Abstract

In order to obtain information both of aurora and airglow in one image by the same detector, a PLCI based on liquid crystal plate LCP and super second-generation image intensifier SSGII is proposed in this research. The detection thresholds of the CCD for aurora and airglow are calculated. For the detectable illumination range of 104102lx, the corresponding electron count is 1.57×1050.2 for every pixel of CCD. The structure and work principle of the PLCI are described. An LC is introduced in the front of CCD to decrease the intensities of aurora in overexposure areas by means of controlling transmittances pixel by pixel, while an image intensifier is set between the LC and CCD to increase the intensity of the weak airglow. The modulation transfer function MTF of this system is calculated as 0.391 at a Nyquist frequency of 15lp/mm. The curve of transmittance with regard to gray level for the LC is obtained by calibration experiment. Based on the design principle, the prototype is made and used to take photos of objects under strong light greater than 2×105lx. The clear details of “西安理工大学XauT” presented in the image indicate that the PLCI can greatly improve the imaging quality. The theoretical calculations and experiment results prove that this device can extend the dynamic range and it provides a more effective method for upper atmospheric wind measurement.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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2011 (2)

H. Y. Gao, Y. H. Tang, D. X. Hua, L. Qin, and C. Zhu, “Modified super-wide-angle Sagnac imaging interferometer based on LCoS for atmospheric wind measurement,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 268–276 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Gao, Y. H. Tang, D. X. Hua, and H. C. Liu, “Study on the wide-angle Michelson interferometer with large air gap,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5655–5661 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

Y. H. Tang, R. X. Zhang, H. Y. Gao, K. Liu, G. X. Zhao, X. S. Yang, Q. Li, Y. Liang, N. Ye, H. C. Liu, and S. L. Liu, “Partially light-controlled imaging system based on high temperature poly-silicon thin film transistor-liquid crystal display,” Opt. Express 18, 10616–10626 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Gao, Y. H. Tang, and D. X. Hua, “MTF of magnetic mirror array image intensifier (in Chinese),” Acta Photonica Sin. 39, 1729–1733 (2010).

Y. H. Tang, Q. J. Jia, Q. Qin, X. D. Duan, O. Y. Qu, X. G. Cao, and P. Tong, “Aurora intensity conversion and distribution simulation,” Mater. Sci. Forum 663–665, 340–343 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

G. X. Zhao, Y. H. Tang, K. Liu, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Gao, R. X. Zhang, Y. Liang, Q. Li, X. S. Yang, and N. Ye, “Enhancement latitude of civil digital photography system by liquid crystal,” Proc. SPIE 7279, 72791Y (2009).

X. S. Yang, Y. H. Tang, K. Liu, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Gao, Q. Li, R. X. Zhang, N. Ye, Y. Liang, and G. X. Zhao, “Modulation transfer function of partial gating detector by liquid crystal auto-controlling light intensity,” Proc. SPIE 7279, 72790Z (2009).

C. C. Fang, T. D. Cheng, J. T. Yeh, K.-C. Wu, and C. K. Lee, “Continuous numerical aperture properties of a cylindrically polarized light illuminated sub-wavelength annular aperture,” Opt. Express 17, 13646–13653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2005 (1)

Y. X. Zou, R. K. Zhou, S. L. Yang, and R. H. Sun, “Study of night vision instrument at low light level based on Gen II+ image intensifier (in Chinese),” Infrared Technol. 27, 446–448 (2005).

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

L. X. Jin, Z. M. Lv, and J. W. Xiong, “Automatic light adjusting system of CCD video camera,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 10, 588–591 (2002).

2000 (1)

S. Kavadias, B. Dierickx, D. Scheffer, A. Alaerts, D. Uwaerts, and J. Bogaerts, “A logarithmic response CMOS image sensor with on-chip calibration,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 35, 1146–1152 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Mann and R. W. Picard, “On being ‘undigital’ with digital cameras: Extending dynamic range by combining differently exposed pictures,” Science 323, 422–428 (1995).

1993 (1)

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowr, J. Ohet, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: The wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

1973 (1)

H. H. Zwick and G. G. Shepherd, “Upper atmospheric temperatures from Doppler line widths-V. Auroral electron energy spectra and fluxes deduced from the 5577 and 6300 A atomic oxygen emissions,” Planet. Space Sci. 21, 605–621 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Alaerts, A.

S. Kavadias, B. Dierickx, D. Scheffer, A. Alaerts, D. Uwaerts, and J. Bogaerts, “A logarithmic response CMOS image sensor with on-chip calibration,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 35, 1146–1152 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Alunni, J. M.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowr, J. Ohet, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: The wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bates, C. W.

Bogaerts, J.

S. Kavadias, B. Dierickx, D. Scheffer, A. Alaerts, D. Uwaerts, and J. Bogaerts, “A logarithmic response CMOS image sensor with on-chip calibration,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 35, 1146–1152 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S.

Brun, J.-F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowr, J. Ohet, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: The wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brune, S.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowr, J. Ohet, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: The wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X. G.

Y. H. Tang, Q. J. Jia, Q. Qin, X. D. Duan, O. Y. Qu, X. G. Cao, and P. Tong, “Aurora intensity conversion and distribution simulation,” Mater. Sci. Forum 663–665, 340–343 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Charlot, P.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowr, J. Ohet, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: The wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, T. D.

Cho, Y. M.

Cogger, L. L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowr, J. Ohet, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: The wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Desaulniers, D.-L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowr, J. Ohet, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: The wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dierickx, B.

S. Kavadias, B. Dierickx, D. Scheffer, A. Alaerts, D. Uwaerts, and J. Bogaerts, “A logarithmic response CMOS image sensor with on-chip calibration,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 35, 1146–1152 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X. D.

Y. H. Tang, Q. J. Jia, Q. Qin, X. D. Duan, O. Y. Qu, X. G. Cao, and P. Tong, “Aurora intensity conversion and distribution simulation,” Mater. Sci. Forum 663–665, 340–343 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Evans, W. F. J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowr, J. Ohet, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: The wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fang, C. C.

Gao, H. Y.

H. Y. Gao, Y. H. Tang, D. X. Hua, L. Qin, and C. Zhu, “Modified super-wide-angle Sagnac imaging interferometer based on LCoS for atmospheric wind measurement,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 268–276 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Gao, Y. H. Tang, D. X. Hua, and H. C. Liu, “Study on the wide-angle Michelson interferometer with large air gap,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5655–5661 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Gao, Y. H. Tang, and D. X. Hua, “MTF of magnetic mirror array image intensifier (in Chinese),” Acta Photonica Sin. 39, 1729–1733 (2010).

Y. H. Tang, R. X. Zhang, H. Y. Gao, K. Liu, G. X. Zhao, X. S. Yang, Q. Li, Y. Liang, N. Ye, H. C. Liu, and S. L. Liu, “Partially light-controlled imaging system based on high temperature poly-silicon thin film transistor-liquid crystal display,” Opt. Express 18, 10616–10626 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Yang, Y. H. Tang, K. Liu, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Gao, Q. Li, R. X. Zhang, N. Ye, Y. Liang, and G. X. Zhao, “Modulation transfer function of partial gating detector by liquid crystal auto-controlling light intensity,” Proc. SPIE 7279, 72790Z (2009).

G. X. Zhao, Y. H. Tang, K. Liu, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Gao, R. X. Zhang, Y. Liang, Q. Li, X. S. Yang, and N. Ye, “Enhancement latitude of civil digital photography system by liquid crystal,” Proc. SPIE 7279, 72791Y (2009).

Gattinger, R. L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowr, J. Ohet, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: The wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gault, W. A.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowr, J. Ohet, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: The wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Ward, A. Power, J. Langille, W. A. Gault, I. Miller, and A. Scott, “The waves Michelson interferometer (WaMI): a Doppler imager for the dynamics of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere,” in 37th COSPAR Scientific Assembly (2008), pp. 3424–3432.

Girod, F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowr, J. Ohet, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: The wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts & Company, 2005), p. 127.

Harvie, D.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowr, J. Ohet, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: The wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hersom, C.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowr, J. Ohet, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: The wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hua, D. X.

H. Y. Gao, Y. H. Tang, D. X. Hua, L. Qin, and C. Zhu, “Modified super-wide-angle Sagnac imaging interferometer based on LCoS for atmospheric wind measurement,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 268–276 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Gao, Y. H. Tang, D. X. Hua, and H. C. Liu, “Study on the wide-angle Michelson interferometer with large air gap,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5655–5661 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Gao, Y. H. Tang, and D. X. Hua, “MTF of magnetic mirror array image intensifier (in Chinese),” Acta Photonica Sin. 39, 1729–1733 (2010).

Hum, R. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowr, J. Ohet, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: The wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Q. J.

Y. H. Tang, Q. J. Jia, Q. Qin, X. D. Duan, O. Y. Qu, X. G. Cao, and P. Tong, “Aurora intensity conversion and distribution simulation,” Mater. Sci. Forum 663–665, 340–343 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jin, L. X.

L. X. Jin, Z. M. Lv, and J. W. Xiong, “Automatic light adjusting system of CCD video camera,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 10, 588–591 (2002).

Kavadias, S.

S. Kavadias, B. Dierickx, D. Scheffer, A. Alaerts, D. Uwaerts, and J. Bogaerts, “A logarithmic response CMOS image sensor with on-chip calibration,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 35, 1146–1152 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, D. J. W.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowr, J. Ohet, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: The wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kupfer, T.

Langille, J.

W. E. Ward, A. Power, J. Langille, W. A. Gault, I. Miller, and A. Scott, “The waves Michelson interferometer (WaMI): a Doppler imager for the dynamics of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere,” in 37th COSPAR Scientific Assembly (2008), pp. 3424–3432.

Lee, C. K.

Li, Q.

Y. H. Tang, R. X. Zhang, H. Y. Gao, K. Liu, G. X. Zhao, X. S. Yang, Q. Li, Y. Liang, N. Ye, H. C. Liu, and S. L. Liu, “Partially light-controlled imaging system based on high temperature poly-silicon thin film transistor-liquid crystal display,” Opt. Express 18, 10616–10626 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Yang, Y. H. Tang, K. Liu, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Gao, Q. Li, R. X. Zhang, N. Ye, Y. Liang, and G. X. Zhao, “Modulation transfer function of partial gating detector by liquid crystal auto-controlling light intensity,” Proc. SPIE 7279, 72790Z (2009).

G. X. Zhao, Y. H. Tang, K. Liu, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Gao, R. X. Zhang, Y. Liang, Q. Li, X. S. Yang, and N. Ye, “Enhancement latitude of civil digital photography system by liquid crystal,” Proc. SPIE 7279, 72791Y (2009).

Liang, Y.

Y. H. Tang, R. X. Zhang, H. Y. Gao, K. Liu, G. X. Zhao, X. S. Yang, Q. Li, Y. Liang, N. Ye, H. C. Liu, and S. L. Liu, “Partially light-controlled imaging system based on high temperature poly-silicon thin film transistor-liquid crystal display,” Opt. Express 18, 10616–10626 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Yang, Y. H. Tang, K. Liu, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Gao, Q. Li, R. X. Zhang, N. Ye, Y. Liang, and G. X. Zhao, “Modulation transfer function of partial gating detector by liquid crystal auto-controlling light intensity,” Proc. SPIE 7279, 72790Z (2009).

G. X. Zhao, Y. H. Tang, K. Liu, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Gao, R. X. Zhang, Y. Liang, Q. Li, X. S. Yang, and N. Ye, “Enhancement latitude of civil digital photography system by liquid crystal,” Proc. SPIE 7279, 72791Y (2009).

Liu, H. C.

H. Y. Gao, Y. H. Tang, D. X. Hua, and H. C. Liu, “Study on the wide-angle Michelson interferometer with large air gap,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5655–5661 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Tang, R. X. Zhang, H. Y. Gao, K. Liu, G. X. Zhao, X. S. Yang, Q. Li, Y. Liang, N. Ye, H. C. Liu, and S. L. Liu, “Partially light-controlled imaging system based on high temperature poly-silicon thin film transistor-liquid crystal display,” Opt. Express 18, 10616–10626 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Yang, Y. H. Tang, K. Liu, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Gao, Q. Li, R. X. Zhang, N. Ye, Y. Liang, and G. X. Zhao, “Modulation transfer function of partial gating detector by liquid crystal auto-controlling light intensity,” Proc. SPIE 7279, 72790Z (2009).

G. X. Zhao, Y. H. Tang, K. Liu, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Gao, R. X. Zhang, Y. Liang, Q. Li, X. S. Yang, and N. Ye, “Enhancement latitude of civil digital photography system by liquid crystal,” Proc. SPIE 7279, 72791Y (2009).

Liu, K.

Y. H. Tang, R. X. Zhang, H. Y. Gao, K. Liu, G. X. Zhao, X. S. Yang, Q. Li, Y. Liang, N. Ye, H. C. Liu, and S. L. Liu, “Partially light-controlled imaging system based on high temperature poly-silicon thin film transistor-liquid crystal display,” Opt. Express 18, 10616–10626 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Yang, Y. H. Tang, K. Liu, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Gao, Q. Li, R. X. Zhang, N. Ye, Y. Liang, and G. X. Zhao, “Modulation transfer function of partial gating detector by liquid crystal auto-controlling light intensity,” Proc. SPIE 7279, 72790Z (2009).

G. X. Zhao, Y. H. Tang, K. Liu, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Gao, R. X. Zhang, Y. Liang, Q. Li, X. S. Yang, and N. Ye, “Enhancement latitude of civil digital photography system by liquid crystal,” Proc. SPIE 7279, 72791Y (2009).

Liu, S. L.

Llewellyn, E. J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowr, J. Ohet, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: The wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

López-González, M. J.

Lowr, R. P.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowr, J. Ohet, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: The wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lv, Z. M.

L. X. Jin, Z. M. Lv, and J. W. Xiong, “Automatic light adjusting system of CCD video camera,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 10, 588–591 (2002).

Mann, S.

S. Mann and R. W. Picard, “On being ‘undigital’ with digital cameras: Extending dynamic range by combining differently exposed pictures,” Science 323, 422–428 (1995).

Miller, I.

W. E. Ward, A. Power, J. Langille, W. A. Gault, I. Miller, and A. Scott, “The waves Michelson interferometer (WaMI): a Doppler imager for the dynamics of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere,” in 37th COSPAR Scientific Assembly (2008), pp. 3424–3432.

Ohet, J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowr, J. Ohet, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: The wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pasternak, F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowr, J. Ohet, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: The wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Peillet, O.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowr, J. Ohet, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: The wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Picard, R. W.

S. Mann and R. W. Picard, “On being ‘undigital’ with digital cameras: Extending dynamic range by combining differently exposed pictures,” Science 323, 422–428 (1995).

Powell, I.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowr, J. Ohet, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: The wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Power, A.

W. E. Ward, A. Power, J. Langille, W. A. Gault, I. Miller, and A. Scott, “The waves Michelson interferometer (WaMI): a Doppler imager for the dynamics of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere,” in 37th COSPAR Scientific Assembly (2008), pp. 3424–3432.

Qin, L.

H. Y. Gao, Y. H. Tang, D. X. Hua, L. Qin, and C. Zhu, “Modified super-wide-angle Sagnac imaging interferometer based on LCoS for atmospheric wind measurement,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 268–276 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Qin, Q.

Y. H. Tang, Q. J. Jia, Q. Qin, X. D. Duan, O. Y. Qu, X. G. Cao, and P. Tong, “Aurora intensity conversion and distribution simulation,” Mater. Sci. Forum 663–665, 340–343 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qu, O. Y.

Y. H. Tang, Q. J. Jia, Q. Qin, X. D. Duan, O. Y. Qu, X. G. Cao, and P. Tong, “Aurora intensity conversion and distribution simulation,” Mater. Sci. Forum 663–665, 340–343 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, Y.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowr, J. Ohet, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: The wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sargoytchev, S. I.

Scheffer, D.

S. Kavadias, B. Dierickx, D. Scheffer, A. Alaerts, D. Uwaerts, and J. Bogaerts, “A logarithmic response CMOS image sensor with on-chip calibration,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 35, 1146–1152 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scott, A.

W. E. Ward, A. Power, J. Langille, W. A. Gault, I. Miller, and A. Scott, “The waves Michelson interferometer (WaMI): a Doppler imager for the dynamics of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere,” in 37th COSPAR Scientific Assembly (2008), pp. 3424–3432.

Shepherd, G. G.

S. I. Sargoytchev, S. Brown, B. H. Solheim, Y. M. Cho, G. G. Shepherd, and M. J. López-González, “Spectral airglow temperature imager (SATI): a ground-based instrument for the monitoring of mesosphere temperature,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5712–5721 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowr, J. Ohet, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: The wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Zwick and G. G. Shepherd, “Upper atmospheric temperatures from Doppler line widths-V. Auroral electron energy spectra and fluxes deduced from the 5577 and 6300 A atomic oxygen emissions,” Planet. Space Sci. 21, 605–621 (1973).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, Spectral Imaging of the Atmosphere(Academic, 2002).

Solheim, B. H.

S. I. Sargoytchev, S. Brown, B. H. Solheim, Y. M. Cho, G. G. Shepherd, and M. J. López-González, “Spectral airglow temperature imager (SATI): a ground-based instrument for the monitoring of mesosphere temperature,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5712–5721 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowr, J. Ohet, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: The wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sparks,

Sparks, S. D.

Stojanovic, N.

Sun, R. H.

Y. X. Zou, R. K. Zhou, S. L. Yang, and R. H. Sun, “Study of night vision instrument at low light level based on Gen II+ image intensifier (in Chinese),” Infrared Technol. 27, 446–448 (2005).

Tang, Y. H.

H. Y. Gao, Y. H. Tang, D. X. Hua, and H. C. Liu, “Study on the wide-angle Michelson interferometer with large air gap,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5655–5661 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Gao, Y. H. Tang, D. X. Hua, L. Qin, and C. Zhu, “Modified super-wide-angle Sagnac imaging interferometer based on LCoS for atmospheric wind measurement,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 268–276 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Tang, Q. J. Jia, Q. Qin, X. D. Duan, O. Y. Qu, X. G. Cao, and P. Tong, “Aurora intensity conversion and distribution simulation,” Mater. Sci. Forum 663–665, 340–343 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Tang, R. X. Zhang, H. Y. Gao, K. Liu, G. X. Zhao, X. S. Yang, Q. Li, Y. Liang, N. Ye, H. C. Liu, and S. L. Liu, “Partially light-controlled imaging system based on high temperature poly-silicon thin film transistor-liquid crystal display,” Opt. Express 18, 10616–10626 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Gao, Y. H. Tang, and D. X. Hua, “MTF of magnetic mirror array image intensifier (in Chinese),” Acta Photonica Sin. 39, 1729–1733 (2010).

X. S. Yang, Y. H. Tang, K. Liu, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Gao, Q. Li, R. X. Zhang, N. Ye, Y. Liang, and G. X. Zhao, “Modulation transfer function of partial gating detector by liquid crystal auto-controlling light intensity,” Proc. SPIE 7279, 72790Z (2009).

G. X. Zhao, Y. H. Tang, K. Liu, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Gao, R. X. Zhang, Y. Liang, Q. Li, X. S. Yang, and N. Ye, “Enhancement latitude of civil digital photography system by liquid crystal,” Proc. SPIE 7279, 72791Y (2009).

Thuillier, G.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowr, J. Ohet, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: The wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tong, P.

Y. H. Tang, Q. J. Jia, Q. Qin, X. D. Duan, O. Y. Qu, X. G. Cao, and P. Tong, “Aurora intensity conversion and distribution simulation,” Mater. Sci. Forum 663–665, 340–343 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Uwaerts, D.

S. Kavadias, B. Dierickx, D. Scheffer, A. Alaerts, D. Uwaerts, and J. Bogaerts, “A logarithmic response CMOS image sensor with on-chip calibration,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 35, 1146–1152 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ward, W. E.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowr, J. Ohet, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: The wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Ward, A. Power, J. Langille, W. A. Gault, I. Miller, and A. Scott, “The waves Michelson interferometer (WaMI): a Doppler imager for the dynamics of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere,” in 37th COSPAR Scientific Assembly (2008), pp. 3424–3432.

Wiens, R. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowr, J. Ohet, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: The wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wimperis, J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowr, J. Ohet, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, and J. Wimperis, “WINDII: The wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wu, K.-C.

Xiong, J. W.

L. X. Jin, Z. M. Lv, and J. W. Xiong, “Automatic light adjusting system of CCD video camera,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 10, 588–591 (2002).

Yang, S. L.

Y. X. Zou, R. K. Zhou, S. L. Yang, and R. H. Sun, “Study of night vision instrument at low light level based on Gen II+ image intensifier (in Chinese),” Infrared Technol. 27, 446–448 (2005).

Yang, X. S.

Y. H. Tang, R. X. Zhang, H. Y. Gao, K. Liu, G. X. Zhao, X. S. Yang, Q. Li, Y. Liang, N. Ye, H. C. Liu, and S. L. Liu, “Partially light-controlled imaging system based on high temperature poly-silicon thin film transistor-liquid crystal display,” Opt. Express 18, 10616–10626 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Yang, Y. H. Tang, K. Liu, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Gao, Q. Li, R. X. Zhang, N. Ye, Y. Liang, and G. X. Zhao, “Modulation transfer function of partial gating detector by liquid crystal auto-controlling light intensity,” Proc. SPIE 7279, 72790Z (2009).

G. X. Zhao, Y. H. Tang, K. Liu, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Gao, R. X. Zhang, Y. Liang, Q. Li, X. S. Yang, and N. Ye, “Enhancement latitude of civil digital photography system by liquid crystal,” Proc. SPIE 7279, 72791Y (2009).

Ye, N.

Y. H. Tang, R. X. Zhang, H. Y. Gao, K. Liu, G. X. Zhao, X. S. Yang, Q. Li, Y. Liang, N. Ye, H. C. Liu, and S. L. Liu, “Partially light-controlled imaging system based on high temperature poly-silicon thin film transistor-liquid crystal display,” Opt. Express 18, 10616–10626 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Yang, Y. H. Tang, K. Liu, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Gao, Q. Li, R. X. Zhang, N. Ye, Y. Liang, and G. X. Zhao, “Modulation transfer function of partial gating detector by liquid crystal auto-controlling light intensity,” Proc. SPIE 7279, 72790Z (2009).

G. X. Zhao, Y. H. Tang, K. Liu, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Gao, R. X. Zhang, Y. Liang, Q. Li, X. S. Yang, and N. Ye, “Enhancement latitude of civil digital photography system by liquid crystal,” Proc. SPIE 7279, 72791Y (2009).

Yeh, J. T.

Zhang, R. X.

Y. H. Tang, R. X. Zhang, H. Y. Gao, K. Liu, G. X. Zhao, X. S. Yang, Q. Li, Y. Liang, N. Ye, H. C. Liu, and S. L. Liu, “Partially light-controlled imaging system based on high temperature poly-silicon thin film transistor-liquid crystal display,” Opt. Express 18, 10616–10626 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Yang, Y. H. Tang, K. Liu, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Gao, Q. Li, R. X. Zhang, N. Ye, Y. Liang, and G. X. Zhao, “Modulation transfer function of partial gating detector by liquid crystal auto-controlling light intensity,” Proc. SPIE 7279, 72790Z (2009).

G. X. Zhao, Y. H. Tang, K. Liu, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Gao, R. X. Zhang, Y. Liang, Q. Li, X. S. Yang, and N. Ye, “Enhancement latitude of civil digital photography system by liquid crystal,” Proc. SPIE 7279, 72791Y (2009).

Zhao, G. X.

Y. H. Tang, R. X. Zhang, H. Y. Gao, K. Liu, G. X. Zhao, X. S. Yang, Q. Li, Y. Liang, N. Ye, H. C. Liu, and S. L. Liu, “Partially light-controlled imaging system based on high temperature poly-silicon thin film transistor-liquid crystal display,” Opt. Express 18, 10616–10626 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Yang, Y. H. Tang, K. Liu, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Gao, Q. Li, R. X. Zhang, N. Ye, Y. Liang, and G. X. Zhao, “Modulation transfer function of partial gating detector by liquid crystal auto-controlling light intensity,” Proc. SPIE 7279, 72790Z (2009).

G. X. Zhao, Y. H. Tang, K. Liu, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Gao, R. X. Zhang, Y. Liang, Q. Li, X. S. Yang, and N. Ye, “Enhancement latitude of civil digital photography system by liquid crystal,” Proc. SPIE 7279, 72791Y (2009).

Zhou, R. K.

Y. X. Zou, R. K. Zhou, S. L. Yang, and R. H. Sun, “Study of night vision instrument at low light level based on Gen II+ image intensifier (in Chinese),” Infrared Technol. 27, 446–448 (2005).

Zhu, C.

H. Y. Gao, Y. H. Tang, D. X. Hua, L. Qin, and C. Zhu, “Modified super-wide-angle Sagnac imaging interferometer based on LCoS for atmospheric wind measurement,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 268–276 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zou, Y. X.

Y. X. Zou, R. K. Zhou, S. L. Yang, and R. H. Sun, “Study of night vision instrument at low light level based on Gen II+ image intensifier (in Chinese),” Infrared Technol. 27, 446–448 (2005).

Zwick, H. H.

H. H. Zwick and G. G. Shepherd, “Upper atmospheric temperatures from Doppler line widths-V. Auroral electron energy spectra and fluxes deduced from the 5577 and 6300 A atomic oxygen emissions,” Planet. Space Sci. 21, 605–621 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Acta Photonica Sin. (1)

H. Y. Gao, Y. H. Tang, and D. X. Hua, “MTF of magnetic mirror array image intensifier (in Chinese),” Acta Photonica Sin. 39, 1729–1733 (2010).

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

S. Kavadias, B. Dierickx, D. Scheffer, A. Alaerts, D. Uwaerts, and J. Bogaerts, “A logarithmic response CMOS image sensor with on-chip calibration,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 35, 1146–1152 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Technol. (1)

Y. X. Zou, R. K. Zhou, S. L. Yang, and R. H. Sun, “Study of night vision instrument at low light level based on Gen II+ image intensifier (in Chinese),” Infrared Technol. 27, 446–448 (2005).

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

PLCI based on LCP and SSGII.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of LC’s microstructure.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Outside view drawing of SSGII.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Oscilloscope record of the LC’s response time ( Y -axis is voltage, abscissa is time at GOS620 oscilloscope. Voltage sensitivity is 1 V, time sensitivity is 1 ms. Left is LC’s gray scale pulse, right is LC’s delay time. LC’s 25.5 ms delay time can be read from the right down (left hand side)’s slash line).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

MTF curve of PLCI of Fig. 1.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

LC transmittance calibration experiment schematic.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

LC’s transmittances with regard to gray levels.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Structure schematic of the PLCI

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Imaging results for the validation experiment of PLCI. (a) Image of PLCI without any signal applied on LC. (b) Image of PLCI with processed signal applied on LC.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Values of Light Intensity in Every Component of Fig. 8

Equations (8)

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1 photon = h c λ = 6.63 × 10 34 J · s × 3 × 10 8 m · s 1 557.7 × 10 9 nm = 3.56 × 10 19 J .
A Ω = A p 2 f 2 = π D 2 p 2 4 f 2 = π p 2 4 ( D f ) 2 = π 4 p 2 F 2 ,
N = L A Ω τ q ,
T = 1 2 sin 2 ( π 2 1 + u 2 ) 1 + u 2 ,
u = 2 L [ n e ( θ ) n o ] λ ,
θ = { 0 ( V V c ) π 2 2 arctan [ exp | V V c V o | ] ( V > V c ) ,
MTF ( f ) = MTF Lens MTF LCP MTF FOP MTF PC MTF MCP MTF SC MTF OFT MTF CCD .
{ MTF Lens = 1 MTF LCP = | sin c ( 2 c f ) | | sin c ( d f ) | | J 1 ( 2 π a f ) π a f | | sin c ( k f ) | MTF FP = J 1 ( 2 π b f ) π b f | sin c ( s f ) | MTF PC = exp ( 16.4 D 1 2 / U 1 ) MTF MCP = 2 J 1 ( 2 π n f ) 2 π n f MTF SC = exp ( 16.4 D 2 2 / U 2 ) MTF OFT = J 1 ( 2 π p f ) π p f | sin c ( q f ) | MTF CCD = | sin c ( 2 m f ) | | sin c ( l f ) | .

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