Abstract

In the traditional Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensing (SHWS) system, a lenslet array with a bigger configuration is desired to achieve a higher lateral resolution. However, practical implementation limits the configuration and this parameter is contradicted with the measurement range. We have proposed a digital scanning technique by making use of the high flexibility of a spatial light modulator to sample the reflected wavefront [X. Li, L. P. Zhao, Z. P. Fang, and C. S. Tan, “Improve lateral resolution in wavefront sensing with digital scanning technique,” in Asia-Pacific Conference of Transducers and Micro-Nano Technology (2006)]. The lenslet array pattern is programmed to laterally scan the whole aperture. In this paper, the methodology to optimize the scanning step for the purpose of form measurement is proposed. The correctness and effectiveness are demonstrated in numerical simulation and experimental investigation.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Diaz-Uribe, F. Granados-Agustin, and A. Cornejo-Rodriguez, “Classical Hartmann test with scanning,” Opt. Express 17, 13959–13973 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Lopez and S. Rios, “Interferometric Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with an array of four-hole apertures,” Appl. Opt. 49, 2334–2338 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Rios and D. Lopez, “Modified Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor using an array of superresolution pupil filters,” Opt. Express 17, 9669–9679 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Schmitt, I. Jakobs, and K. Vielhaber, “Wavefront sensor design based on a micro-mirror array for a high dynamic range measurement at a high lateral resolution,” in Fringe 2009: 6th International Workshop on Advanced Optical Metrology, (2009), pp. 628–633.
  5. V. Molebny, “Scanning Shack-Hartmann wave front sensor,” Proc. SPIE 5412, 66–71 (2004).
  6. X. Li, L. P. Zhao, Z. P. Fang, and C. S. Tan, “Improve lateral resolution in wavefront sensing with digital scanning Technique,” in Asia-Pacific Conference of Transducers and Micro-Nano Technology (2006).
  7. L. Zhao, N. Bai, X. Li, L. S. Ong, P. F. Zhong, and A. K. Asundi, “Efficient implementation of a spatial light modulator as a diffractive optical microlens array in a digital Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Appl. Opt. 45, 90–94 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. P. Zhao, N. Bai, X. Li, Z. P. Fang, Z. W. Zhong, and A. A. Hein, “Improve the system stability of a digital Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with a special lenslet array,” Appl. Opt. 48, A71–A74 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

V. Molebny, “Scanning Shack-Hartmann wave front sensor,” Proc. SPIE 5412, 66–71 (2004).

Asundi, A. K.

Bai, N.

Cornejo-Rodriguez, A.

Diaz-Uribe, R.

Fang, Z. P.

L. P. Zhao, N. Bai, X. Li, Z. P. Fang, Z. W. Zhong, and A. A. Hein, “Improve the system stability of a digital Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with a special lenslet array,” Appl. Opt. 48, A71–A74 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, L. P. Zhao, Z. P. Fang, and C. S. Tan, “Improve lateral resolution in wavefront sensing with digital scanning Technique,” in Asia-Pacific Conference of Transducers and Micro-Nano Technology (2006).

Granados-Agustin, F.

Hein, A. A.

Jakobs, I.

R. Schmitt, I. Jakobs, and K. Vielhaber, “Wavefront sensor design based on a micro-mirror array for a high dynamic range measurement at a high lateral resolution,” in Fringe 2009: 6th International Workshop on Advanced Optical Metrology, (2009), pp. 628–633.

Li, X.

Lopez, D.

Molebny, V.

V. Molebny, “Scanning Shack-Hartmann wave front sensor,” Proc. SPIE 5412, 66–71 (2004).

Ong, L. S.

Rios, S.

Schmitt, R.

R. Schmitt, I. Jakobs, and K. Vielhaber, “Wavefront sensor design based on a micro-mirror array for a high dynamic range measurement at a high lateral resolution,” in Fringe 2009: 6th International Workshop on Advanced Optical Metrology, (2009), pp. 628–633.

Tan, C. S.

X. Li, L. P. Zhao, Z. P. Fang, and C. S. Tan, “Improve lateral resolution in wavefront sensing with digital scanning Technique,” in Asia-Pacific Conference of Transducers and Micro-Nano Technology (2006).

Vielhaber, K.

R. Schmitt, I. Jakobs, and K. Vielhaber, “Wavefront sensor design based on a micro-mirror array for a high dynamic range measurement at a high lateral resolution,” in Fringe 2009: 6th International Workshop on Advanced Optical Metrology, (2009), pp. 628–633.

Zhao, L.

Zhao, L. P.

L. P. Zhao, N. Bai, X. Li, Z. P. Fang, Z. W. Zhong, and A. A. Hein, “Improve the system stability of a digital Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with a special lenslet array,” Appl. Opt. 48, A71–A74 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, L. P. Zhao, Z. P. Fang, and C. S. Tan, “Improve lateral resolution in wavefront sensing with digital scanning Technique,” in Asia-Pacific Conference of Transducers and Micro-Nano Technology (2006).

Zhong, P. F.

Zhong, Z. W.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

V. Molebny, “Scanning Shack-Hartmann wave front sensor,” Proc. SPIE 5412, 66–71 (2004).

Other (2)

X. Li, L. P. Zhao, Z. P. Fang, and C. S. Tan, “Improve lateral resolution in wavefront sensing with digital scanning Technique,” in Asia-Pacific Conference of Transducers and Micro-Nano Technology (2006).

R. Schmitt, I. Jakobs, and K. Vielhaber, “Wavefront sensor design based on a micro-mirror array for a high dynamic range measurement at a high lateral resolution,” in Fringe 2009: 6th International Workshop on Advanced Optical Metrology, (2009), pp. 628–633.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Digital scanning of the lenslet array realized by a spatial light modulator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

ε ms for different lenslet sizes and different number of points in various surface measurement scenarios, as the number of waves is (a) 0.25; (b) 0.5; (c) 1; (d) 1.5; and (e) 2.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experiment setup, as (a) sketch (b) image of the real setup.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experiment results, as (a and c) surface reconstructed from 900 sampling points; (b and d) averaged reconstructed wavefront along the form varying direction for various scanning steps.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Various Lenslet Array Settings

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Table 2. Summary of the Optimum Scanning Steps for Various Lenslet Sizes

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Table 3. Relative ε ms Resulted at Various Scanning Steps and the Improvement in Accuracy through Increasing Scanning Steps

Metrics