Abstract

We regard the problem of differentiation occurring in the retrieval of aerosol extinction coefficient profiles from inelastic Raman lidar signals by searching for a stable solution of the resulting Volterra integral equation. An algorithm based on a projection method and iterative regularization together with the L-curve method has been performed on synthetic and measured lidar signals. A strategy to choose a suitable range for the integration within the framework of the retrieval of optical properties is proposed here for the first time to our knowledge. The Monte Carlo procedure has been adapted to treat the uncertainty in the retrieval of extinction coefficients.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011 (1)

F. Madonna, A. Amodeo, A. Boselli, C. Cornacchia, G. D’Amico, A. Giunta, L. Mona, G. Pappalardo, and V. Cuomo, “CIAO: the CNR-IMAA advanced observatory for atmospheric research,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1190–1208 (2011).

2008 (4)

2007 (2)

V. Shcherbakov, “Regularized algorithm for Raman lidar data processing,” Appl. Opt. 46, 4879–4889 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Amodeo, I. Mattis, C. Böckmann, G. D’Amico, D. Müller, L. Osterloh, A. Chaikovsky, G. Pappalardo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, V. Mitev, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, J.-P. Putaud, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “Optimization of lidar data processing: a goal of the EARLINET-ASOS project,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500F (2007).

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, S. Amoruso, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, and V. Cuomo, “One year of tropospheric lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscatter,” Ann. Geophys. 46, 401–413 (2003).

2001 (1)

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1994 (1)

D. N. Stacey, “Rayleigh’s legacy to modern physics: high resolution spectroscopy,” Eur. J. Phys. 15, 236–242 (1994).

1993 (1)

D. P. Donovan, J. A. Whiteway, and A. I. Carswell, “Correction for nonlinear photon-counting effects in lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6742–6753 (1993).

1992 (3)

P. C. Hansen, “Analysis of discrete ill-posed problems by means of the L-curve,” SIAM Rev. 34, 561–580 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and LIDAR ratio,” Appl. Phys. B: Laser. Opt. 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

G. M. Vainikko, “Error estimates of the successive approximation method for ill-posed problems,” Autom. Remote Control 40, 356–363 (1980).

1963 (1)

G. Fiocco and L. D. Smullin, “Detection of scattering layers in the upper atmosphere by optical radar,” Nature 199, 1275–1276 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

L. Smullin and G. Fiocco, “Optical echoes from the moon,” Nature 194, 1267 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Alados-Arboledas, L.

A. Amodeo, I. Mattis, C. Böckmann, G. D’Amico, D. Müller, L. Osterloh, A. Chaikovsky, G. Pappalardo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, V. Mitev, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, J.-P. Putaud, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “Optimization of lidar data processing: a goal of the EARLINET-ASOS project,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500F (2007).

Amiridis, V.

Amodeo, A.

F. Madonna, A. Amodeo, A. Boselli, C. Cornacchia, G. D’Amico, A. Giunta, L. Mona, G. Pappalardo, and V. Cuomo, “CIAO: the CNR-IMAA advanced observatory for atmospheric research,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1190–1208 (2011).

A. Amodeo, I. Mattis, C. Böckmann, G. D’Amico, D. Müller, L. Osterloh, A. Chaikovsky, G. Pappalardo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, V. Mitev, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, J.-P. Putaud, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “Optimization of lidar data processing: a goal of the EARLINET-ASOS project,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500F (2007).

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, V. Amiridis, F. D. Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5370–5385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Matthais, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, I. Balin, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, V. Rizi, J. A. Rodrigues, U. Wandinger, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments,” Appl. Opt. 43, 961–976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, S. Amoruso, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, and V. Cuomo, “One year of tropospheric lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscatter,” Ann. Geophys. 46, 401–413 (2003).

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Amoridis, V.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Amoruso, S.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, S. Amoruso, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, and V. Cuomo, “One year of tropospheric lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscatter,” Ann. Geophys. 46, 401–413 (2003).

Anderson, T. I.

G. S. Tyndall, D. M. Winker, T. I. Anderson, and F. I. Eisele, Atmospheric Chemistry in a Changing World: an Integration and Synthesis of a Decade of Tropospheric Chemistry Research (Springer, 2003), pp. 157–184.

Ansmann, A.

A. Amodeo, I. Mattis, C. Böckmann, G. D’Amico, D. Müller, L. Osterloh, A. Chaikovsky, G. Pappalardo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, V. Mitev, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, J.-P. Putaud, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “Optimization of lidar data processing: a goal of the EARLINET-ASOS project,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500F (2007).

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, V. Amiridis, F. D. Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5370–5385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. D. Tomasi, M. Frioud, I. V. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, and M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and LIDAR ratio,” Appl. Phys. B: Laser. Opt. 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

A. Ansmann and D. Müller, Lidar: Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (Springer, 2005), pp. 105–142.

Apituley, A.

A. Amodeo, I. Mattis, C. Böckmann, G. D’Amico, D. Müller, L. Osterloh, A. Chaikovsky, G. Pappalardo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, V. Mitev, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, J.-P. Putaud, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “Optimization of lidar data processing: a goal of the EARLINET-ASOS project,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500F (2007).

Baldasano, J. M.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Balin, I.

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C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. D. Tomasi, M. Frioud, I. V. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, and M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
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A. Amodeo, I. Mattis, C. Böckmann, G. D’Amico, D. Müller, L. Osterloh, A. Chaikovsky, G. Pappalardo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, V. Mitev, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, J.-P. Putaud, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “Optimization of lidar data processing: a goal of the EARLINET-ASOS project,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500F (2007).

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Kirsche, A.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Klett, J. D.

Kolarov, G.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Komguem, L.

V. Matthais, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, I. Balin, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, V. Rizi, J. A. Rodrigues, U. Wandinger, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments,” Appl. Opt. 43, 961–976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, V. Amiridis, F. D. Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5370–5385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. D. Tomasi, M. Frioud, I. V. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, and M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Kreipl, S.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. D. Tomasi, M. Frioud, I. V. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, and M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Matthais, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, I. Balin, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, V. Rizi, J. A. Rodrigues, U. Wandinger, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments,” Appl. Opt. 43, 961–976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Kumpf, W.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Lahmann, W.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and LIDAR ratio,” Appl. Phys. B: Laser. Opt. 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Larchevêque, G.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. D. Tomasi, M. Frioud, I. V. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, and M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Linné, H.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Lohmann, U.

K. L. Denman, G. Brasseur, A. Chidthaisong, P. Ciais, P. M. Cox, R. E. Dickinson, D. Hauglustaine, C. Heinze, E. Holland, D. Jacob, U. Lohmann, S. Ramachandran, P. L. da Silva Dias, S. C. Wofsy, and X. Zhang, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), pp. 499–587.

Madonna, F.

F. Madonna, A. Amodeo, A. Boselli, C. Cornacchia, G. D’Amico, A. Giunta, L. Mona, G. Pappalardo, and V. Cuomo, “CIAO: the CNR-IMAA advanced observatory for atmospheric research,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1190–1208 (2011).

Matthais, V.

Matthey, R.

V. Matthais, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, I. Balin, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, V. Rizi, J. A. Rodrigues, U. Wandinger, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments,” Appl. Opt. 43, 961–976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Matthias, V.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. D. Tomasi, M. Frioud, I. V. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, and M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, V. Amiridis, F. D. Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5370–5385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Mattis, I.

A. Amodeo, I. Mattis, C. Böckmann, G. D’Amico, D. Müller, L. Osterloh, A. Chaikovsky, G. Pappalardo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, V. Mitev, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, J.-P. Putaud, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “Optimization of lidar data processing: a goal of the EARLINET-ASOS project,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500F (2007).

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Mekler, A.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Melfi, S. H.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Menke, W.

W. Menke, Geophysical Data Analysis: Discrete Inversion Theory (Academic, 1989).

Michaelis, W.

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and LIDAR ratio,” Appl. Phys. B: Laser. Opt. 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mironova, I.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Mitev, V.

A. Amodeo, I. Mattis, C. Böckmann, G. D’Amico, D. Müller, L. Osterloh, A. Chaikovsky, G. Pappalardo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, V. Mitev, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, J.-P. Putaud, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “Optimization of lidar data processing: a goal of the EARLINET-ASOS project,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500F (2007).

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Mona, L.

F. Madonna, A. Amodeo, A. Boselli, C. Cornacchia, G. D’Amico, A. Giunta, L. Mona, G. Pappalardo, and V. Cuomo, “CIAO: the CNR-IMAA advanced observatory for atmospheric research,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1190–1208 (2011).

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, S. Amoruso, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, and V. Cuomo, “One year of tropospheric lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscatter,” Ann. Geophys. 46, 401–413 (2003).

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Müller, D.

A. Amodeo, I. Mattis, C. Böckmann, G. D’Amico, D. Müller, L. Osterloh, A. Chaikovsky, G. Pappalardo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, V. Mitev, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, J.-P. Putaud, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “Optimization of lidar data processing: a goal of the EARLINET-ASOS project,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500F (2007).

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

A. Ansmann and D. Müller, Lidar: Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (Springer, 2005), pp. 105–142.

Music, S.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Nickovic, S.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Nicolae, D.

A. Amodeo, I. Mattis, C. Böckmann, G. D’Amico, D. Müller, L. Osterloh, A. Chaikovsky, G. Pappalardo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, V. Mitev, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, J.-P. Putaud, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “Optimization of lidar data processing: a goal of the EARLINET-ASOS project,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500F (2007).

Orlande, H.

M. N. Özisik and H. Orlande, Inverse Heat Transfer: Fundamentals and Applications (Taylor & Francis, 2000).

Osterloh, L.

A. Amodeo, I. Mattis, C. Böckmann, G. D’Amico, D. Müller, L. Osterloh, A. Chaikovsky, G. Pappalardo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, V. Mitev, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, J.-P. Putaud, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “Optimization of lidar data processing: a goal of the EARLINET-ASOS project,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500F (2007).

Özisik, M. N.

M. N. Özisik and H. Orlande, Inverse Heat Transfer: Fundamentals and Applications (Taylor & Francis, 2000).

Pandolfi, M.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, V. Amiridis, F. D. Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5370–5385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, S. Amoruso, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, and V. Cuomo, “One year of tropospheric lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscatter,” Ann. Geophys. 46, 401–413 (2003).

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Papayannis, A.

A. Amodeo, I. Mattis, C. Böckmann, G. D’Amico, D. Müller, L. Osterloh, A. Chaikovsky, G. Pappalardo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, V. Mitev, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, J.-P. Putaud, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “Optimization of lidar data processing: a goal of the EARLINET-ASOS project,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500F (2007).

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, V. Amiridis, F. D. Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5370–5385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. D. Tomasi, M. Frioud, I. V. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, and M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Pappalardo, G.

F. Madonna, A. Amodeo, A. Boselli, C. Cornacchia, G. D’Amico, A. Giunta, L. Mona, G. Pappalardo, and V. Cuomo, “CIAO: the CNR-IMAA advanced observatory for atmospheric research,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1190–1208 (2011).

A. Amodeo, I. Mattis, C. Böckmann, G. D’Amico, D. Müller, L. Osterloh, A. Chaikovsky, G. Pappalardo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, V. Mitev, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, J.-P. Putaud, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “Optimization of lidar data processing: a goal of the EARLINET-ASOS project,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500F (2007).

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. D. Tomasi, M. Frioud, I. V. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, and M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, V. Amiridis, F. D. Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5370–5385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, S. Amoruso, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, and V. Cuomo, “One year of tropospheric lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscatter,” Ann. Geophys. 46, 401–413 (2003).

C. Böckmann and G. Pappalardo, “Report on the inter-comparison of algorithms for new stations” (personal communication, 2007).

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Pelon, J.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Pérez, C.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Perrone, M. R.

A. Amodeo, I. Mattis, C. Böckmann, G. D’Amico, D. Müller, L. Osterloh, A. Chaikovsky, G. Pappalardo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, V. Mitev, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, J.-P. Putaud, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “Optimization of lidar data processing: a goal of the EARLINET-ASOS project,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500F (2007).

Perrone, R. M.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Persson, R. M.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Pietruczuk, A.

A. Amodeo, I. Mattis, C. Böckmann, G. D’Amico, D. Müller, L. Osterloh, A. Chaikovsky, G. Pappalardo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, V. Mitev, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, J.-P. Putaud, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “Optimization of lidar data processing: a goal of the EARLINET-ASOS project,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500F (2007).

Pornsawad, P.

Pujadas, M.

A. Amodeo, I. Mattis, C. Böckmann, G. D’Amico, D. Müller, L. Osterloh, A. Chaikovsky, G. Pappalardo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, V. Mitev, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, J.-P. Putaud, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “Optimization of lidar data processing: a goal of the EARLINET-ASOS project,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500F (2007).

Putaud, J.-P.

A. Amodeo, I. Mattis, C. Böckmann, G. D’Amico, D. Müller, L. Osterloh, A. Chaikovsky, G. Pappalardo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, V. Mitev, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, J.-P. Putaud, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “Optimization of lidar data processing: a goal of the EARLINET-ASOS project,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500F (2007).

Rafler, M.

Ramachandran, S.

K. L. Denman, G. Brasseur, A. Chidthaisong, P. Ciais, P. M. Cox, R. E. Dickinson, D. Hauglustaine, C. Heinze, E. Holland, D. Jacob, U. Lohmann, S. Ramachandran, P. L. da Silva Dias, S. C. Wofsy, and X. Zhang, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), pp. 499–587.

Ravetta, F.

A. Amodeo, I. Mattis, C. Böckmann, G. D’Amico, D. Müller, L. Osterloh, A. Chaikovsky, G. Pappalardo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, V. Mitev, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, J.-P. Putaud, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “Optimization of lidar data processing: a goal of the EARLINET-ASOS project,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500F (2007).

Resendes, D. P.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Riebesell, M.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and LIDAR ratio,” Appl. Phys. B: Laser. Opt. 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ritter, C.

Rizi, V.

A. Amodeo, I. Mattis, C. Böckmann, G. D’Amico, D. Müller, L. Osterloh, A. Chaikovsky, G. Pappalardo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, V. Mitev, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, J.-P. Putaud, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “Optimization of lidar data processing: a goal of the EARLINET-ASOS project,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500F (2007).

V. Matthais, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, I. Balin, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, V. Rizi, J. A. Rodrigues, U. Wandinger, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments,” Appl. Opt. 43, 961–976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Rocadenbosch, F.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. D. Tomasi, M. Frioud, I. V. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, and M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, V. Amiridis, F. D. Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5370–5385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Rodrigues, J. A.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. D. Tomasi, M. Frioud, I. V. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, and M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Matthais, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, I. Balin, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, V. Rizi, J. A. Rodrigues, U. Wandinger, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments,” Appl. Opt. 43, 961–976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Samoilova, S. V.

Sauvage, L.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Schmidlin, F. J.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schneidenbach, L.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Schneider, J.

Schumacher, R.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Schwemmer, G. K.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbakov, V.

V. Shcherbakov, “Regularized algorithm for Raman lidar data processing,” Appl. Opt. 46, 4879–4889 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. D. Tomasi, M. Frioud, I. V. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, and M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Simeonov, V.

A. Amodeo, I. Mattis, C. Böckmann, G. D’Amico, D. Müller, L. Osterloh, A. Chaikovsky, G. Pappalardo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, V. Mitev, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, J.-P. Putaud, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “Optimization of lidar data processing: a goal of the EARLINET-ASOS project,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500F (2007).

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J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

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A. Amodeo, I. Mattis, C. Böckmann, G. D’Amico, D. Müller, L. Osterloh, A. Chaikovsky, G. Pappalardo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, V. Mitev, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, J.-P. Putaud, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “Optimization of lidar data processing: a goal of the EARLINET-ASOS project,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500F (2007).

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Stebel, K.

A. Amodeo, I. Mattis, C. Böckmann, G. D’Amico, D. Müller, L. Osterloh, A. Chaikovsky, G. Pappalardo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, V. Mitev, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, J.-P. Putaud, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “Optimization of lidar data processing: a goal of the EARLINET-ASOS project,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500F (2007).

Stoyanov, D.

A. Amodeo, I. Mattis, C. Böckmann, G. D’Amico, D. Müller, L. Osterloh, A. Chaikovsky, G. Pappalardo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, V. Mitev, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, J.-P. Putaud, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “Optimization of lidar data processing: a goal of the EARLINET-ASOS project,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500F (2007).

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D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
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Tomasi, F. D.

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C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. D. Tomasi, M. Frioud, I. V. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, and M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
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G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, V. Amiridis, F. D. Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5370–5385 (2004).
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J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

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A. Amodeo, I. Mattis, C. Böckmann, G. D’Amico, D. Müller, L. Osterloh, A. Chaikovsky, G. Pappalardo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, V. Mitev, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, J.-P. Putaud, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “Optimization of lidar data processing: a goal of the EARLINET-ASOS project,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500F (2007).

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J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

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Wandinger, U.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. D. Tomasi, M. Frioud, I. V. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, and M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
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G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, V. Amiridis, F. D. Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5370–5385 (2004).
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[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Wang, X.

V. Matthais, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, I. Balin, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, V. Rizi, J. A. Rodrigues, U. Wandinger, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments,” Appl. Opt. 43, 961–976 (2004).
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G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, V. Amiridis, F. D. Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5370–5385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Weitkamp, C.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and LIDAR ratio,” Appl. Phys. B: Laser. Opt. 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Whiteman, D. N.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Whiteway, J. A.

D. P. Donovan, J. A. Whiteway, and A. I. Carswell, “Correction for nonlinear photon-counting effects in lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6742–6753 (1993).

Wiegner, M.

A. Amodeo, I. Mattis, C. Böckmann, G. D’Amico, D. Müller, L. Osterloh, A. Chaikovsky, G. Pappalardo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, V. Mitev, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, J.-P. Putaud, F. Ravetta, V. Rizi, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, and M. Wiegner, “Optimization of lidar data processing: a goal of the EARLINET-ASOS project,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500F (2007).

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. D. Tomasi, M. Frioud, I. V. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, and M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Winker, D. M.

G. S. Tyndall, D. M. Winker, T. I. Anderson, and F. I. Eisele, Atmospheric Chemistry in a Changing World: an Integration and Synthesis of a Decade of Tropospheric Chemistry Research (Springer, 2003), pp. 157–184.

Wofsy, S. C.

K. L. Denman, G. Brasseur, A. Chidthaisong, P. Ciais, P. M. Cox, R. E. Dickinson, D. Hauglustaine, C. Heinze, E. Holland, D. Jacob, U. Lohmann, S. Ramachandran, P. L. da Silva Dias, S. C. Wofsy, and X. Zhang, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), pp. 499–587.

Zavrtanik, M.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Zerefos, C.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

Zhang, X.

K. L. Denman, G. Brasseur, A. Chidthaisong, P. Ciais, P. M. Cox, R. E. Dickinson, D. Hauglustaine, C. Heinze, E. Holland, D. Jacob, U. Lohmann, S. Ramachandran, P. L. da Silva Dias, S. C. Wofsy, and X. Zhang, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), pp. 499–587.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

V. Matthais, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, I. Balin, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, V. Rizi, J. A. Rodrigues, U. Wandinger, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments,” Appl. Opt. 43, 961–976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. D. Tomasi, M. Frioud, I. V. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, and M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, V. Amiridis, F. D. Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5370–5385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Shcherbakov, “Regularized algorithm for Raman lidar data processing,” Appl. Opt. 46, 4879–4889 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Pornsawad, C. Böckmann, C. Ritter, and M. Rafler, “Ill-posed retrieval of aerosol extinction coefficient profiles from Raman lidar data by regularization,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1649–1661 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Pornsawad, C. Böckmann, C. Ritter, and M. Rafler, “Ill-posed retrieval of aerosol extinction coefficient profiles from Raman lidar data by regularization,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1649–1661 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B: Laser. Opt. (1)

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and LIDAR ratio,” Appl. Phys. B: Laser. Opt. 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Meas. Tech. (1)

F. Madonna, A. Amodeo, A. Boselli, C. Cornacchia, G. D’Amico, A. Giunta, L. Mona, G. Pappalardo, and V. Cuomo, “CIAO: the CNR-IMAA advanced observatory for atmospheric research,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1190–1208 (2011).

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D. P. Donovan, J. A. Whiteway, and A. I. Carswell, “Correction for nonlinear photon-counting effects in lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6742–6753 (1993).

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C. Böckmann and P. Pornsawad, “Iterative Runge–Kutta-type methods for nonlinear ill-posed problems,” Inverse Problems 24, 025002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, F. D. Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. M. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “Earlinet: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003).

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A. Ansmann and D. Müller, Lidar: Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (Springer, 2005), pp. 105–142.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Ideal and reconstructed profiles for testing the effective resolution for the algorithm used corresponding to the EARLINET case study at the wavelength 355 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Retrieval of aerosol extinction coefficient profiles, (a) and (c), for the EARLINET case study and used L-curve parameter choice rule of the regularization method from the proposed method (Potsdam), (b) and (d).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) and (c): Aerosol extinction coefficient profiles measured by PEARL on 30 August 2007 (18:07–18:36 UTC). The profiles by the proposed method are shown in the dots and squares while in black curves are plotted the results by sliding linear fit algorithm. (b) and (d): L-curve parameter choice rule.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) and (c): Aerosol extinction coefficient profiles measured by PEARL on 26 May 2008 (19:42–21:04 UTC). The profiles by the proposed method are shown in the dots and squares while in black curves are plotted the results by sliding linear fit algorithm. (b) and (d): L-curve parameter choice rule.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Selected Parameters n*, k* and the Effective Resolution for the Wavelength 355(532) nm

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

αaer(λL,z)=ddzln[N(z)z2P(λR,z)]αmol(λL,z)αmol(λR,z)1+(λLλR)κ,
zminzx(s)ds=ln[zmin2P(λR,zmin)N(z)z2P(λR,z)N(zmin)],z[zmin,zmax],
y(z)ln[zmin2P(λR,zmin)N(z)z2P(λR,z)N(zmin)]
Kx=y,
(Kx)(z)zminzx(s)ds,z[zmin,zmax].
(Kxn)(zi)=y(zi),i=1,,n.
xn(s)=j=1nfjφj(s).
j=1nfjzminziφj(s)ds=y(zi),i=1,,n.
L(n)f=g,
fk+1ε=fkε+γL(n)T(gεL(n)fkε),kN,
gεL(n)fk*ετε<gεL(n)fkε,0k<k*,
fk+1ε=fkε+γ(I+γL(n)TL(n))1L(n)T(gεL(n)fkε),kN,
ψ(k)=ξ(k)η(k)ξ(k)η(k)(ξ(k)2+η(k)2)32,
σα¯=1Nextr1j=1Nextr(αextrjα¯)2,
X1=2ln(U1)cos(2πU2),X2=2ln(U1)sin(2πU2).
X1=2lnrrv1,X2=2lnrrv2
f=Lg,
L=γ(j=1k((I+γL(n)TL(n))1)j)L(n)T,
f=Lg=L[L(n)ftrue]=Rftrue,
RLL(n)

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