Abstract

To develop a deeper understanding of the optical signatures of both biological aerosols and potential interferents, we made field measurements of optical cross sections and compared them to model-based predictions. We measured aerosol cross sections by conducting a hard-target calibration of a light detection and ranging system (LIDAR) based on the Frequency Agile Laser (FAL). The elastic backscatter cross sections are estimated at 19 long-wave infrared (LWIR) wavelengths spanning the range from 9.23 to 10.696 μm. The theoretical modeling of the elastic backscatter cross sections is based on the measured refractive index and size distribution of the aerosols, which are used as inputs into Mie calculations. Both model calculations and experimental measurements show good agreement and also indicate the presence of spectral features based on single particle absorption in the backscatter cross sections that can be used as a basis for discrimination for both standoff and point sensors.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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2009

J. M. Richardson, J. C. Aldridge, A. B. Milstein, and J. J. Lacirignola, “Aerosol elastic scatter signatures in the near and mid-wave IR spectral regions,” Proc. SPIE 7323, 73230Q (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Siegrist, E. Thrush, M. Airola, A. K. Carr, D. M. Limsui, N. T. Boggs, M. E. Thomas, and C. C. Carter, “Water absorption in a refractive index model for bacterial spores,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040C (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Warren, R. G. Vanderbeek, and J. L. Ahl, “Detection and classification of atmospheric aerosols using multi-wavelength LWIR LIDAR,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040E (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Fuechsel, M. E. Thomas, J. F. Garten, A. K. Carr, and C. C. Carter, “History of biological aerosol standoff detection at the Applied Physics Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 730408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. Carrera, R. O. Zandomeni, and J. L Sagripanti, “Wet and dry density of Bacillus anthracis and other Bacillus species,” J. Appl. Microbiol. 105, 68–77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Limsui, A. K. Carr, M. E. Thomas, N. T. Boggs, and R. I. Joseph, “Refractive index measurement of biological particles in the visible region,” Proc. SPIE 6954, 69540X(2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. E. Thomas, M. B. Airola, C. C. Carter, and N. T. Boggs, “Extinction and backscatter cross sections of biological materials,” Proc. SPIE 6554, 194–201 (2007).

A. Penttila, E. Zubko, K. Lumme, K. Muinonen, M. Yurkin, B. Draine, J. Rahola, A. Hoekstra, and Y. Shkuratov, “Comparison between discrete dipole implementations and exact techniques,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 417–436 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

C. Swim, R. G. Vanderbeek, D. Emge, and A. Wong, “Overview of chem-bio sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6218, 621802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2001

1999

L. A. Condatore, R. B. Guthrie, B. J. Bradshaw, K. E. Logan, L. S. Lingvay, T. H. Smith, T. S. Kaffenberger, B. W. Jezek, V. J. Cannaliato, W. J. Ginley, and W. S. Hungate, “US army soldier and biological chemical command counter proliferation long range-biological standoff detection (CP LR-BSDS),” Proc. SPIE 3707, 188–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. Holler, Y. Pan, R. K. Chang, J. R. Bottiger, S. C. Hill, and D. B. Hillis, “Two-dimensional angular optical scattering for the characterization of airborne microparticles,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1489–1491 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ahl, J. L.

R. E. Warren, R. G. Vanderbeek, and J. L. Ahl, “Detection and classification of atmospheric aerosols using multi-wavelength LWIR LIDAR,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040E (2009).
[CrossRef]

Airola, M.

K. M. Siegrist, E. Thrush, M. Airola, A. K. Carr, D. M. Limsui, N. T. Boggs, M. E. Thomas, and C. C. Carter, “Water absorption in a refractive index model for bacterial spores,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040C (2009).
[CrossRef]

Airola, M. B.

M. E. Thomas, M. B. Airola, C. C. Carter, and N. T. Boggs, “Extinction and backscatter cross sections of biological materials,” Proc. SPIE 6554, 194–201 (2007).

Aldridge, J. C.

J. M. Richardson, J. C. Aldridge, A. B. Milstein, and J. J. Lacirignola, “Aerosol elastic scatter signatures in the near and mid-wave IR spectral regions,” Proc. SPIE 7323, 73230Q (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baron, P. A.

P. A. Baron and K. Willeke, Aerosol Measurement: Principles, Techniques, and Applications (Wiley, 2001).

Boggs, N. T.

K. M. Siegrist, E. Thrush, M. Airola, A. K. Carr, D. M. Limsui, N. T. Boggs, M. E. Thomas, and C. C. Carter, “Water absorption in a refractive index model for bacterial spores,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040C (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Limsui, A. K. Carr, M. E. Thomas, N. T. Boggs, and R. I. Joseph, “Refractive index measurement of biological particles in the visible region,” Proc. SPIE 6954, 69540X(2008).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Thomas, M. B. Airola, C. C. Carter, and N. T. Boggs, “Extinction and backscatter cross sections of biological materials,” Proc. SPIE 6554, 194–201 (2007).

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particle (Wiley, 1983).

Bottiger, J. R.

Bradshaw, B. J.

L. A. Condatore, R. B. Guthrie, B. J. Bradshaw, K. E. Logan, L. S. Lingvay, T. H. Smith, T. S. Kaffenberger, B. W. Jezek, V. J. Cannaliato, W. J. Ginley, and W. S. Hungate, “US army soldier and biological chemical command counter proliferation long range-biological standoff detection (CP LR-BSDS),” Proc. SPIE 3707, 188–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bronk, B.

Cannaliato, V. J.

L. A. Condatore, R. B. Guthrie, B. J. Bradshaw, K. E. Logan, L. S. Lingvay, T. H. Smith, T. S. Kaffenberger, B. W. Jezek, V. J. Cannaliato, W. J. Ginley, and W. S. Hungate, “US army soldier and biological chemical command counter proliferation long range-biological standoff detection (CP LR-BSDS),” Proc. SPIE 3707, 188–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carr, A. K.

K. M. Siegrist, E. Thrush, M. Airola, A. K. Carr, D. M. Limsui, N. T. Boggs, M. E. Thomas, and C. C. Carter, “Water absorption in a refractive index model for bacterial spores,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040C (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Fuechsel, M. E. Thomas, J. F. Garten, A. K. Carr, and C. C. Carter, “History of biological aerosol standoff detection at the Applied Physics Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 730408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Limsui, A. K. Carr, M. E. Thomas, N. T. Boggs, and R. I. Joseph, “Refractive index measurement of biological particles in the visible region,” Proc. SPIE 6954, 69540X(2008).
[CrossRef]

Carrera, M.

M. Carrera, R. O. Zandomeni, and J. L Sagripanti, “Wet and dry density of Bacillus anthracis and other Bacillus species,” J. Appl. Microbiol. 105, 68–77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carter, C. C.

P. G. Fuechsel, M. E. Thomas, J. F. Garten, A. K. Carr, and C. C. Carter, “History of biological aerosol standoff detection at the Applied Physics Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 730408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Siegrist, E. Thrush, M. Airola, A. K. Carr, D. M. Limsui, N. T. Boggs, M. E. Thomas, and C. C. Carter, “Water absorption in a refractive index model for bacterial spores,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040C (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Thomas, M. B. Airola, C. C. Carter, and N. T. Boggs, “Extinction and backscatter cross sections of biological materials,” Proc. SPIE 6554, 194–201 (2007).

Chang, R. K.

Condatore, L. A.

L. A. Condatore, R. B. Guthrie, B. J. Bradshaw, K. E. Logan, L. S. Lingvay, T. H. Smith, T. S. Kaffenberger, B. W. Jezek, V. J. Cannaliato, W. J. Ginley, and W. S. Hungate, “US army soldier and biological chemical command counter proliferation long range-biological standoff detection (CP LR-BSDS),” Proc. SPIE 3707, 188–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dahmani, R.

Draine, B.

A. Penttila, E. Zubko, K. Lumme, K. Muinonen, M. Yurkin, B. Draine, J. Rahola, A. Hoekstra, and Y. Shkuratov, “Comparison between discrete dipole implementations and exact techniques,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 417–436 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Emge, D.

C. Swim, R. G. Vanderbeek, D. Emge, and A. Wong, “Overview of chem-bio sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6218, 621802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fuechsel, P. G.

P. G. Fuechsel, M. E. Thomas, J. F. Garten, A. K. Carr, and C. C. Carter, “History of biological aerosol standoff detection at the Applied Physics Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 730408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, H. W.

J. H. Marquardt, R. Nichols, J. Wenzel, R. Sibel, T. Hoft, J. V. Rudd, B. W. Krause, H. W. Garrett, K. M. Mahoney, and A. Zakel, “Polarization-sensitive LIDAR methods for biological agent detection,” presented at the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research, Bar Harbor, Maine, USA, 29 May–2 June 2006.

Garten, J. F.

P. G. Fuechsel, M. E. Thomas, J. F. Garten, A. K. Carr, and C. C. Carter, “History of biological aerosol standoff detection at the Applied Physics Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 730408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ginley, W. J.

L. A. Condatore, R. B. Guthrie, B. J. Bradshaw, K. E. Logan, L. S. Lingvay, T. H. Smith, T. S. Kaffenberger, B. W. Jezek, V. J. Cannaliato, W. J. Ginley, and W. S. Hungate, “US army soldier and biological chemical command counter proliferation long range-biological standoff detection (CP LR-BSDS),” Proc. SPIE 3707, 188–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gurton, K. P.

Guthrie, R. B.

L. A. Condatore, R. B. Guthrie, B. J. Bradshaw, K. E. Logan, L. S. Lingvay, T. H. Smith, T. S. Kaffenberger, B. W. Jezek, V. J. Cannaliato, W. J. Ginley, and W. S. Hungate, “US army soldier and biological chemical command counter proliferation long range-biological standoff detection (CP LR-BSDS),” Proc. SPIE 3707, 188–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hill, S. C.

Hillis, D. B.

Hinds, W. C.

W. C. Hinds, Aerosol Technology: Properties, Behavior, and Measurement of Airborne Particles (Wiley-Interscience, 1999).

Hoekstra, A.

A. Penttila, E. Zubko, K. Lumme, K. Muinonen, M. Yurkin, B. Draine, J. Rahola, A. Hoekstra, and Y. Shkuratov, “Comparison between discrete dipole implementations and exact techniques,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 417–436 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hoft, T.

J. H. Marquardt, R. Nichols, J. Wenzel, R. Sibel, T. Hoft, J. V. Rudd, B. W. Krause, H. W. Garrett, K. M. Mahoney, and A. Zakel, “Polarization-sensitive LIDAR methods for biological agent detection,” presented at the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research, Bar Harbor, Maine, USA, 29 May–2 June 2006.

Holler, S.

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particle (Wiley, 1983).

Hungate, W. S.

L. A. Condatore, R. B. Guthrie, B. J. Bradshaw, K. E. Logan, L. S. Lingvay, T. H. Smith, T. S. Kaffenberger, B. W. Jezek, V. J. Cannaliato, W. J. Ginley, and W. S. Hungate, “US army soldier and biological chemical command counter proliferation long range-biological standoff detection (CP LR-BSDS),” Proc. SPIE 3707, 188–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jezek, B. W.

L. A. Condatore, R. B. Guthrie, B. J. Bradshaw, K. E. Logan, L. S. Lingvay, T. H. Smith, T. S. Kaffenberger, B. W. Jezek, V. J. Cannaliato, W. J. Ginley, and W. S. Hungate, “US army soldier and biological chemical command counter proliferation long range-biological standoff detection (CP LR-BSDS),” Proc. SPIE 3707, 188–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, R. I.

D. Limsui, A. K. Carr, M. E. Thomas, N. T. Boggs, and R. I. Joseph, “Refractive index measurement of biological particles in the visible region,” Proc. SPIE 6954, 69540X(2008).
[CrossRef]

Kaffenberger, T. S.

L. A. Condatore, R. B. Guthrie, B. J. Bradshaw, K. E. Logan, L. S. Lingvay, T. H. Smith, T. S. Kaffenberger, B. W. Jezek, V. J. Cannaliato, W. J. Ginley, and W. S. Hungate, “US army soldier and biological chemical command counter proliferation long range-biological standoff detection (CP LR-BSDS),” Proc. SPIE 3707, 188–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krause, B. W.

J. H. Marquardt, R. Nichols, J. Wenzel, R. Sibel, T. Hoft, J. V. Rudd, B. W. Krause, H. W. Garrett, K. M. Mahoney, and A. Zakel, “Polarization-sensitive LIDAR methods for biological agent detection,” presented at the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research, Bar Harbor, Maine, USA, 29 May–2 June 2006.

Kvavilashvili, R.

Lacirignola, J. J.

J. M. Richardson, J. C. Aldridge, A. B. Milstein, and J. J. Lacirignola, “Aerosol elastic scatter signatures in the near and mid-wave IR spectral regions,” Proc. SPIE 7323, 73230Q (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ligon, D.

Limsui, D.

D. Limsui, A. K. Carr, M. E. Thomas, N. T. Boggs, and R. I. Joseph, “Refractive index measurement of biological particles in the visible region,” Proc. SPIE 6954, 69540X(2008).
[CrossRef]

Limsui, D. M.

K. M. Siegrist, E. Thrush, M. Airola, A. K. Carr, D. M. Limsui, N. T. Boggs, M. E. Thomas, and C. C. Carter, “Water absorption in a refractive index model for bacterial spores,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040C (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lingvay, L. S.

L. A. Condatore, R. B. Guthrie, B. J. Bradshaw, K. E. Logan, L. S. Lingvay, T. H. Smith, T. S. Kaffenberger, B. W. Jezek, V. J. Cannaliato, W. J. Ginley, and W. S. Hungate, “US army soldier and biological chemical command counter proliferation long range-biological standoff detection (CP LR-BSDS),” Proc. SPIE 3707, 188–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Logan, K. E.

L. A. Condatore, R. B. Guthrie, B. J. Bradshaw, K. E. Logan, L. S. Lingvay, T. H. Smith, T. S. Kaffenberger, B. W. Jezek, V. J. Cannaliato, W. J. Ginley, and W. S. Hungate, “US army soldier and biological chemical command counter proliferation long range-biological standoff detection (CP LR-BSDS),” Proc. SPIE 3707, 188–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lumme, K.

A. Penttila, E. Zubko, K. Lumme, K. Muinonen, M. Yurkin, B. Draine, J. Rahola, A. Hoekstra, and Y. Shkuratov, “Comparison between discrete dipole implementations and exact techniques,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 417–436 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mahoney, K. M.

J. H. Marquardt, R. Nichols, J. Wenzel, R. Sibel, T. Hoft, J. V. Rudd, B. W. Krause, H. W. Garrett, K. M. Mahoney, and A. Zakel, “Polarization-sensitive LIDAR methods for biological agent detection,” presented at the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research, Bar Harbor, Maine, USA, 29 May–2 June 2006.

Marquardt, J. H.

J. H. Marquardt, R. Nichols, J. Wenzel, R. Sibel, T. Hoft, J. V. Rudd, B. W. Krause, H. W. Garrett, K. M. Mahoney, and A. Zakel, “Polarization-sensitive LIDAR methods for biological agent detection,” presented at the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research, Bar Harbor, Maine, USA, 29 May–2 June 2006.

Measures, R. M.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing: Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley, 1984).

Milstein, A. B.

J. M. Richardson, J. C. Aldridge, A. B. Milstein, and J. J. Lacirignola, “Aerosol elastic scatter signatures in the near and mid-wave IR spectral regions,” Proc. SPIE 7323, 73230Q (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Muinonen, K.

A. Penttila, E. Zubko, K. Lumme, K. Muinonen, M. Yurkin, B. Draine, J. Rahola, A. Hoekstra, and Y. Shkuratov, “Comparison between discrete dipole implementations and exact techniques,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 417–436 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Naumann, D.

D. Naumann, “FT-infrared and FT-Raman spectroscopy in biomedical research,” in Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy of Biological Materials, H. Gremlick and B. Yan, eds. (Dekker, 2001).

Nichols, R.

J. H. Marquardt, R. Nichols, J. Wenzel, R. Sibel, T. Hoft, J. V. Rudd, B. W. Krause, H. W. Garrett, K. M. Mahoney, and A. Zakel, “Polarization-sensitive LIDAR methods for biological agent detection,” presented at the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research, Bar Harbor, Maine, USA, 29 May–2 June 2006.

Pan, Y.

Penttila, A.

A. Penttila, E. Zubko, K. Lumme, K. Muinonen, M. Yurkin, B. Draine, J. Rahola, A. Hoekstra, and Y. Shkuratov, “Comparison between discrete dipole implementations and exact techniques,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 417–436 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rahola, J.

A. Penttila, E. Zubko, K. Lumme, K. Muinonen, M. Yurkin, B. Draine, J. Rahola, A. Hoekstra, and Y. Shkuratov, “Comparison between discrete dipole implementations and exact techniques,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 417–436 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, J. M.

J. M. Richardson, J. C. Aldridge, A. B. Milstein, and J. J. Lacirignola, “Aerosol elastic scatter signatures in the near and mid-wave IR spectral regions,” Proc. SPIE 7323, 73230Q (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rudd, J. V.

J. H. Marquardt, R. Nichols, J. Wenzel, R. Sibel, T. Hoft, J. V. Rudd, B. W. Krause, H. W. Garrett, K. M. Mahoney, and A. Zakel, “Polarization-sensitive LIDAR methods for biological agent detection,” presented at the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research, Bar Harbor, Maine, USA, 29 May–2 June 2006.

Sagripanti, J. L

M. Carrera, R. O. Zandomeni, and J. L Sagripanti, “Wet and dry density of Bacillus anthracis and other Bacillus species,” J. Appl. Microbiol. 105, 68–77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shkuratov, Y.

A. Penttila, E. Zubko, K. Lumme, K. Muinonen, M. Yurkin, B. Draine, J. Rahola, A. Hoekstra, and Y. Shkuratov, “Comparison between discrete dipole implementations and exact techniques,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 417–436 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sibel, R.

J. H. Marquardt, R. Nichols, J. Wenzel, R. Sibel, T. Hoft, J. V. Rudd, B. W. Krause, H. W. Garrett, K. M. Mahoney, and A. Zakel, “Polarization-sensitive LIDAR methods for biological agent detection,” presented at the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research, Bar Harbor, Maine, USA, 29 May–2 June 2006.

Siegrist, K. M.

K. M. Siegrist, E. Thrush, M. Airola, A. K. Carr, D. M. Limsui, N. T. Boggs, M. E. Thomas, and C. C. Carter, “Water absorption in a refractive index model for bacterial spores,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040C (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, T. H.

L. A. Condatore, R. B. Guthrie, B. J. Bradshaw, K. E. Logan, L. S. Lingvay, T. H. Smith, T. S. Kaffenberger, B. W. Jezek, V. J. Cannaliato, W. J. Ginley, and W. S. Hungate, “US army soldier and biological chemical command counter proliferation long range-biological standoff detection (CP LR-BSDS),” Proc. SPIE 3707, 188–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Swim, C.

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[CrossRef]

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K. M. Siegrist, E. Thrush, M. Airola, A. K. Carr, D. M. Limsui, N. T. Boggs, M. E. Thomas, and C. C. Carter, “Water absorption in a refractive index model for bacterial spores,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040C (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Fuechsel, M. E. Thomas, J. F. Garten, A. K. Carr, and C. C. Carter, “History of biological aerosol standoff detection at the Applied Physics Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 730408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Limsui, A. K. Carr, M. E. Thomas, N. T. Boggs, and R. I. Joseph, “Refractive index measurement of biological particles in the visible region,” Proc. SPIE 6954, 69540X(2008).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Thomas, M. B. Airola, C. C. Carter, and N. T. Boggs, “Extinction and backscatter cross sections of biological materials,” Proc. SPIE 6554, 194–201 (2007).

M. E. Thomas, Optical Propagation in Linear Media (Oxford, 2006).

Thrush, E.

K. M. Siegrist, E. Thrush, M. Airola, A. K. Carr, D. M. Limsui, N. T. Boggs, M. E. Thomas, and C. C. Carter, “Water absorption in a refractive index model for bacterial spores,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040C (2009).
[CrossRef]

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vanderbeek, R. G.

R. E. Warren, R. G. Vanderbeek, and J. L. Ahl, “Detection and classification of atmospheric aerosols using multi-wavelength LWIR LIDAR,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040E (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Swim, R. G. Vanderbeek, D. Emge, and A. Wong, “Overview of chem-bio sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6218, 621802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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R. E. Warren, R. G. Vanderbeek, and J. L. Ahl, “Detection and classification of atmospheric aerosols using multi-wavelength LWIR LIDAR,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040E (2009).
[CrossRef]

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J. H. Marquardt, R. Nichols, J. Wenzel, R. Sibel, T. Hoft, J. V. Rudd, B. W. Krause, H. W. Garrett, K. M. Mahoney, and A. Zakel, “Polarization-sensitive LIDAR methods for biological agent detection,” presented at the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research, Bar Harbor, Maine, USA, 29 May–2 June 2006.

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P. A. Baron and K. Willeke, Aerosol Measurement: Principles, Techniques, and Applications (Wiley, 2001).

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C. Swim, R. G. Vanderbeek, D. Emge, and A. Wong, “Overview of chem-bio sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6218, 621802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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A. Penttila, E. Zubko, K. Lumme, K. Muinonen, M. Yurkin, B. Draine, J. Rahola, A. Hoekstra, and Y. Shkuratov, “Comparison between discrete dipole implementations and exact techniques,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 417–436 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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J. H. Marquardt, R. Nichols, J. Wenzel, R. Sibel, T. Hoft, J. V. Rudd, B. W. Krause, H. W. Garrett, K. M. Mahoney, and A. Zakel, “Polarization-sensitive LIDAR methods for biological agent detection,” presented at the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research, Bar Harbor, Maine, USA, 29 May–2 June 2006.

Zandomeni, R. O.

M. Carrera, R. O. Zandomeni, and J. L Sagripanti, “Wet and dry density of Bacillus anthracis and other Bacillus species,” J. Appl. Microbiol. 105, 68–77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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A. Penttila, E. Zubko, K. Lumme, K. Muinonen, M. Yurkin, B. Draine, J. Rahola, A. Hoekstra, and Y. Shkuratov, “Comparison between discrete dipole implementations and exact techniques,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 417–436 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Appl. Microbiol.

M. Carrera, R. O. Zandomeni, and J. L Sagripanti, “Wet and dry density of Bacillus anthracis and other Bacillus species,” J. Appl. Microbiol. 105, 68–77 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Penttila, E. Zubko, K. Lumme, K. Muinonen, M. Yurkin, B. Draine, J. Rahola, A. Hoekstra, and Y. Shkuratov, “Comparison between discrete dipole implementations and exact techniques,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 417–436 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

K. M. Siegrist, E. Thrush, M. Airola, A. K. Carr, D. M. Limsui, N. T. Boggs, M. E. Thomas, and C. C. Carter, “Water absorption in a refractive index model for bacterial spores,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040C (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Richardson, J. C. Aldridge, A. B. Milstein, and J. J. Lacirignola, “Aerosol elastic scatter signatures in the near and mid-wave IR spectral regions,” Proc. SPIE 7323, 73230Q (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Limsui, A. K. Carr, M. E. Thomas, N. T. Boggs, and R. I. Joseph, “Refractive index measurement of biological particles in the visible region,” Proc. SPIE 6954, 69540X(2008).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Thomas, M. B. Airola, C. C. Carter, and N. T. Boggs, “Extinction and backscatter cross sections of biological materials,” Proc. SPIE 6554, 194–201 (2007).

R. E. Warren, R. G. Vanderbeek, and J. L. Ahl, “Detection and classification of atmospheric aerosols using multi-wavelength LWIR LIDAR,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040E (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Swim, R. G. Vanderbeek, D. Emge, and A. Wong, “Overview of chem-bio sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6218, 621802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Fuechsel, M. E. Thomas, J. F. Garten, A. K. Carr, and C. C. Carter, “History of biological aerosol standoff detection at the Applied Physics Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 730408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Condatore, R. B. Guthrie, B. J. Bradshaw, K. E. Logan, L. S. Lingvay, T. H. Smith, T. S. Kaffenberger, B. W. Jezek, V. J. Cannaliato, W. J. Ginley, and W. S. Hungate, “US army soldier and biological chemical command counter proliferation long range-biological standoff detection (CP LR-BSDS),” Proc. SPIE 3707, 188–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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J. H. Marquardt, R. Nichols, J. Wenzel, R. Sibel, T. Hoft, J. V. Rudd, B. W. Krause, H. W. Garrett, K. M. Mahoney, and A. Zakel, “Polarization-sensitive LIDAR methods for biological agent detection,” presented at the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research, Bar Harbor, Maine, USA, 29 May–2 June 2006.

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http://www.powdertechnologyinc.com .

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particle (Wiley, 1983).

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P. A. Baron and K. Willeke, Aerosol Measurement: Principles, Techniques, and Applications (Wiley, 2001).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Calculated real (a) and imaginary part (b) of the refractive index of biological simulant materials (BG, BTk, EH, and MS2) assuming a 15% water content by mass.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured size distributions for BG, BTk, EH and MS2 released in the JABT using an APS. Figure inset shows an illustrative image of a clustered BTk particle.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Estimated backscatterance of canvas target using the BRDF measurement at 10.6 μm and spectral reflectance measured by a FTIR reflectometer.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Relative contribution to total backscatter signal versus particle size for the EH size distribution measured at the JABT (Fig. 2) at a wavelength of 1 μm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of calculated backscatter cross sections for a theoretical mono-disperse size distribution based on SEM measurements of singlet BG spores to a polydisperse size distribution measured in the field with the APS. Field measurements of the backscatter cross section are plotted as well. Figure 8 shows a more detailed comparison for polydisperse simulation.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Illustration of the self-absorption effect. Material absorption reduces the contribution to the backscatter caused by the back surface of the particle.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Effect of adding large particles to the size distribution.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Backscatter cross section agreement between calculation and field measurement in the LWIR.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Refractive index of quartz in the LWIR.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Optical backscatter cross section of ARD in the LWIR and comparison to field measurements.

Equations (7)

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0n(r)dr=1.
σeff=0σ(r)n(r)dr.
Cont(r)σ(r)n(r),
SCldECld=OFInstTAtm(ArRCld2)σeffρDCld,
STrgETrg=OFInstTAtm(ArRTrg2)αTrg,
σeff=αTrgρDCldSCldECld(ETrgSTrg).
Rf=(n1)2+k2(n+1)2+k2,

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