, and J. S. Taylor, “Sub-diffraction-limited multilayer coatings for the 0.3 numerical aperture micro-exposure tool for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3736–3746 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rowen, M.

P. Heimann, O. Krupin, W. F. Schlotter, J. Turner, J. Krzywinski, F. Sorgenfrei, M. Messerschmidt, D. Bernstein, M. Holmes, N. Kelez, D. Nordlund, M. Fernandez-Perea, R. Soufli, W. Wurth, and M. Rowen, “Linac Coherent Light Source soft x-ray materials science optical design and monochromator commissioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ryutov, D.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Salmassi, F.

Schlotter, W. F.

P. Heimann, O. Krupin, W. F. Schlotter, J. Turner, J. Krzywinski, F. Sorgenfrei, M. Messerschmidt, D. Bernstein, M. Holmes, N. Kelez, D. Nordlund, M. Fernandez-Perea, R. Soufli, W. Wurth, and M. Rowen, “Linac Coherent Light Source soft x-ray materials science optical design and monochromator commissioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M. A.

Siewert, F.

V. V. Yashchuk, S. Barber, E. E. Domning, J. L. Kirschman, G. Y. Morrison, B. V. Smith, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, R. Geckeler, and A. Just, “Sub-microradian surface slope metrology with the ALS Developmental Long Trace Profiler,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 212–223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smith, B. V.

V. V. Yashchuk, S. Barber, E. E. Domning, J. L. Kirschman, G. Y. Morrison, B. V. Smith, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, R. Geckeler, and A. Just, “Sub-microradian surface slope metrology with the ALS Developmental Long Trace Profiler,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 212–223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Kirschman, E. E. Domning, W. R. McKinney, G. Y. Morrison, B. V. Smith, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Performance of the upgraded LTP-II at the ALS Optical Metrology Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sobierajski, R.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, A. Graf, S. L. Baker, R. Soufli, R. Sobierajski, T. Burian, J. Chalupsky, L. Juha, J. Gaudin, J. Krzywinski, S. Moeller, M. Messerschmidt, J. Bozek, and Ch. Bostedt, “Interaction of low-Z inorganic solids with short x-ray pulses at the LCLS free-electron laser,” Opt. Express 18, 23933–23938 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sorgenfrei, F.

P. Heimann, O. Krupin, W. F. Schlotter, J. Turner, J. Krzywinski, F. Sorgenfrei, M. Messerschmidt, D. Bernstein, M. Holmes, N. Kelez, D. Nordlund, M. Fernandez-Perea, R. Soufli, W. Wurth, and M. Rowen, “Linac Coherent Light Source soft x-ray materials science optical design and monochromator commissioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Soufli, R.

P. Heimann, O. Krupin, W. F. Schlotter, J. Turner, J. Krzywinski, F. Sorgenfrei, M. Messerschmidt, D. Bernstein, M. Holmes, N. Kelez, D. Nordlund, M. Fernandez-Perea, R. Soufli, W. Wurth, and M. Rowen, “Linac Coherent Light Source soft x-ray materials science optical design and monochromator commissioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, A. Graf, S. L. Baker, R. Soufli, R. Sobierajski, T. Burian, J. Chalupsky, L. Juha, J. Gaudin, J. Krzywinski, S. Moeller, M. Messerschmidt, J. Bozek, and Ch. Bostedt, “Interaction of low-Z inorganic solids with short x-ray pulses at the LCLS free-electron laser,” Opt. Express 18, 23933–23938 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, S. P. Hau-Riege, and R. Bionta, “Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7361, 73610U (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Barty, R. Soufli, T. McCarville, S. L. Baker, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, and R. Bionta, “Predicting the coherent x-ray wavefront focal properties at the Linac Coherence Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser,” Opt. Express 17, 15508–15519 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, M. J. Pivovaroff, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, A. L. Aquila, J. Ayers, M. A. McKernan, and R. M. Bionta, “Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 707716 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, M. Fernández-Perea, and E. M. Gullikson, “Optical constants of magnetron sputtered boron carbide thin films from photoabsorption data in the range 30 to 770 eV,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4633–4639 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, B. Woods, R. M. Bionta, R. Soufli, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Opto-mechanical design considerations for the Linac Coherent Light Source x-ray mirror system,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770E (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, R. M. Hudyma, E. Spiller, E. M. Gullikson, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, C. C. Walton, and J. S. Taylor, “Sub-diffraction-limited multilayer coatings for the 0.3 numerical aperture micro-exposure tool for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3736–3746 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Pivovaroff, R. M. Bionta, T. J. Mccarville, R. Soufli, and P. M. Stefan, “Soft x-ray mirrors for the Linac Coherent Light Source,” Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050O (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, W. A. Podgorski, and L. Golub, “Atomic force microscopy characterization of Zerodur mirror substrates for the extreme ultraviolet telescopes aboard NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3156–3163 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spiller, E.

Stefan, P.

R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, S. P. Hau-Riege, and R. Bionta, “Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7361, 73610U (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Barty, R. Soufli, T. McCarville, S. L. Baker, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, and R. Bionta, “Predicting the coherent x-ray wavefront focal properties at the Linac Coherence Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser,” Opt. Express 17, 15508–15519 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stefan, P. M.

R. Soufli, M. J. Pivovaroff, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, A. L. Aquila, J. Ayers, M. A. McKernan, and R. M. Bionta, “Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 707716 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, B. Woods, R. M. Bionta, R. Soufli, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Opto-mechanical design considerations for the Linac Coherent Light Source x-ray mirror system,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770E (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Pivovaroff, R. M. Bionta, T. J. Mccarville, R. Soufli, and P. M. Stefan, “Soft x-ray mirrors for the Linac Coherent Light Source,” Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. S.

Tiedtke, K.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Timneanu, N.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Toleikis, S.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Turner, J.

P. Heimann, O. Krupin, W. F. Schlotter, J. Turner, J. Krzywinski, F. Sorgenfrei, M. Messerschmidt, D. Bernstein, M. Holmes, N. Kelez, D. Nordlund, M. Fernandez-Perea, R. Soufli, W. Wurth, and M. Rowen, “Linac Coherent Light Source soft x-ray materials science optical design and monochromator commissioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

J. H. Underwood and E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265–272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Velyhan, A.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wabnitz, H.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Walton, C. C.

Windt, D. L.

Woods, B.

T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, B. Woods, R. M. Bionta, R. Soufli, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Opto-mechanical design considerations for the Linac Coherent Light Source x-ray mirror system,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770E (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wurth, W.

P. Heimann, O. Krupin, W. F. Schlotter, J. Turner, J. Krzywinski, F. Sorgenfrei, M. Messerschmidt, D. Bernstein, M. Holmes, N. Kelez, D. Nordlund, M. Fernandez-Perea, R. Soufli, W. Wurth, and M. Rowen, “Linac Coherent Light Source soft x-ray materials science optical design and monochromator commissioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yashchuk, V. V.

V. V. Yashchuk, S. Barber, E. E. Domning, J. L. Kirschman, G. Y. Morrison, B. V. Smith, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, R. Geckeler, and A. Just, “Sub-microradian surface slope metrology with the ALS Developmental Long Trace Profiler,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 212–223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Kirschman, E. E. Domning, W. R. McKinney, G. Y. Morrison, B. V. Smith, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Performance of the upgraded LTP-II at the ALS Optical Metrology Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770A (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Kelez, J. Bozek, Y.-D. Chuang, R. Duarte, D. E. Lee, W. McKinney, V. V. Yashchuk, and S. Yuan, “Design, modeling, and optimization of precision bent refocus optics—LCLS AMO KB mirror assembly,” in Proceedings of FEL2009 (2009), pp. 546–549.

Yuan, S.

N. Kelez, J. Bozek, Y.-D. Chuang, R. Duarte, D. E. Lee, W. McKinney, V. V. Yashchuk, and S. Yuan, “Design, modeling, and optimization of precision bent refocus optics—LCLS AMO KB mirror assembly,” in Proceedings of FEL2009 (2009), pp. 546–549.

Zeschke, T.

V. V. Yashchuk, S. Barber, E. E. Domning, J. L. Kirschman, G. Y. Morrison, B. V. Smith, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, R. Geckeler, and A. Just, “Sub-microradian surface slope metrology with the ALS Developmental Long Trace Profiler,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 212–223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, R. M. Bionta, D. Ryutov, R. Soufli, S. Bajt, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, J. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, and N. Timneanu, “Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Atom. Data Nucl. Data (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmittance, and reflection at E=50–30000   eV, Z=1–92,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. (1)

D. L. Windt, “IMD: Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370, 1998.
[CrossRef]

J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (1)

J. H. Underwood and E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265–272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

V. V. Yashchuk, S. Barber, E. E. Domning, J. L. Kirschman, G. Y. Morrison, B. V. Smith, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, R. Geckeler, and A. Just, “Sub-microradian surface slope metrology with the ALS Developmental Long Trace Profiler,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 212–223 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (6)

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 363–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, S. P. Hau-Riege, and R. Bionta, “Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7361, 73610U (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Kirschman, E. E. Domning, W. R. McKinney, G. Y. Morrison, B. V. Smith, and V. V. Yashchuk, “Performance of the upgraded LTP-II at the ALS Optical Metrology Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770A (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Pivovaroff, R. M. Bionta, T. J. Mccarville, R. Soufli, and P. M. Stefan, “Soft x-ray mirrors for the Linac Coherent Light Source,” Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050O (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, M. J. Pivovaroff, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, A. L. Aquila, J. Ayers, M. A. McKernan, and R. M. Bionta, “Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 707716 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, B. Woods, R. M. Bionta, R. Soufli, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Opto-mechanical design considerations for the Linac Coherent Light Source x-ray mirror system,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770E (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: A software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Heimann, O. Krupin, W. F. Schlotter, J. Turner, J. Krzywinski, F. Sorgenfrei, M. Messerschmidt, D. Bernstein, M. Holmes, N. Kelez, D. Nordlund, M. Fernandez-Perea, R. Soufli, W. Wurth, and M. Rowen, “Linac Coherent Light Source soft x-ray materials science optical design and monochromator commissioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

D. L. Windt, “Topo-surface topography analysis,” http://www.rxollc.com/idl/index.html .

Grating Solver Development Company website, http://www.gsolver.com/ .

N. Kelez, J. Bozek, Y.-D. Chuang, R. Duarte, D. E. Lee, W. McKinney, V. V. Yashchuk, and S. Yuan, “Design, modeling, and optimization of precision bent refocus optics—LCLS AMO KB mirror assembly,” in Proceedings of FEL2009 (2009), pp. 546–549.

LCLS website, http://lcls.slac.stanford.edu/ .

SXR beamline website, https://slacportal.slac.stanford.edu/sites/lcls_public/instruments/SXR/Pages/default.aspx .

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Layout of the SXR beamline and its optical elements.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Residual slope traces of the SXR (a) M1, (b) M2, and (c) M3 mirror substrates as they were measured with the long-trace profiler LTP-II. The residual slope traces were obtained by detrending the measured slope traces with the best-fit cylindrical shapes. For the M2 and M3 substrates, the fitting and detrending were made over the entire clear aperture, specified in Table 1 for each mirror. For the M1 substrate, the fitting was made over the surface area less by 3 mm than the specified clear aperture. The dashed lines in the plot (a) and the inset depict the excluded portion of the slope trace.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

PSD curves are plotted in the MSFR and HSFR ranges for each of the SXR mirror substrates. Each PSD curve is derived from precision surface metrology data averaged from measurements on two locations.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Reflectance versus incidence angle measurements on a B4C-coated test Si substrate, performed as part of the thickness uniformity optimization on the SXR M1 mirror. The y-direction was defined to coincide with the centerline of the mirror in the tangential direction, with x, y=0 being the center of the mirror. Given that coating thickness variation is symmetric around the center of the mirror, only data for positive y values are plotted above. The best fit to the reflectance data plotted above was produced with a B4C coating thickness dB4C=37.4nm. B4C optical constants from the CXRO Atomic Data Tables [23] and from recently determined experimental values [19] at 13.5 nm wavelength produced the same value for the fitted B4C coating thickness.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Three-dimensional, 50×50μm2 AFM images and representative one-dimensional line scans, obtained on the 100lines/mm test grating (i) as-received from the manufacturer, (ii) after cleaning, and (iii) after coating with a 37.4 nm thick B4C coating.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

AFM images obtained from the 100 lines/mm test grating after cleaning (i) 2×2μm2, groove area, (ii) 2×2μm2 groove area after B4C coating, (iii) 2×2μm2 line area, (iv) 1.5×1.5μm2 line area after B4C coating. The B4C coating thickness is 37.4 nm. The units on the scale bars on the left of each AFM image are nm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Three-dimensional AFM images and representative one-dimensional line scans, obtained on the 200lines/mm G2 grating (i) 15×15μm2, as received from the manufacturer, (ii) 15×15μm2, after cleaning, and (iii) 50×50μm2, after cleaning.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Measured diffraction efficiency versus grating rotation angle ϕ is plotted for SXR grating G1 (top) and G2 (bottom) at different photon energies. The detector angle was fixed at 178.4° from the incident photon beam, which is the designed angle of operation at the SXR beamline. In the top plot, the arrows point to the direction of the positive (+) and negative () grating diffraction orders.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Measured diffraction efficiencies (1st positive order) of the SXR gratings G1 and G2 are shown as data points. The dip-like feature near 853 eV is attributed to the Ni L2,3 absorption edge and is likely due to a Ni-coated mirror at ALS beamline 6.3.2 [16]. The isolated data points (triangles) correspond to measured data from Fig. 8. A correction has been applied to all measured data points, to account for the scattering from the ALS beamline 6.3.2 monochromator. Measured diffraction efficiencies before applying the scattering correction are also shown as dash lines. The corrected measured results are fitted to calculations (solid lines) using the GSolver Diffraction Grating Analysis Program [21]. The fitted values for the groove depth (z0) and line width (x0) are also shown for each grating, and are in excellent agreement with the specified values given in Table 1.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

The normalized transmitted current is plotted versus photon energy across the L2,3 absorption edge of a Ti filter (top), Cr filter (middle), and Cu filter (bottom). The scans were performed at ALS beamline 6.3.2, with the 1200lines/mm monochromator grating. These results were compared with theoretical calculations from the CXRO Atomic Data Tables [23] and were used to estimate the amount of scattered light from the 1200lines/mm monochromator grating.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Measured reflectance versus photon energy at ALS beamline 6.3.2. of the unruled portion of the B4C-coated SXR gratings G1, G2 and comparison to a calculated model using the IMD program [22]. Measurements were done at the SXR mirror grazing incidence angle θ=0.8°. The degree of polarization of the beam is estimated to be about 66% s-polarized, in this photon energy range.

Tables (4)

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Table 1. Summary of Characteristics of the SXR Beamline Opticsa

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Table 2. Radius of Curvature and Surface Slope Measurements Determined via Long-Trace Profilometry and Figure Error Measurements Provided by the Vendor Together with the Specifications for the SXR M1, M2, and M3 Mirror Substratesa

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Table 3. Precision Surface Metrology Results for the HSFR and MSFR, i.e., the rms Roughness σ Defined in Eq. (1), on SXR Si Mirror Substrates M1, M2, and M3, Together with the Specificationsa

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Table 4. Measured HSFR Values of the 100 lines/mm Test Grating, Obtained from Two-Dimensional Power Spectral Density Analysis of AFM Data at Different Locations and Cleaning/Coating Stagesa

Equations (2)

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σ2=f1f22πfS(f)df,
mλ=2dcosθsin(φ0φ),

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