Abstract

This work demonstrates the electrical tuning of laser beam shape using an axially symmetric dye-dope liquid crystal (ASDDLC) device that is fabricated using a photo-alignment method. Various beam shapes can be obtained by linearly polarized Gaussian laser beams through an ASDDLC device under various applied voltages. The far-field intensity patterns generated by laser beams of selected shapes under various applied voltages are simulated, and the results are consistent with experiment. A rotatable petal-shaped beam is obtained by controlling the polarization of the output donut-shaped beam. The tenability of beam shape of light with a wavelength of 1064 nm, which is commonly used in biomedical applications, is also demonstrated.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2010 (3)

2009 (2)

2008 (6)

D. Palima and J. Glückstad, “Gaussian to uniform intensity shaper based on generalized phase contrast,” Opt. Express 16, 1507–1516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Ko, Y.-Y. Tzeng, C.-L. Ting, A. Y. -G. Fuh, and T.-H. Lin, “Axially symmetric liquid crystal devices based on double-side photo-alignment,” Opt. Express 16, 19643–19648 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Selhuber-Unkel, I. Zins, O. Schubert, C. Sönnichsen, and L. B. Oddershede, “Quantitative optical trapping of single gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8, 2998–3003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Blondin, E. McLeod, and C. B. Arnold, “Dynamic pulsed-beam shaping using a TAG lens in the near UV,” Appl. Phys. A 93, 231–234 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Thomson and J. Courtial, “Holographic shaping of generalized self-reconstructing light beams,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1217–1221 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Chu and K. Otsuka, “Doughnut-like beam generation of Laguerre-Gaussian mode with extremely high mode purity,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1647–1653 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (2)

D. P. Rhodes, D. M. Gherardi, J. Livesey, D. McGloin, H. Melville, T. Freegarde, and K. Dholakia, “Atom guiding along high order Laguerre-Gaussian light beams formed by spatial light modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 547–556(2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Vermeulen, J. van Mameren, G. Stienen, E. Peterman, G. Wuite, and C. Schmidt, “Calibrating bead displacements in optical tweezers using acousto-optic deflectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 013704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2003 (3)

C. Bustamante, Z. Bryant, and S. B. Smith, “Ten years of tension: single-molecule DNA mechanics,” Nature 421, 423–427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C.-R. Lee, T.-S. Mo, K.-T. Cheng, T.-L. Fu, and A. Y. -G. Fuh, “Electrically switchable and thermally erasable biphotonic holographic gratings in dye-doped liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4285–4287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. McGloin, G. C. Spalding, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Applications of spatial light modulators in atom optics,” Opt. Express 11, 158–166 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

J. Liesener, M. Reicherter, T. Haist, and H. J. Tiziani, “Multi-functional optical tweezers using computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Commun. 185, 77–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

K. Visscher, G. J. Brakenhoff, and J. J. Krol, “Micromanipulation by multiple optical traps created by a single fast scanning trap integrated with the bilateral confocal scanning laser microscope,” Cytometry 14, 105–114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. Ashkin, “Forces of a single-beam gradient trap on a dielectric sphere in the ray optics regime,” Biophys. J. 61, 569–582 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, and H. C. Berg, “Compliance of bacterial flagella measured with optical tweezers,” Nature 338, 514–518 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Agarwal, R.

Arnold, C. B.

A. M. Blondin, E. McLeod, and C. B. Arnold, “Dynamic pulsed-beam shaping using a TAG lens in the near UV,” Appl. Phys. A 93, 231–234 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, “Forces of a single-beam gradient trap on a dielectric sphere in the ray optics regime,” Biophys. J. 61, 569–582 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bachar, S.

Bashkansky, M.

Bendoraite, A.

Berg, H. C.

S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, and H. C. Berg, “Compliance of bacterial flagella measured with optical tweezers,” Nature 338, 514–518 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bernet, S.

Blair, D. F.

S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, and H. C. Berg, “Compliance of bacterial flagella measured with optical tweezers,” Nature 338, 514–518 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Block, S. M.

S. M. Block, D. F. Blair, and H. C. Berg, “Compliance of bacterial flagella measured with optical tweezers,” Nature 338, 514–518 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Blondin, A. M.

A. M. Blondin, E. McLeod, and C. B. Arnold, “Dynamic pulsed-beam shaping using a TAG lens in the near UV,” Appl. Phys. A 93, 231–234 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brakenhoff, G. J.

K. Visscher, G. J. Brakenhoff, and J. J. Krol, “Micromanipulation by multiple optical traps created by a single fast scanning trap integrated with the bilateral confocal scanning laser microscope,” Cytometry 14, 105–114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, Z.

C. Bustamante, Z. Bryant, and S. B. Smith, “Ten years of tension: single-molecule DNA mechanics,” Nature 421, 423–427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bustamante, C.

C. Bustamante, Z. Bryant, and S. B. Smith, “Ten years of tension: single-molecule DNA mechanics,” Nature 421, 423–427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chanteloup, J.-C.

Cheng, K.-T.

C.-R. Lee, T.-S. Mo, K.-T. Cheng, T.-L. Fu, and A. Y. -G. Fuh, “Electrically switchable and thermally erasable biphotonic holographic gratings in dye-doped liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4285–4287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.-C.

S.-C. Chu and K. Otsuka, “Doughnut-like beam generation of Laguerre-Gaussian mode with extremely high mode purity,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1647–1653 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Courtial, J.

L. C. Thomson and J. Courtial, “Holographic shaping of generalized self-reconstructing light beams,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1217–1221 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Daria, V. R.

Dholakia, K.

D. P. Rhodes, D. M. Gherardi, J. Livesey, D. McGloin, H. Melville, T. Freegarde, and K. Dholakia, “Atom guiding along high order Laguerre-Gaussian light beams formed by spatial light modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 547–556(2006).
[CrossRef]

D. McGloin, G. C. Spalding, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Applications of spatial light modulators in atom optics,” Opt. Express 11, 158–166 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, Z.

Eriksen, R. L.

Fatemi, F. K.

Freegarde, T.

D. P. Rhodes, D. M. Gherardi, J. Livesey, D. McGloin, H. Melville, T. Freegarde, and K. Dholakia, “Atom guiding along high order Laguerre-Gaussian light beams formed by spatial light modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 547–556(2006).
[CrossRef]

Fu, T.-L.

C.-R. Lee, T.-S. Mo, K.-T. Cheng, T.-L. Fu, and A. Y. -G. Fuh, “Electrically switchable and thermally erasable biphotonic holographic gratings in dye-doped liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4285–4287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fuh, A. Y. -G.

Fürhapter, S.

Gahagan, K. T.

Gherardi, D. M.

D. P. Rhodes, D. M. Gherardi, J. Livesey, D. McGloin, H. Melville, T. Freegarde, and K. Dholakia, “Atom guiding along high order Laguerre-Gaussian light beams formed by spatial light modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 547–556(2006).
[CrossRef]

Glückstad, J.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts & Company, 2004), Chap. 4.

Grier, D. G.

Guo, C.-S.

Haist, T.

J. Liesener, M. Reicherter, T. Haist, and H. J. Tiziani, “Multi-functional optical tweezers using computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Commun. 185, 77–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hajizadeh, F.

Hanot, C.

He, J.-L.

Jesacher, A.

Khonina, S. N.

V. V. Kotlyar, A. A. Kovalev, R. V. Skidanov, S. N. Khonina, O. Yu. Moiseev, and V. A. Soifer, “Simple optical vortices formed by a spiral phase plate,” J. Opt. Technol. 74, 49–58 (2007).

Kimball, B. R.

Knouf, E.

Ko, S.-W.

Kotlyar, V. V.

V. V. Kotlyar, A. A. Kovalev, R. V. Skidanov, S. N. Khonina, O. Yu. Moiseev, and V. A. Soifer, “Simple optical vortices formed by a spiral phase plate,” J. Opt. Technol. 74, 49–58 (2007).

Kovalev, A. A.

V. V. Kotlyar, A. A. Kovalev, R. V. Skidanov, S. N. Khonina, O. Yu. Moiseev, and V. A. Soifer, “Simple optical vortices formed by a spiral phase plate,” J. Opt. Technol. 74, 49–58 (2007).

Krol, J. J.

K. Visscher, G. J. Brakenhoff, and J. J. Krol, “Micromanipulation by multiple optical traps created by a single fast scanning trap integrated with the bilateral confocal scanning laser microscope,” Cytometry 14, 105–114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ladavac, K.

Lee, C.-R.

C.-R. Lee, T.-S. Mo, K.-T. Cheng, T.-L. Fu, and A. Y. -G. Fuh, “Electrically switchable and thermally erasable biphotonic holographic gratings in dye-doped liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4285–4287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lieber, C. M.

Liesener, J.

J. Liesener, M. Reicherter, T. Haist, and H. J. Tiziani, “Multi-functional optical tweezers using computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Commun. 185, 77–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liewer, K.

Lin, L. Y.

Lin, T.-H.

Liu, X.

Livesey, J.

D. P. Rhodes, D. M. Gherardi, J. Livesey, D. McGloin, H. Melville, T. Freegarde, and K. Dholakia, “Atom guiding along high order Laguerre-Gaussian light beams formed by spatial light modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 547–556(2006).
[CrossRef]

Marte, M. R.

Maurer, C.

Mawet, D.

McEldowney, S.

McGloin, D.

D. P. Rhodes, D. M. Gherardi, J. Livesey, D. McGloin, H. Melville, T. Freegarde, and K. Dholakia, “Atom guiding along high order Laguerre-Gaussian light beams formed by spatial light modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 547–556(2006).
[CrossRef]

D. McGloin, G. C. Spalding, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Applications of spatial light modulators in atom optics,” Opt. Express 11, 158–166 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McLeod, E.

A. M. Blondin, E. McLeod, and C. B. Arnold, “Dynamic pulsed-beam shaping using a TAG lens in the near UV,” Appl. Phys. A 93, 231–234 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Melville, H.

D. P. Rhodes, D. M. Gherardi, J. Livesey, D. McGloin, H. Melville, T. Freegarde, and K. Dholakia, “Atom guiding along high order Laguerre-Gaussian light beams formed by spatial light modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 547–556(2006).
[CrossRef]

D. McGloin, G. C. Spalding, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Applications of spatial light modulators in atom optics,” Opt. Express 11, 158–166 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mentele, T.

Migus, A.

Mo, T.-S.

C.-R. Lee, T.-S. Mo, K.-T. Cheng, T.-L. Fu, and A. Y. -G. Fuh, “Electrically switchable and thermally erasable biphotonic holographic gratings in dye-doped liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4285–4287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moiseev, O. Yu.

V. V. Kotlyar, A. A. Kovalev, R. V. Skidanov, S. N. Khonina, O. Yu. Moiseev, and V. A. Soifer, “Simple optical vortices formed by a spiral phase plate,” J. Opt. Technol. 74, 49–58 (2007).

Nersisyan, S.

O’Brien, N.

Oddershede, L. B.

C. Selhuber-Unkel, I. Zins, O. Schubert, C. Sönnichsen, and L. B. Oddershede, “Quantitative optical trapping of single gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8, 2998–3003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Otsuka, K.

S.-C. Chu and K. Otsuka, “Doughnut-like beam generation of Laguerre-Gaussian mode with extremely high mode purity,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1647–1653 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Palima, D.

Peterman, E.

K. Vermeulen, J. van Mameren, G. Stienen, E. Peterman, G. Wuite, and C. Schmidt, “Calibrating bead displacements in optical tweezers using acousto-optic deflectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 013704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pun, S. H.

Reicherter, M.

J. Liesener, M. Reicherter, T. Haist, and H. J. Tiziani, “Multi-functional optical tweezers using computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Commun. 185, 77–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reihani, S. N. S.

Rhodes, D. P.

D. P. Rhodes, D. M. Gherardi, J. Livesey, D. McGloin, H. Melville, T. Freegarde, and K. Dholakia, “Atom guiding along high order Laguerre-Gaussian light beams formed by spatial light modulation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 547–556(2006).
[CrossRef]

Ritsch-Marte, M.

Roichman, Y.

Sauteret, C.

Schmidt, C.

K. Vermeulen, J. van Mameren, G. Stienen, E. Peterman, G. Wuite, and C. Schmidt, “Calibrating bead displacements in optical tweezers using acousto-optic deflectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 013704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, O.

C. Selhuber-Unkel, I. Zins, O. Schubert, C. Sönnichsen, and L. B. Oddershede, “Quantitative optical trapping of single gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8, 2998–3003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schwaighofer, A.

Selhuber-Unkel, C.

C. Selhuber-Unkel, I. Zins, O. Schubert, C. Sönnichsen, and L. B. Oddershede, “Quantitative optical trapping of single gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8, 2998–3003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Serabyn, E.

Shemo, D.

Sibbett, W.

Skidanov, R. V.

V. V. Kotlyar, A. A. Kovalev, R. V. Skidanov, S. N. Khonina, O. Yu. Moiseev, and V. A. Soifer, “Simple optical vortices formed by a spiral phase plate,” J. Opt. Technol. 74, 49–58 (2007).

Smith, S. B.

C. Bustamante, Z. Bryant, and S. B. Smith, “Ten years of tension: single-molecule DNA mechanics,” Nature 421, 423–427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Soifer, V. A.

V. V. Kotlyar, A. A. Kovalev, R. V. Skidanov, S. N. Khonina, O. Yu. Moiseev, and V. A. Soifer, “Simple optical vortices formed by a spiral phase plate,” J. Opt. Technol. 74, 49–58 (2007).

Sönnichsen, C.

C. Selhuber-Unkel, I. Zins, O. Schubert, C. Sönnichsen, and L. B. Oddershede, “Quantitative optical trapping of single gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8, 2998–3003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spalding, G. C.

Steeves, D. M.

Stienen, G.

K. Vermeulen, J. van Mameren, G. Stienen, E. Peterman, G. Wuite, and C. Schmidt, “Calibrating bead displacements in optical tweezers using acousto-optic deflectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 013704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Swartzlander, G. A.

Tabiryan, N.

Tewari, M.

Thomson, L. C.

L. C. Thomson and J. Courtial, “Holographic shaping of generalized self-reconstructing light beams,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1217–1221 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ting, C.-L.

Tiziani, H. J.

J. Liesener, M. Reicherter, T. Haist, and H. J. Tiziani, “Multi-functional optical tweezers using computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Commun. 185, 77–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tzeng, Y.-Y.

van Mameren, J.

K. Vermeulen, J. van Mameren, G. Stienen, E. Peterman, G. Wuite, and C. Schmidt, “Calibrating bead displacements in optical tweezers using acousto-optic deflectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 013704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Veldkamp, W. B.

Vermeulen, K.

K. Vermeulen, J. van Mameren, G. Stienen, E. Peterman, G. Wuite, and C. Schmidt, “Calibrating bead displacements in optical tweezers using acousto-optic deflectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 013704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Visscher, K.

K. Visscher, G. J. Brakenhoff, and J. J. Krol, “Micromanipulation by multiple optical traps created by a single fast scanning trap integrated with the bilateral confocal scanning laser microscope,” Cytometry 14, 105–114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.-T.

Wattellier, B.

Wilson, B. K.

Wuite, G.

K. Vermeulen, J. van Mameren, G. Stienen, E. Peterman, G. Wuite, and C. Schmidt, “Calibrating bead displacements in optical tweezers using acousto-optic deflectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 013704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G.

Zins, I.

C. Selhuber-Unkel, I. Zins, O. Schubert, C. Sönnichsen, and L. B. Oddershede, “Quantitative optical trapping of single gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8, 2998–3003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

A. M. Blondin, E. McLeod, and C. B. Arnold, “Dynamic pulsed-beam shaping using a TAG lens in the near UV,” Appl. Phys. A 93, 231–234 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C.-R. Lee, T.-S. Mo, K.-T. Cheng, T.-L. Fu, and A. Y. -G. Fuh, “Electrically switchable and thermally erasable biphotonic holographic gratings in dye-doped liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4285–4287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

A. Ashkin, “Forces of a single-beam gradient trap on a dielectric sphere in the ray optics regime,” Biophys. J. 61, 569–582 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cytometry (1)

K. Visscher, G. J. Brakenhoff, and J. J. Krol, “Micromanipulation by multiple optical traps created by a single fast scanning trap integrated with the bilateral confocal scanning laser microscope,” Cytometry 14, 105–114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

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Other (2)

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J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts & Company, 2004), Chap. 4.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Experimental setup. (b) The images of a radial LC device under a cross-polarizing optical microscope. (c) The beam shapes (upper) and the irradiance distributions (bottom) of the output donut-shaped beam (0 V) and the Gaussian beam (17 V). P: polarizer, A: analyzer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Various beam shapes obtained using an ASDDLC device under various applied voltages.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Distribution of refraction index of LCs can be expressed as a function of position. Refractive index of LC at the red point is given by (nr,nθ)=(neff(V),no), where neff(V) is the voltage-dependent effective refraction index of LC.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Simulated beam shapes obtained when a linearly polarized Gaussian beam is incident onto an ASDDLC cell under various applied voltages. neff is the effective extraordinary refraction index.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Rotatable petal-shaped beams can be obtained by passing the donut-shaped beam formed using ASDDLC device through a rotating polarizer with its polarizing axis rotated through angles of (a) 0°, (b) 30°, (c) 60°, and (d) 90°. P: polarizer, A: analyzer.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Dynamic change of the shape of a linearly polarized Gaussian laser beam at 1064 nm after being passed through an ASDDLC device under various applied voltages.

Equations (4)

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M(θ,V)=[cos(θ)sin(θ)sin(θ)cos(θ)][2πd·neff(V)/λ002πd·n0/λ][cos(θ)sin(θ)sin(θ)cos(θ)],
Ein=E1xi+E1yj,andE1x=0,E1y=E0ω0ω(z)exp[(r2ω2(z)jkr22R(z)jkz)],
Eout=M(θ,V)[E1xE1y]=[E2xE2y],
U(ε,η)=ejkzejk(ε2+η2)/2zjλzU(x,y)exp[j2πλz(εx+ηy)]dxdy,

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