Abstract

Composite films of Ta–Si oxide and graded-index-like films have been realized by using radio-frequency ion-beam sputtering. The influence of thermal annealing on the optical properties and residual stress of single-layer composite films and graded-index-like films has been studied. The residual stress and optical properties of both types of films were more stable than that of the notch filters fabricated from a series of discrete quarter-wave layers made by alternatively stacking high and low index materials after annealing.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. Q. Tang, H. Matsuda, K. Kikuchi, and S. Ogura, “Fabrication and characteristics of rugate filters deposited by the TSH reactive sputtering method,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 3384–3388 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. C. Lee, C. J. Tang, and J. Y. Wu, “Rugate filter made with composite thin films by ion-beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1333–1337 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. C. Lee, H. L. Chen, J. C. Hsu, and C. L. Tien, “Interference coating based on synthesized silicon nitride,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2078–2082 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Bartzsch, S. Lange, P. Frach, and K. Goedicke, “Graded refractive index layer systems for antireflective coatings and rugate filters deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 180–181, 616–620 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constant n, k and the thickness of the weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 172–175 (1909).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2133 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. C. Lee, H. C. Chen, and C. C. Jaing, “Investigation of thermal annealing of optical properties and residual stress of ion-beam-assisted TiO2 thin films with different substrate temperatures,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3091–3096 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Chastain and R. C. King, Handbook of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Physical Electronics, 1995), pp. 44–45, pp. 56–57, and pp. 170–171.
  13. D. R. Lide, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 82nd ed. (CRC, 2001), Chap. 9, p. 75.
  14. C. J. Tang, C. C. Jaing, K. Wu, and C. C. Lee, “Residual stress of graded-index-like films deposited by radio frequency ion-beam sputtering, ” Thin Solid Films 517, 1746–1749 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009

C. J. Tang, C. C. Jaing, K. Wu, and C. C. Lee, “Residual stress of graded-index-like films deposited by radio frequency ion-beam sputtering, ” Thin Solid Films 517, 1746–1749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

2004

H. Bartzsch, S. Lange, P. Frach, and K. Goedicke, “Graded refractive index layer systems for antireflective coatings and rugate filters deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 180–181, 616–620 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Ritz, “TaTiOx layers prepared by magnetron sputtering from separate metal targets,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 174–175, 651–654 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

Q. Tang, H. Matsuda, K. Kikuchi, and S. Ogura, “Fabrication and characteristics of rugate filters deposited by the TSH reactive sputtering method,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 3384–3388 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1989

1988

1976

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constant n, k and the thickness of the weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1909

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 172–175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Bartzsch, H.

H. Bartzsch, S. Lange, P. Frach, and K. Goedicke, “Graded refractive index layer systems for antireflective coatings and rugate filters deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 180–181, 616–620 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chastain, J.

J. Chastain and R. C. King, Handbook of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Physical Electronics, 1995), pp. 44–45, pp. 56–57, and pp. 170–171.

Chen, H. C.

Chen, H. L.

Fillard, J. P.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constant n, k and the thickness of the weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Frach, P.

H. Bartzsch, S. Lange, P. Frach, and K. Goedicke, “Graded refractive index layer systems for antireflective coatings and rugate filters deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 180–181, 616–620 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gasiot, J.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constant n, k and the thickness of the weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gluck, N. S.

Goedicke, K.

H. Bartzsch, S. Lange, P. Frach, and K. Goedicke, “Graded refractive index layer systems for antireflective coatings and rugate filters deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 180–181, 616–620 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gunning, W. J.

Hall, R. L.

Hsu, J. C.

Jaing, C. C.

C. J. Tang, C. C. Jaing, K. Wu, and C. C. Lee, “Residual stress of graded-index-like films deposited by radio frequency ion-beam sputtering, ” Thin Solid Films 517, 1746–1749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, H. C. Chen, and C. C. Jaing, “Investigation of thermal annealing of optical properties and residual stress of ion-beam-assisted TiO2 thin films with different substrate temperatures,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3091–3096 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, K.

Q. Tang, H. Matsuda, K. Kikuchi, and S. Ogura, “Fabrication and characteristics of rugate filters deposited by the TSH reactive sputtering method,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 3384–3388 (1998).
[CrossRef]

King, R. C.

J. Chastain and R. C. King, Handbook of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Physical Electronics, 1995), pp. 44–45, pp. 56–57, and pp. 170–171.

Lange, S.

H. Bartzsch, S. Lange, P. Frach, and K. Goedicke, “Graded refractive index layer systems for antireflective coatings and rugate filters deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 180–181, 616–620 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. C.

Lide, D. R.

D. R. Lide, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 82nd ed. (CRC, 2001), Chap. 9, p. 75.

Manifacier, J. C.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constant n, k and the thickness of the weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, H.

Q. Tang, H. Matsuda, K. Kikuchi, and S. Ogura, “Fabrication and characteristics of rugate filters deposited by the TSH reactive sputtering method,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 3384–3388 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ogura, S.

Q. Tang, H. Matsuda, K. Kikuchi, and S. Ogura, “Fabrication and characteristics of rugate filters deposited by the TSH reactive sputtering method,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 3384–3388 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ritz, A.

A. Ritz, “TaTiOx layers prepared by magnetron sputtering from separate metal targets,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 174–175, 651–654 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, W. S.

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Southwell, W. H.

Stoney, G. G.

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 172–175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. J.

C. J. Tang, C. C. Jaing, K. Wu, and C. C. Lee, “Residual stress of graded-index-like films deposited by radio frequency ion-beam sputtering, ” Thin Solid Films 517, 1746–1749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, C. J. Tang, and J. Y. Wu, “Rugate filter made with composite thin films by ion-beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1333–1337 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, Q.

Q. Tang, H. Matsuda, K. Kikuchi, and S. Ogura, “Fabrication and characteristics of rugate filters deposited by the TSH reactive sputtering method,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 3384–3388 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tien, C. L.

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, H. L. Chen, J. C. Hsu, and C. L. Tien, “Interference coating based on synthesized silicon nitride,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2078–2082 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Woodberry, F. J.

Wu, J. Y.

Wu, K.

C. J. Tang, C. C. Jaing, K. Wu, and C. C. Lee, “Residual stress of graded-index-like films deposited by radio frequency ion-beam sputtering, ” Thin Solid Films 517, 1746–1749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Phys. E

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constant n, k and the thickness of the weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

Q. Tang, H. Matsuda, K. Kikuchi, and S. Ogura, “Fabrication and characteristics of rugate filters deposited by the TSH reactive sputtering method,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 3384–3388 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 172–175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Coat. Technol.

H. Bartzsch, S. Lange, P. Frach, and K. Goedicke, “Graded refractive index layer systems for antireflective coatings and rugate filters deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 180–181, 616–620 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ritz, “TaTiOx layers prepared by magnetron sputtering from separate metal targets,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 174–175, 651–654 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

C. J. Tang, C. C. Jaing, K. Wu, and C. C. Lee, “Residual stress of graded-index-like films deposited by radio frequency ion-beam sputtering, ” Thin Solid Films 517, 1746–1749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Chastain and R. C. King, Handbook of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Physical Electronics, 1995), pp. 44–45, pp. 56–57, and pp. 170–171.

D. R. Lide, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 82nd ed. (CRC, 2001), Chap. 9, p. 75.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Refractive index versus target positions for different annealing temperatures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Extinction coefficient versus target positions for different annealing temperatures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Changes in physical thickness with the annealing temperature for different target positions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

XPS spectra of the (a) Ta 4 f , (b) Si 2 p , and (c) O 1 s energy regions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Peak fit of the Ta 4 f and O 2 s peaks for a target position at 6 cm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Refractive index and Ta 2 O 5 proportions in composite films versus the target positions.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ta 2 O 5 proportions in two-layer stack of Sample A1 and A2 and quasi-sine-form layer stack, Sample B1 and B2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Ta 2 O 5 proportions in Sample C1, C2, and Q and a rugate filter.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Residual stress versus annealing temperatures for different Ta 2 O 5 proportions.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Residual stress for (a) two-layer stack, Samples A1 and A2, and (b) one-cycle quasi-sine-form layer stack of Samples B1 and B2 with different annealing temperatures.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Residual stress for Samples C1, C2, Q, and the rugate filter with different annealing temperatures.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Spectral performance for (a) Sample Q and (b) the rugate filter with different annealing temperatures.

Equations (1)

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σ f = E s t s 2 6 ( 1 ν s ) t f R ,

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