Abstract

Ellipsometry is a highly sensitive optical technique for coating characterization but usually presents multiple solutions in many cases. To prevent these, a method with addition of a spectral polarimetric technique is proposed. An initial film dispersion curve, independently of its physical thickness, is then provided using the same setup as spectral ellipsometry and at the same sample position, which later is used for thickness determination and dispersion refinement with increase of reliability of results. Characterization of thin TiO2 films with one and two ellipsometric solutions is shown to corroborate the validity of the proposed method.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. H. Zaininger and A. G. Revesz, “Ellipsometry: A valuable tool in surface research,” RCA Rev. 25, 85–115 (1964).
  2. M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: State-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521–1554 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222(1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. K. Tien and R. Ulrich, “Theory of prism-film coupler and thin-film light guides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1325–1337 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North Holland1987), Chaps. 3, 5, and 6.
  6. H. G. Tompkins, A User’s Guide to Ellipsometry (Academic1993), Chap. 2.
  7. F. Hiroyuki, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 2007), Chap. 4.
  8. F. Abelès, “Recherches sur la propagation des ondes électromagnétiques sinusoidales dans les milieux stratifiés. Application aux couches minces,” Ph.D. thesis (Université de Paris, 1949) (in French).
  9. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge Univ. Press1997), Chap. 1.
    [PubMed]
  10. F. Horowitz and M. B. Pereira, “Optical surface analysis of graded index coatings on glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 286–290 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Brewster, “On the laws which regulate the polarisation of light by reflexion from transparent bodies,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London 105, 125 (1815).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. J. Hacskaylo, “Determination of the refractive index of thin dielectric films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 198–203 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. A. Soave, R. A. F. Dau, M. R. Becker, M. B. Pereira, and F. Horowitz, “Refractive index control in bicomponent polymer films for integrated thermo-optical applications,” Opt. Eng. 48, 1246031 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Horowitz, “Structure-induced optical anisotropy in thin films,” Ph.D. thesis (Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona, 1983), Tucson, EUA. Published by University Microfilms Inc.

2009

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: State-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Soave, R. A. F. Dau, M. R. Becker, M. B. Pereira, and F. Horowitz, “Refractive index control in bicomponent polymer films for integrated thermo-optical applications,” Opt. Eng. 48, 1246031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

1997

F. Horowitz and M. B. Pereira, “Optical surface analysis of graded index coatings on glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 286–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1983

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222(1983).
[CrossRef]

1970

1964

K. H. Zaininger and A. G. Revesz, “Ellipsometry: A valuable tool in surface research,” RCA Rev. 25, 85–115 (1964).

M. J. Hacskaylo, “Determination of the refractive index of thin dielectric films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 198–203 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1815

D. Brewster, “On the laws which regulate the polarisation of light by reflexion from transparent bodies,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London 105, 125 (1815).
[CrossRef]

Abelès, F.

F. Abelès, “Recherches sur la propagation des ondes électromagnétiques sinusoidales dans les milieux stratifiés. Application aux couches minces,” Ph.D. thesis (Université de Paris, 1949) (in French).

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North Holland1987), Chaps. 3, 5, and 6.

Bashara, N. M.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North Holland1987), Chaps. 3, 5, and 6.

Becker, M. R.

P. A. Soave, R. A. F. Dau, M. R. Becker, M. B. Pereira, and F. Horowitz, “Refractive index control in bicomponent polymer films for integrated thermo-optical applications,” Opt. Eng. 48, 1246031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bergmair, M.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: State-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge Univ. Press1997), Chap. 1.
[PubMed]

Brewster, D.

D. Brewster, “On the laws which regulate the polarisation of light by reflexion from transparent bodies,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London 105, 125 (1815).
[CrossRef]

Bruno, G.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: State-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cattelan, D.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: State-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cobet, C.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: State-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dau, R. A. F.

P. A. Soave, R. A. F. Dau, M. R. Becker, M. B. Pereira, and F. Horowitz, “Refractive index control in bicomponent polymer films for integrated thermo-optical applications,” Opt. Eng. 48, 1246031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Martino, A.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: State-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dohcevic-Mitrovic, Z.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: State-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esser, N.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: State-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleischer, K.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: State-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gajic, R.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: State-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galliet, M.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: State-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hacskaylo, M. J.

Hemzal, D.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: State-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hingerl, K.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: State-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiroyuki, F.

F. Hiroyuki, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 2007), Chap. 4.

Horowitz, F.

P. A. Soave, R. A. F. Dau, M. R. Becker, M. B. Pereira, and F. Horowitz, “Refractive index control in bicomponent polymer films for integrated thermo-optical applications,” Opt. Eng. 48, 1246031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Horowitz and M. B. Pereira, “Optical surface analysis of graded index coatings on glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 286–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Horowitz, “Structure-induced optical anisotropy in thin films,” Ph.D. thesis (Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona, 1983), Tucson, EUA. Published by University Microfilms Inc.

Humlicek, J.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: State-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Losurdo, M.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: State-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ossikovski, R.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: State-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pereira, M. B.

P. A. Soave, R. A. F. Dau, M. R. Becker, M. B. Pereira, and F. Horowitz, “Refractive index control in bicomponent polymer films for integrated thermo-optical applications,” Opt. Eng. 48, 1246031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Horowitz and M. B. Pereira, “Optical surface analysis of graded index coatings on glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 286–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, Z. V.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: State-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Revesz, A. G.

K. H. Zaininger and A. G. Revesz, “Ellipsometry: A valuable tool in surface research,” RCA Rev. 25, 85–115 (1964).

Saxl, O.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: State-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soave, P. A.

P. A. Soave, R. A. F. Dau, M. R. Becker, M. B. Pereira, and F. Horowitz, “Refractive index control in bicomponent polymer films for integrated thermo-optical applications,” Opt. Eng. 48, 1246031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Swanepoel, R.

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222(1983).
[CrossRef]

Tien, P. K.

Tompkins, H. G.

H. G. Tompkins, A User’s Guide to Ellipsometry (Academic1993), Chap. 2.

Ulrich, R.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge Univ. Press1997), Chap. 1.
[PubMed]

Zaininger, K. H.

K. H. Zaininger and A. G. Revesz, “Ellipsometry: A valuable tool in surface research,” RCA Rev. 25, 85–115 (1964).

J. Nanopart. Res.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: State-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11, 1521–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

F. Horowitz and M. B. Pereira, “Optical surface analysis of graded index coatings on glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 286–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. E

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222(1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

P. A. Soave, R. A. F. Dau, M. R. Becker, M. B. Pereira, and F. Horowitz, “Refractive index control in bicomponent polymer films for integrated thermo-optical applications,” Opt. Eng. 48, 1246031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London

D. Brewster, “On the laws which regulate the polarisation of light by reflexion from transparent bodies,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London 105, 125 (1815).
[CrossRef]

RCA Rev.

K. H. Zaininger and A. G. Revesz, “Ellipsometry: A valuable tool in surface research,” RCA Rev. 25, 85–115 (1964).

Other

F. Horowitz, “Structure-induced optical anisotropy in thin films,” Ph.D. thesis (Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona, 1983), Tucson, EUA. Published by University Microfilms Inc.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North Holland1987), Chaps. 3, 5, and 6.

H. G. Tompkins, A User’s Guide to Ellipsometry (Academic1993), Chap. 2.

F. Hiroyuki, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 2007), Chap. 4.

F. Abelès, “Recherches sur la propagation des ondes électromagnétiques sinusoidales dans les milieux stratifiés. Application aux couches minces,” Ph.D. thesis (Université de Paris, 1949) (in French).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge Univ. Press1997), Chap. 1.
[PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme used in spectral polarimetry measurements. Light from a broadband spectral source is polarized (p polarization) and strikes the film or the bare substrate at a variable incident angle θ. The intensities of the light (p polarization) reflected by the coated ( I F ) and by the uncoated substrate ( I S ) are compared, and their matching angular position is located at a certain wavelength value.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intersection between film and bare substrate reflection spectra for sample 1 ( θ = 67.5 ° ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral polarimetry data and Cauchy curve fitting (sample 1).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Refractive Index Values for the TiO 2 Film in Sample 1, Obtained from Polarimetry (Estimate, see Fig. 3) and Ellipsometry

Tables Icon

Table 2 Solutions Obtained for the Sample 2 Using Two Approaches, With and Without the Polarimetric Estimate a

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r p ( n 0 ( λ ) , n s ( λ ) , n ( λ ) , d , θ ) r s ( n 0 ( λ ) , n s ( λ ) , n ( λ ) , d , θ ) = e i Δ tan ( ψ ) ,
n = tan θ B ,
n ( λ ) = tan θ B ( λ ) ,

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