Abstract

Femtosecond laser machining is used to create mitigation pits to stabilize nanosecond laser-induced damage in multilayer dielectric mirror coatings on BK7 substrates. In this paper, we characterize features and the artifacts associated with mitigation pits and further investigate the impact of pulse energy and pulse duration on pit quality and damage resistance. Our results show that these mitigation features can double the fluence-handling capability of large-aperture optical multilayer mirror coatings and further demonstrate that femtosecond laser macromachining is a promising means for fabricating mitigation geometry in multilayer coatings to increase mirror performance under high-power laser irradiation.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. E. Wolfe, S. R. Qiu, C. J. Stolz, M. Thomas, C. Martinez, and A. Ozkan, “Laser-damage-resistant pits in dielectric coatings created by femtosecond laser machining,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750401 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. R. Qiu, J. E. Wolfe, A. M. Monterrosa, M. D. Feit, T. V. Pistor, and C. J. Stolz, “Modeling of light intensification by conical pits within multilayer high reflector coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040M (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. R. Qiu, J. E. Wolfe, A. M. Monterrosa, M. D. Feit, T. V. Pistor, and C. J. Stolz, “Searching for optimal mitigation geometries for laser-resistant multilayer high reflector coatings,” Appl. Opt. 50, C373–C381 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Palmier, L. Gallais, M. Commandre, P. Cormont, R. Courchinoux, L. Lamaignere, J. L. Rullier, and P. Legros, “Optimization of a laser mitigation process in damaged fused silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 5532–5536 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Geraghty, W. Carr, V. Draggoo, R. Hackel, C. Mailhiot, and M. Norton, “Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single-crystal diamond micro-machining ball end mill contouring,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030Q (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Precision laser ablation of dielectrics in the 10 fs regime,” Appl. Phys. A 68, 369–371 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. R. Borden, J. A. Folta, C. J. Stolz, J. R. Taylor, J. E. Wolfe, A. J. Griffin, and M. D. Thomas, “Improved method for laser damage testing coated optics,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59912A (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. TaniguchiN. E. LeBarron, J. Howe, D. J. Smith, C. J. Stolz, C. L. Weinzapfel, and J. F. Kimmons, “Functional damage thresholds of hafnia/silica coating designs for the NIF laser,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 109–117 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. J. Stolz, M. D. Thomas, and A. J. Griffin, “BDS thin film damage competition,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71320C (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (3)

J. E. Wolfe, S. R. Qiu, C. J. Stolz, M. Thomas, C. Martinez, and A. Ozkan, “Laser-damage-resistant pits in dielectric coatings created by femtosecond laser machining,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Qiu, J. E. Wolfe, A. M. Monterrosa, M. D. Feit, T. V. Pistor, and C. J. Stolz, “Modeling of light intensification by conical pits within multilayer high reflector coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040M (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Palmier, L. Gallais, M. Commandre, P. Cormont, R. Courchinoux, L. Lamaignere, J. L. Rullier, and P. Legros, “Optimization of a laser mitigation process in damaged fused silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 5532–5536 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

C. J. Stolz, M. D. Thomas, and A. J. Griffin, “BDS thin film damage competition,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71320C (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

P. Geraghty, W. Carr, V. Draggoo, R. Hackel, C. Mailhiot, and M. Norton, “Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single-crystal diamond micro-machining ball end mill contouring,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. R. Borden, J. A. Folta, C. J. Stolz, J. R. Taylor, J. E. Wolfe, A. J. Griffin, and M. D. Thomas, “Improved method for laser damage testing coated optics,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59912A (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. TaniguchiN. E. LeBarron, J. Howe, D. J. Smith, C. J. Stolz, C. L. Weinzapfel, and J. F. Kimmons, “Functional damage thresholds of hafnia/silica coating designs for the NIF laser,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 109–117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Precision laser ablation of dielectrics in the 10 fs regime,” Appl. Phys. A 68, 369–371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Borden, M. R.

M. R. Borden, J. A. Folta, C. J. Stolz, J. R. Taylor, J. E. Wolfe, A. J. Griffin, and M. D. Thomas, “Improved method for laser damage testing coated optics,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59912A (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carr, W.

P. Geraghty, W. Carr, V. Draggoo, R. Hackel, C. Mailhiot, and M. Norton, “Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single-crystal diamond micro-machining ball end mill contouring,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Commandre, M.

S. Palmier, L. Gallais, M. Commandre, P. Cormont, R. Courchinoux, L. Lamaignere, J. L. Rullier, and P. Legros, “Optimization of a laser mitigation process in damaged fused silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 5532–5536 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cormont, P.

S. Palmier, L. Gallais, M. Commandre, P. Cormont, R. Courchinoux, L. Lamaignere, J. L. Rullier, and P. Legros, “Optimization of a laser mitigation process in damaged fused silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 5532–5536 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Courchinoux, R.

S. Palmier, L. Gallais, M. Commandre, P. Cormont, R. Courchinoux, L. Lamaignere, J. L. Rullier, and P. Legros, “Optimization of a laser mitigation process in damaged fused silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 5532–5536 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Draggoo, V.

P. Geraghty, W. Carr, V. Draggoo, R. Hackel, C. Mailhiot, and M. Norton, “Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single-crystal diamond micro-machining ball end mill contouring,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

S. R. Qiu, J. E. Wolfe, A. M. Monterrosa, M. D. Feit, T. V. Pistor, and C. J. Stolz, “Modeling of light intensification by conical pits within multilayer high reflector coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040M (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Qiu, J. E. Wolfe, A. M. Monterrosa, M. D. Feit, T. V. Pistor, and C. J. Stolz, “Searching for optimal mitigation geometries for laser-resistant multilayer high reflector coatings,” Appl. Opt. 50, C373–C381 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Folta, J. A.

M. R. Borden, J. A. Folta, C. J. Stolz, J. R. Taylor, J. E. Wolfe, A. J. Griffin, and M. D. Thomas, “Improved method for laser damage testing coated optics,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59912A (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gallais, L.

S. Palmier, L. Gallais, M. Commandre, P. Cormont, R. Courchinoux, L. Lamaignere, J. L. Rullier, and P. Legros, “Optimization of a laser mitigation process in damaged fused silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 5532–5536 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Geraghty, P.

P. Geraghty, W. Carr, V. Draggoo, R. Hackel, C. Mailhiot, and M. Norton, “Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single-crystal diamond micro-machining ball end mill contouring,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, A. J.

C. J. Stolz, M. D. Thomas, and A. J. Griffin, “BDS thin film damage competition,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71320C (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Borden, J. A. Folta, C. J. Stolz, J. R. Taylor, J. E. Wolfe, A. J. Griffin, and M. D. Thomas, “Improved method for laser damage testing coated optics,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59912A (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hackel, R.

P. Geraghty, W. Carr, V. Draggoo, R. Hackel, C. Mailhiot, and M. Norton, “Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single-crystal diamond micro-machining ball end mill contouring,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Howe, J.

J. TaniguchiN. E. LeBarron, J. Howe, D. J. Smith, C. J. Stolz, C. L. Weinzapfel, and J. F. Kimmons, “Functional damage thresholds of hafnia/silica coating designs for the NIF laser,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 109–117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kautek, W.

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Precision laser ablation of dielectrics in the 10 fs regime,” Appl. Phys. A 68, 369–371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kimmons, J. F.

J. TaniguchiN. E. LeBarron, J. Howe, D. J. Smith, C. J. Stolz, C. L. Weinzapfel, and J. F. Kimmons, “Functional damage thresholds of hafnia/silica coating designs for the NIF laser,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 109–117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Precision laser ablation of dielectrics in the 10 fs regime,” Appl. Phys. A 68, 369–371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, J.

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Precision laser ablation of dielectrics in the 10 fs regime,” Appl. Phys. A 68, 369–371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lamaignere, L.

S. Palmier, L. Gallais, M. Commandre, P. Cormont, R. Courchinoux, L. Lamaignere, J. L. Rullier, and P. Legros, “Optimization of a laser mitigation process in damaged fused silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 5532–5536 (2009).
[CrossRef]

LeBarron, N. E.

J. TaniguchiN. E. LeBarron, J. Howe, D. J. Smith, C. J. Stolz, C. L. Weinzapfel, and J. F. Kimmons, “Functional damage thresholds of hafnia/silica coating designs for the NIF laser,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 109–117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Legros, P.

S. Palmier, L. Gallais, M. Commandre, P. Cormont, R. Courchinoux, L. Lamaignere, J. L. Rullier, and P. Legros, “Optimization of a laser mitigation process in damaged fused silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 5532–5536 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lenzner, M.

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Precision laser ablation of dielectrics in the 10 fs regime,” Appl. Phys. A 68, 369–371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mailhiot, C.

P. Geraghty, W. Carr, V. Draggoo, R. Hackel, C. Mailhiot, and M. Norton, “Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single-crystal diamond micro-machining ball end mill contouring,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, C.

J. E. Wolfe, S. R. Qiu, C. J. Stolz, M. Thomas, C. Martinez, and A. Ozkan, “Laser-damage-resistant pits in dielectric coatings created by femtosecond laser machining,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Monterrosa, A. M.

S. R. Qiu, J. E. Wolfe, A. M. Monterrosa, M. D. Feit, T. V. Pistor, and C. J. Stolz, “Modeling of light intensification by conical pits within multilayer high reflector coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040M (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Qiu, J. E. Wolfe, A. M. Monterrosa, M. D. Feit, T. V. Pistor, and C. J. Stolz, “Searching for optimal mitigation geometries for laser-resistant multilayer high reflector coatings,” Appl. Opt. 50, C373–C381 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norton, M.

P. Geraghty, W. Carr, V. Draggoo, R. Hackel, C. Mailhiot, and M. Norton, “Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single-crystal diamond micro-machining ball end mill contouring,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ozkan, A.

J. E. Wolfe, S. R. Qiu, C. J. Stolz, M. Thomas, C. Martinez, and A. Ozkan, “Laser-damage-resistant pits in dielectric coatings created by femtosecond laser machining,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Palmier, S.

S. Palmier, L. Gallais, M. Commandre, P. Cormont, R. Courchinoux, L. Lamaignere, J. L. Rullier, and P. Legros, “Optimization of a laser mitigation process in damaged fused silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 5532–5536 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pistor, T. V.

S. R. Qiu, J. E. Wolfe, A. M. Monterrosa, M. D. Feit, T. V. Pistor, and C. J. Stolz, “Modeling of light intensification by conical pits within multilayer high reflector coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040M (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Qiu, J. E. Wolfe, A. M. Monterrosa, M. D. Feit, T. V. Pistor, and C. J. Stolz, “Searching for optimal mitigation geometries for laser-resistant multilayer high reflector coatings,” Appl. Opt. 50, C373–C381 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, S. R.

S. R. Qiu, J. E. Wolfe, A. M. Monterrosa, M. D. Feit, T. V. Pistor, and C. J. Stolz, “Modeling of light intensification by conical pits within multilayer high reflector coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040M (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Wolfe, S. R. Qiu, C. J. Stolz, M. Thomas, C. Martinez, and A. Ozkan, “Laser-damage-resistant pits in dielectric coatings created by femtosecond laser machining,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Qiu, J. E. Wolfe, A. M. Monterrosa, M. D. Feit, T. V. Pistor, and C. J. Stolz, “Searching for optimal mitigation geometries for laser-resistant multilayer high reflector coatings,” Appl. Opt. 50, C373–C381 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rullier, J. L.

S. Palmier, L. Gallais, M. Commandre, P. Cormont, R. Courchinoux, L. Lamaignere, J. L. Rullier, and P. Legros, “Optimization of a laser mitigation process in damaged fused silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 5532–5536 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. J.

J. TaniguchiN. E. LeBarron, J. Howe, D. J. Smith, C. J. Stolz, C. L. Weinzapfel, and J. F. Kimmons, “Functional damage thresholds of hafnia/silica coating designs for the NIF laser,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 109–117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stolz, C. J.

J. E. Wolfe, S. R. Qiu, C. J. Stolz, M. Thomas, C. Martinez, and A. Ozkan, “Laser-damage-resistant pits in dielectric coatings created by femtosecond laser machining,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Qiu, J. E. Wolfe, A. M. Monterrosa, M. D. Feit, T. V. Pistor, and C. J. Stolz, “Modeling of light intensification by conical pits within multilayer high reflector coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040M (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Stolz, M. D. Thomas, and A. J. Griffin, “BDS thin film damage competition,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71320C (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Borden, J. A. Folta, C. J. Stolz, J. R. Taylor, J. E. Wolfe, A. J. Griffin, and M. D. Thomas, “Improved method for laser damage testing coated optics,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59912A (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. TaniguchiN. E. LeBarron, J. Howe, D. J. Smith, C. J. Stolz, C. L. Weinzapfel, and J. F. Kimmons, “Functional damage thresholds of hafnia/silica coating designs for the NIF laser,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 109–117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Qiu, J. E. Wolfe, A. M. Monterrosa, M. D. Feit, T. V. Pistor, and C. J. Stolz, “Searching for optimal mitigation geometries for laser-resistant multilayer high reflector coatings,” Appl. Opt. 50, C373–C381 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taniguchi, J.

J. TaniguchiN. E. LeBarron, J. Howe, D. J. Smith, C. J. Stolz, C. L. Weinzapfel, and J. F. Kimmons, “Functional damage thresholds of hafnia/silica coating designs for the NIF laser,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 109–117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

M. R. Borden, J. A. Folta, C. J. Stolz, J. R. Taylor, J. E. Wolfe, A. J. Griffin, and M. D. Thomas, “Improved method for laser damage testing coated optics,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59912A (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, M.

J. E. Wolfe, S. R. Qiu, C. J. Stolz, M. Thomas, C. Martinez, and A. Ozkan, “Laser-damage-resistant pits in dielectric coatings created by femtosecond laser machining,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, M. D.

C. J. Stolz, M. D. Thomas, and A. J. Griffin, “BDS thin film damage competition,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71320C (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Borden, J. A. Folta, C. J. Stolz, J. R. Taylor, J. E. Wolfe, A. J. Griffin, and M. D. Thomas, “Improved method for laser damage testing coated optics,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59912A (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weinzapfel, C. L.

J. TaniguchiN. E. LeBarron, J. Howe, D. J. Smith, C. J. Stolz, C. L. Weinzapfel, and J. F. Kimmons, “Functional damage thresholds of hafnia/silica coating designs for the NIF laser,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 109–117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, J. E.

J. E. Wolfe, S. R. Qiu, C. J. Stolz, M. Thomas, C. Martinez, and A. Ozkan, “Laser-damage-resistant pits in dielectric coatings created by femtosecond laser machining,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Qiu, J. E. Wolfe, A. M. Monterrosa, M. D. Feit, T. V. Pistor, and C. J. Stolz, “Modeling of light intensification by conical pits within multilayer high reflector coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040M (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Borden, J. A. Folta, C. J. Stolz, J. R. Taylor, J. E. Wolfe, A. J. Griffin, and M. D. Thomas, “Improved method for laser damage testing coated optics,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59912A (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Qiu, J. E. Wolfe, A. M. Monterrosa, M. D. Feit, T. V. Pistor, and C. J. Stolz, “Searching for optimal mitigation geometries for laser-resistant multilayer high reflector coatings,” Appl. Opt. 50, C373–C381 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Precision laser ablation of dielectrics in the 10 fs regime,” Appl. Phys. A 68, 369–371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

S. Palmier, L. Gallais, M. Commandre, P. Cormont, R. Courchinoux, L. Lamaignere, J. L. Rullier, and P. Legros, “Optimization of a laser mitigation process in damaged fused silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 5532–5536 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (6)

P. Geraghty, W. Carr, V. Draggoo, R. Hackel, C. Mailhiot, and M. Norton, “Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single-crystal diamond micro-machining ball end mill contouring,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Borden, J. A. Folta, C. J. Stolz, J. R. Taylor, J. E. Wolfe, A. J. Griffin, and M. D. Thomas, “Improved method for laser damage testing coated optics,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59912A (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. TaniguchiN. E. LeBarron, J. Howe, D. J. Smith, C. J. Stolz, C. L. Weinzapfel, and J. F. Kimmons, “Functional damage thresholds of hafnia/silica coating designs for the NIF laser,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 109–117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Stolz, M. D. Thomas, and A. J. Griffin, “BDS thin film damage competition,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71320C (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Wolfe, S. R. Qiu, C. J. Stolz, M. Thomas, C. Martinez, and A. Ozkan, “Laser-damage-resistant pits in dielectric coatings created by femtosecond laser machining,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Qiu, J. E. Wolfe, A. M. Monterrosa, M. D. Feit, T. V. Pistor, and C. J. Stolz, “Modeling of light intensification by conical pits within multilayer high reflector coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040M (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cutaway diagram of a typical mitigation feature. The top is the surface of the film, with the round mitigation feature extending through the multilayer coating into the BK7 substrate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical microscope images of femtosecond laser-machined mitigation features. Both mitigation pits are 1 mm across and 15 μm deep.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical microscope images of mitigation feature corners at varying machining pulse energies created with 700 fs pulse length at 1550 nm focused to 15 μm spot size. (a)  2 μJ / pulse , (b)  4 μJ / pulse , (c)  6 μJ / pulse .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM images of trench edges created with 1040 nm pulses focused to 10 μm spot size. (a)  419 fs , 3 μJ / pulse ; (b)  1200 fs , 3 μJ / pulse ; (c)  1200 fs , 5 μJ / pulse ; (d)  419 fs , 5 μJ / pulse .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Enhanced SEM images of the edge of features machined with 419 fs , 5 μJ / pulse . Note debris on surface and spongelike appearance of feature wall.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured damage fluence as a function of machining pulse energy for the two samples described in the text.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Laser Systems and Characteristics Available for Use in This Testing a

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