Abstract

Three approaches that allow the tailoring of long period gratings based refractometric sensors for concentration measurement in fuel blends are employed to assess the fuel quality in biodiesel and biodiesel-petrodiesel blend. To allow the analysis of fuel samples with refractive index higher than fiber cladding one, the samples refractive indices were changed by thermo-optic effect and by dilution in a standard substance with low refractive index. The obtained results show the sensor can detect oil concentration in biodiesel samples with resolution as better as 0.07% and biodiesel concentration in biodiesel-petrodiesel samples with average resolution of 0.09%.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. A. Dias, C. R. Mattos, and J. A. P. Balestieri, “Energy education: breaking up the rational energy use barriers,” Energ. Pol. 32, 1339–1347 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. R. Smith, “In praise of petroleum?” Science 298, 1847 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Hill, E. Nelson, D. Tilman, S. Polasky, and D. Tiffany, “Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 11206–11210 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Meher, D. Vidyasagar, and S. Naik, “Technical aspects of biodiesel production by transesterification—a review,” Renew. Sustain. Energ. Rev. 10, 248–268 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Shay, “Diesel fuel from vegetable oils: status and opportunities,” Biomass Bioenergy 4, 227–242 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Ma and M. A. Hanna, “Biodiesel production: a review,” Bioresource Technol. 70, 1–15 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. R. Soccol, L. P. S. Vandenberghe, B. Costa, A. L. Woiceichowski, J. C. Carvalho, A. B. P. Medeiros, A. M. Francisco, and L. J. Bonomi, “Brazilian biofuel program: an overview,” J. Sci. Ind. Res. 64, 897–904 (2005).
  8. G. Knothe, “Analyzing biodiesel: standards and other methods,” J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 83, 823–833 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Jain and M. Sharma, “Review of different test methods for the evaluation of stability of biodiesel,” Renew. Sustain. Energ. Rev. 14, 1937–1947 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. R. Monteiro, A. R. P. Ambrozin, L. M. Lião, and A. G. Ferreira, “Critical review on analytical methods for biodiesel characterization,” Talanta 77, 593–605 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, 1999).
  12. R. Falate, K. Nike, P. R. Costa Neto, E. Cação, M. Muller, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Fabris, “Alternative technique for biodiesel quality control using an optical fiber long-period grating sensor,” Quim. Nova 30, 1677–1680 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Mitsushio, S. Higashi, and M. Higo, “Construction and evaluation of a gold-deposited optical fiber sensor system for measurements of refractive indices of alcohols,” Sensors Actuators A 111, 252–259 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Falate, R. C. Kamikawachi, M. Muller, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Fabris, “Fiber optic sensors for hydrocarbon detection,” Sensors Actuators B 105, 430–436 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. R. C. Possetti, L. C. Côcco, C. I. Yamamoto, L. V. R. de Arruda, R. Falate, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Application of a long-period fibre grating-based transducer in the fuel industry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034012 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. K. A. K. Bey, C. C. C. Lam, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Chloride ion optical sensing using a long period grating pair,” Sensors Actuators 141, 390–395 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. R. C. Possetti, R. C. Kamikawachi, C. L. Prevedello, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Salinity measurement in water environment with a long period grating based interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034003 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. C. Kamikawachi, G. R. C. Possetti, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Influence of surrounding refractive index on the thermal and strain sensitivities of a cascaded long period grating,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3111–3116 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. L. Swart, “Long-period grating Michelson refractometric sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1576–1580 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. O. Duhem, J. F. Henninot, and M. Douay, “Study of in fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on two spaced 3 dB long-period gratings surrounded by a refractive index higher than that of silica,” Opt. Commun. 180, 255–262 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Hou, Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hassan, C. Lu, and K. P. Dowker, “Modelling of long-period fibre grating response to refractive index higher than that of cladding,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1709–1713 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2010

S. Jain and M. Sharma, “Review of different test methods for the evaluation of stability of biodiesel,” Renew. Sustain. Energ. Rev. 14, 1937–1947 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

G. R. C. Possetti, R. C. Kamikawachi, C. L. Prevedello, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Salinity measurement in water environment with a long period grating based interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. R. C. Possetti, L. C. Côcco, C. I. Yamamoto, L. V. R. de Arruda, R. Falate, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Application of a long-period fibre grating-based transducer in the fuel industry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. K. A. K. Bey, C. C. C. Lam, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Chloride ion optical sensing using a long period grating pair,” Sensors Actuators 141, 390–395 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Monteiro, A. R. P. Ambrozin, L. M. Lião, and A. G. Ferreira, “Critical review on analytical methods for biodiesel characterization,” Talanta 77, 593–605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

R. Falate, K. Nike, P. R. Costa Neto, E. Cação, M. Muller, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Fabris, “Alternative technique for biodiesel quality control using an optical fiber long-period grating sensor,” Quim. Nova 30, 1677–1680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Kamikawachi, G. R. C. Possetti, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Influence of surrounding refractive index on the thermal and strain sensitivities of a cascaded long period grating,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3111–3116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. Hill, E. Nelson, D. Tilman, S. Polasky, and D. Tiffany, “Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 11206–11210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Meher, D. Vidyasagar, and S. Naik, “Technical aspects of biodiesel production by transesterification—a review,” Renew. Sustain. Energ. Rev. 10, 248–268 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Knothe, “Analyzing biodiesel: standards and other methods,” J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 83, 823–833 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

C. R. Soccol, L. P. S. Vandenberghe, B. Costa, A. L. Woiceichowski, J. C. Carvalho, A. B. P. Medeiros, A. M. Francisco, and L. J. Bonomi, “Brazilian biofuel program: an overview,” J. Sci. Ind. Res. 64, 897–904 (2005).

R. Falate, R. C. Kamikawachi, M. Muller, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Fabris, “Fiber optic sensors for hydrocarbon detection,” Sensors Actuators B 105, 430–436 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

P. L. Swart, “Long-period grating Michelson refractometric sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1576–1580 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Dias, C. R. Mattos, and J. A. P. Balestieri, “Energy education: breaking up the rational energy use barriers,” Energ. Pol. 32, 1339–1347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitsushio, S. Higashi, and M. Higo, “Construction and evaluation of a gold-deposited optical fiber sensor system for measurements of refractive indices of alcohols,” Sensors Actuators A 111, 252–259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. R. Smith, “In praise of petroleum?” Science 298, 1847 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. Hou, Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hassan, C. Lu, and K. P. Dowker, “Modelling of long-period fibre grating response to refractive index higher than that of cladding,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1709–1713 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

O. Duhem, J. F. Henninot, and M. Douay, “Study of in fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on two spaced 3 dB long-period gratings surrounded by a refractive index higher than that of silica,” Opt. Commun. 180, 255–262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

F. Ma and M. A. Hanna, “Biodiesel production: a review,” Bioresource Technol. 70, 1–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993

E. Shay, “Diesel fuel from vegetable oils: status and opportunities,” Biomass Bioenergy 4, 227–242 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ambrozin, A. R. P.

M. R. Monteiro, A. R. P. Ambrozin, L. M. Lião, and A. G. Ferreira, “Critical review on analytical methods for biodiesel characterization,” Talanta 77, 593–605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Balestieri, J. A. P.

R. A. Dias, C. R. Mattos, and J. A. P. Balestieri, “Energy education: breaking up the rational energy use barriers,” Energ. Pol. 32, 1339–1347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bey, S. K. A. K.

S. K. A. K. Bey, C. C. C. Lam, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Chloride ion optical sensing using a long period grating pair,” Sensors Actuators 141, 390–395 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bonomi, L. J.

C. R. Soccol, L. P. S. Vandenberghe, B. Costa, A. L. Woiceichowski, J. C. Carvalho, A. B. P. Medeiros, A. M. Francisco, and L. J. Bonomi, “Brazilian biofuel program: an overview,” J. Sci. Ind. Res. 64, 897–904 (2005).

Cação, E.

R. Falate, K. Nike, P. R. Costa Neto, E. Cação, M. Muller, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Fabris, “Alternative technique for biodiesel quality control using an optical fiber long-period grating sensor,” Quim. Nova 30, 1677–1680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carvalho, J. C.

C. R. Soccol, L. P. S. Vandenberghe, B. Costa, A. L. Woiceichowski, J. C. Carvalho, A. B. P. Medeiros, A. M. Francisco, and L. J. Bonomi, “Brazilian biofuel program: an overview,” J. Sci. Ind. Res. 64, 897–904 (2005).

Côcco, L. C.

G. R. C. Possetti, L. C. Côcco, C. I. Yamamoto, L. V. R. de Arruda, R. Falate, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Application of a long-period fibre grating-based transducer in the fuel industry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Costa, B.

C. R. Soccol, L. P. S. Vandenberghe, B. Costa, A. L. Woiceichowski, J. C. Carvalho, A. B. P. Medeiros, A. M. Francisco, and L. J. Bonomi, “Brazilian biofuel program: an overview,” J. Sci. Ind. Res. 64, 897–904 (2005).

Costa Neto, P. R.

R. Falate, K. Nike, P. R. Costa Neto, E. Cação, M. Muller, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Fabris, “Alternative technique for biodiesel quality control using an optical fiber long-period grating sensor,” Quim. Nova 30, 1677–1680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Arruda, L. V. R.

G. R. C. Possetti, L. C. Côcco, C. I. Yamamoto, L. V. R. de Arruda, R. Falate, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Application of a long-period fibre grating-based transducer in the fuel industry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dias, R. A.

R. A. Dias, C. R. Mattos, and J. A. P. Balestieri, “Energy education: breaking up the rational energy use barriers,” Energ. Pol. 32, 1339–1347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

O. Duhem, J. F. Henninot, and M. Douay, “Study of in fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on two spaced 3 dB long-period gratings surrounded by a refractive index higher than that of silica,” Opt. Commun. 180, 255–262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dowker, K. P.

R. Hou, Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hassan, C. Lu, and K. P. Dowker, “Modelling of long-period fibre grating response to refractive index higher than that of cladding,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1709–1713 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Duhem, O.

O. Duhem, J. F. Henninot, and M. Douay, “Study of in fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on two spaced 3 dB long-period gratings surrounded by a refractive index higher than that of silica,” Opt. Commun. 180, 255–262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fabris, J. L.

G. R. C. Possetti, L. C. Côcco, C. I. Yamamoto, L. V. R. de Arruda, R. Falate, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Application of a long-period fibre grating-based transducer in the fuel industry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. R. C. Possetti, R. C. Kamikawachi, C. L. Prevedello, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Salinity measurement in water environment with a long period grating based interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Falate, K. Nike, P. R. Costa Neto, E. Cação, M. Muller, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Fabris, “Alternative technique for biodiesel quality control using an optical fiber long-period grating sensor,” Quim. Nova 30, 1677–1680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Kamikawachi, G. R. C. Possetti, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Influence of surrounding refractive index on the thermal and strain sensitivities of a cascaded long period grating,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3111–3116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Falate, R. C. Kamikawachi, M. Muller, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Fabris, “Fiber optic sensors for hydrocarbon detection,” Sensors Actuators B 105, 430–436 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Falate, R.

G. R. C. Possetti, L. C. Côcco, C. I. Yamamoto, L. V. R. de Arruda, R. Falate, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Application of a long-period fibre grating-based transducer in the fuel industry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Falate, K. Nike, P. R. Costa Neto, E. Cação, M. Muller, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Fabris, “Alternative technique for biodiesel quality control using an optical fiber long-period grating sensor,” Quim. Nova 30, 1677–1680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Falate, R. C. Kamikawachi, M. Muller, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Fabris, “Fiber optic sensors for hydrocarbon detection,” Sensors Actuators B 105, 430–436 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, A. G.

M. R. Monteiro, A. R. P. Ambrozin, L. M. Lião, and A. G. Ferreira, “Critical review on analytical methods for biodiesel characterization,” Talanta 77, 593–605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Francisco, A. M.

C. R. Soccol, L. P. S. Vandenberghe, B. Costa, A. L. Woiceichowski, J. C. Carvalho, A. B. P. Medeiros, A. M. Francisco, and L. J. Bonomi, “Brazilian biofuel program: an overview,” J. Sci. Ind. Res. 64, 897–904 (2005).

Ghassemlooy, Z.

R. Hou, Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hassan, C. Lu, and K. P. Dowker, “Modelling of long-period fibre grating response to refractive index higher than that of cladding,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1709–1713 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K. T. V.

S. K. A. K. Bey, C. C. C. Lam, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Chloride ion optical sensing using a long period grating pair,” Sensors Actuators 141, 390–395 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, M. A.

F. Ma and M. A. Hanna, “Biodiesel production: a review,” Bioresource Technol. 70, 1–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hassan, A.

R. Hou, Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hassan, C. Lu, and K. P. Dowker, “Modelling of long-period fibre grating response to refractive index higher than that of cladding,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1709–1713 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Henninot, J. F.

O. Duhem, J. F. Henninot, and M. Douay, “Study of in fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on two spaced 3 dB long-period gratings surrounded by a refractive index higher than that of silica,” Opt. Commun. 180, 255–262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Higashi, S.

M. Mitsushio, S. Higashi, and M. Higo, “Construction and evaluation of a gold-deposited optical fiber sensor system for measurements of refractive indices of alcohols,” Sensors Actuators A 111, 252–259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Higo, M.

M. Mitsushio, S. Higashi, and M. Higo, “Construction and evaluation of a gold-deposited optical fiber sensor system for measurements of refractive indices of alcohols,” Sensors Actuators A 111, 252–259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hill, J.

J. Hill, E. Nelson, D. Tilman, S. Polasky, and D. Tiffany, “Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 11206–11210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hou, R.

R. Hou, Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hassan, C. Lu, and K. P. Dowker, “Modelling of long-period fibre grating response to refractive index higher than that of cladding,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1709–1713 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jain, S.

S. Jain and M. Sharma, “Review of different test methods for the evaluation of stability of biodiesel,” Renew. Sustain. Energ. Rev. 14, 1937–1947 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kalinowski, H. J.

R. Falate, K. Nike, P. R. Costa Neto, E. Cação, M. Muller, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Fabris, “Alternative technique for biodiesel quality control using an optical fiber long-period grating sensor,” Quim. Nova 30, 1677–1680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Falate, R. C. Kamikawachi, M. Muller, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Fabris, “Fiber optic sensors for hydrocarbon detection,” Sensors Actuators B 105, 430–436 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kamikawachi, R. C.

G. R. C. Possetti, R. C. Kamikawachi, C. L. Prevedello, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Salinity measurement in water environment with a long period grating based interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Kamikawachi, G. R. C. Possetti, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Influence of surrounding refractive index on the thermal and strain sensitivities of a cascaded long period grating,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3111–3116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Falate, R. C. Kamikawachi, M. Muller, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Fabris, “Fiber optic sensors for hydrocarbon detection,” Sensors Actuators B 105, 430–436 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, 1999).

Knothe, G.

G. Knothe, “Analyzing biodiesel: standards and other methods,” J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 83, 823–833 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lam, C. C. C.

S. K. A. K. Bey, C. C. C. Lam, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Chloride ion optical sensing using a long period grating pair,” Sensors Actuators 141, 390–395 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. K.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liang, W.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lião, L. M.

M. R. Monteiro, A. R. P. Ambrozin, L. M. Lião, and A. G. Ferreira, “Critical review on analytical methods for biodiesel characterization,” Talanta 77, 593–605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

R. Hou, Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hassan, C. Lu, and K. P. Dowker, “Modelling of long-period fibre grating response to refractive index higher than that of cladding,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1709–1713 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ma, F.

F. Ma and M. A. Hanna, “Biodiesel production: a review,” Bioresource Technol. 70, 1–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mattos, C. R.

R. A. Dias, C. R. Mattos, and J. A. P. Balestieri, “Energy education: breaking up the rational energy use barriers,” Energ. Pol. 32, 1339–1347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Medeiros, A. B. P.

C. R. Soccol, L. P. S. Vandenberghe, B. Costa, A. L. Woiceichowski, J. C. Carvalho, A. B. P. Medeiros, A. M. Francisco, and L. J. Bonomi, “Brazilian biofuel program: an overview,” J. Sci. Ind. Res. 64, 897–904 (2005).

Meher, L.

L. Meher, D. Vidyasagar, and S. Naik, “Technical aspects of biodiesel production by transesterification—a review,” Renew. Sustain. Energ. Rev. 10, 248–268 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mitsushio, M.

M. Mitsushio, S. Higashi, and M. Higo, “Construction and evaluation of a gold-deposited optical fiber sensor system for measurements of refractive indices of alcohols,” Sensors Actuators A 111, 252–259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Monteiro, M. R.

M. R. Monteiro, A. R. P. Ambrozin, L. M. Lião, and A. G. Ferreira, “Critical review on analytical methods for biodiesel characterization,” Talanta 77, 593–605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Muller, M.

G. R. C. Possetti, L. C. Côcco, C. I. Yamamoto, L. V. R. de Arruda, R. Falate, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Application of a long-period fibre grating-based transducer in the fuel industry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. R. C. Possetti, R. C. Kamikawachi, C. L. Prevedello, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Salinity measurement in water environment with a long period grating based interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Kamikawachi, G. R. C. Possetti, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Influence of surrounding refractive index on the thermal and strain sensitivities of a cascaded long period grating,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3111–3116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Falate, K. Nike, P. R. Costa Neto, E. Cação, M. Muller, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Fabris, “Alternative technique for biodiesel quality control using an optical fiber long-period grating sensor,” Quim. Nova 30, 1677–1680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Falate, R. C. Kamikawachi, M. Muller, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Fabris, “Fiber optic sensors for hydrocarbon detection,” Sensors Actuators B 105, 430–436 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Naik, S.

L. Meher, D. Vidyasagar, and S. Naik, “Technical aspects of biodiesel production by transesterification—a review,” Renew. Sustain. Energ. Rev. 10, 248–268 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, E.

J. Hill, E. Nelson, D. Tilman, S. Polasky, and D. Tiffany, “Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 11206–11210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nike, K.

R. Falate, K. Nike, P. R. Costa Neto, E. Cação, M. Muller, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Fabris, “Alternative technique for biodiesel quality control using an optical fiber long-period grating sensor,” Quim. Nova 30, 1677–1680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Polasky, S.

J. Hill, E. Nelson, D. Tilman, S. Polasky, and D. Tiffany, “Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 11206–11210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Possetti, G. R. C.

G. R. C. Possetti, R. C. Kamikawachi, C. L. Prevedello, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Salinity measurement in water environment with a long period grating based interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. R. C. Possetti, L. C. Côcco, C. I. Yamamoto, L. V. R. de Arruda, R. Falate, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Application of a long-period fibre grating-based transducer in the fuel industry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Kamikawachi, G. R. C. Possetti, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Influence of surrounding refractive index on the thermal and strain sensitivities of a cascaded long period grating,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3111–3116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prevedello, C. L.

G. R. C. Possetti, R. C. Kamikawachi, C. L. Prevedello, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Salinity measurement in water environment with a long period grating based interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, M.

S. Jain and M. Sharma, “Review of different test methods for the evaluation of stability of biodiesel,” Renew. Sustain. Energ. Rev. 14, 1937–1947 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shay, E.

E. Shay, “Diesel fuel from vegetable oils: status and opportunities,” Biomass Bioenergy 4, 227–242 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smith, K. R.

K. R. Smith, “In praise of petroleum?” Science 298, 1847 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soccol, C. R.

C. R. Soccol, L. P. S. Vandenberghe, B. Costa, A. L. Woiceichowski, J. C. Carvalho, A. B. P. Medeiros, A. M. Francisco, and L. J. Bonomi, “Brazilian biofuel program: an overview,” J. Sci. Ind. Res. 64, 897–904 (2005).

Sun, T.

S. K. A. K. Bey, C. C. C. Lam, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Chloride ion optical sensing using a long period grating pair,” Sensors Actuators 141, 390–395 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Swart, P. L.

P. L. Swart, “Long-period grating Michelson refractometric sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1576–1580 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tiffany, D.

J. Hill, E. Nelson, D. Tilman, S. Polasky, and D. Tiffany, “Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 11206–11210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tilman, D.

J. Hill, E. Nelson, D. Tilman, S. Polasky, and D. Tiffany, “Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 11206–11210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vandenberghe, L. P. S.

C. R. Soccol, L. P. S. Vandenberghe, B. Costa, A. L. Woiceichowski, J. C. Carvalho, A. B. P. Medeiros, A. M. Francisco, and L. J. Bonomi, “Brazilian biofuel program: an overview,” J. Sci. Ind. Res. 64, 897–904 (2005).

Vidyasagar, D.

L. Meher, D. Vidyasagar, and S. Naik, “Technical aspects of biodiesel production by transesterification—a review,” Renew. Sustain. Energ. Rev. 10, 248–268 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Woiceichowski, A. L.

C. R. Soccol, L. P. S. Vandenberghe, B. Costa, A. L. Woiceichowski, J. C. Carvalho, A. B. P. Medeiros, A. M. Francisco, and L. J. Bonomi, “Brazilian biofuel program: an overview,” J. Sci. Ind. Res. 64, 897–904 (2005).

Xu, Y.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, C. I.

G. R. C. Possetti, L. C. Côcco, C. I. Yamamoto, L. V. R. de Arruda, R. Falate, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Application of a long-period fibre grating-based transducer in the fuel industry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biomass Bioenergy

E. Shay, “Diesel fuel from vegetable oils: status and opportunities,” Biomass Bioenergy 4, 227–242 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bioresource Technol.

F. Ma and M. A. Hanna, “Biodiesel production: a review,” Bioresource Technol. 70, 1–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Energ. Pol.

R. A. Dias, C. R. Mattos, and J. A. P. Balestieri, “Energy education: breaking up the rational energy use barriers,” Energ. Pol. 32, 1339–1347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc.

G. Knothe, “Analyzing biodiesel: standards and other methods,” J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 83, 823–833 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Sci. Ind. Res.

C. R. Soccol, L. P. S. Vandenberghe, B. Costa, A. L. Woiceichowski, J. C. Carvalho, A. B. P. Medeiros, A. M. Francisco, and L. J. Bonomi, “Brazilian biofuel program: an overview,” J. Sci. Ind. Res. 64, 897–904 (2005).

Meas. Sci. Technol.

G. R. C. Possetti, R. C. Kamikawachi, C. L. Prevedello, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Salinity measurement in water environment with a long period grating based interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Kamikawachi, G. R. C. Possetti, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Influence of surrounding refractive index on the thermal and strain sensitivities of a cascaded long period grating,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3111–3116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Swart, “Long-period grating Michelson refractometric sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1576–1580 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. R. C. Possetti, L. C. Côcco, C. I. Yamamoto, L. V. R. de Arruda, R. Falate, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Application of a long-period fibre grating-based transducer in the fuel industry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Hou, Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hassan, C. Lu, and K. P. Dowker, “Modelling of long-period fibre grating response to refractive index higher than that of cladding,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1709–1713 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

O. Duhem, J. F. Henninot, and M. Douay, “Study of in fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on two spaced 3 dB long-period gratings surrounded by a refractive index higher than that of silica,” Opt. Commun. 180, 255–262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

J. Hill, E. Nelson, D. Tilman, S. Polasky, and D. Tiffany, “Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 11206–11210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Quim. Nova

R. Falate, K. Nike, P. R. Costa Neto, E. Cação, M. Muller, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Fabris, “Alternative technique for biodiesel quality control using an optical fiber long-period grating sensor,” Quim. Nova 30, 1677–1680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Renew. Sustain. Energ. Rev.

L. Meher, D. Vidyasagar, and S. Naik, “Technical aspects of biodiesel production by transesterification—a review,” Renew. Sustain. Energ. Rev. 10, 248–268 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Jain and M. Sharma, “Review of different test methods for the evaluation of stability of biodiesel,” Renew. Sustain. Energ. Rev. 14, 1937–1947 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science

K. R. Smith, “In praise of petroleum?” Science 298, 1847 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sensors Actuators

S. K. A. K. Bey, C. C. C. Lam, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Chloride ion optical sensing using a long period grating pair,” Sensors Actuators 141, 390–395 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sensors Actuators A

M. Mitsushio, S. Higashi, and M. Higo, “Construction and evaluation of a gold-deposited optical fiber sensor system for measurements of refractive indices of alcohols,” Sensors Actuators A 111, 252–259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sensors Actuators B

R. Falate, R. C. Kamikawachi, M. Muller, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Fabris, “Fiber optic sensors for hydrocarbon detection,” Sensors Actuators B 105, 430–436 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Talanta

M. R. Monteiro, A. R. P. Ambrozin, L. M. Lião, and A. G. Ferreira, “Critical review on analytical methods for biodiesel characterization,” Talanta 77, 593–605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, 1999).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Transmission spectra of gratings at room temperature (20.0±0.5)°C: (a) LPG in air and completely immersed in the samples, (b) CLPG1 in air, completely immersed and with only the cavity immersed in the samples, (c) CLPG2 in air, completely immersed and with only the cavity immersed in the samples.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

CLPG2 spectra for portions of the cavity 5, 10, and 20 mm long immersed in samples with refractive indices (a), (b) lower and (c), (d) higher than the cladding refractive index, at (20.0±0.5)°C.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) CLPG2 spectra for a portion of the cavity 2.5 mm long immersed in petrodiesel-canola biodiesel mixtures. (b) Crest to trough intensity for BX samples. Red line is the 3rd order polynomial fit.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Sensitivity and resolution of CLPG2 with partial cavity immersion for BX samples at (20.0±0.5)°C.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission spectra of CLPG1 immersed in: (a) O0 and (b) O100 at different temperatures.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Transmission spectra of CLPG1 immersed in OX samples at (90.0±0.5)°C.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Wavelength position of dips 1, 2, 3, and 4 for the CLPG1 completely immersed in OX samples at (90.0±0.5)°C. Dotted lines are linear fits to the experimental data.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

LPG immersed in BX samples with cyclohexane in 11 proportion at (20.0±0.5)°C. (a) Response curve (dotted line is a 2nd order polynomial fit) and (b) sensitivity and resolution.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

LPG immersed in BX samples with cyclohexane in 12 proportion at (20.0±0.5)°C. (a) Response curve (dotted line is a 2nd order polynomial fit) and (b) sensitivity and resolution.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Refractive Index of the Samples at (20.0±0.5)°C Measured with the Abbe Refractometer

Metrics