Abstract

Our first attempts at the fabrication of long-wavelength infrared cut-off filters with extended transmission and rejection regions that are based on the use of the critical angle, the dispersion of refractive indices, and on thin-film interference were not very successful. The design of the filter consisted of layers placed at the interface between two high-index prisms. Using the available deposition equipment, the layers produced were porous and very rough. The pores adsorbed water vapor, which resulted in absorption. The roughness made the process of optical contacting very difficult. In this paper we describe the adjustments in the design and deposition processes that allowed us to obtain filters with a better and more stable performance.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. A. Dobrowolski, L. Li, and J. Hilfiker, “Long-wavelength cut-off filters of a new type,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4891–4003 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. A. Dobrowolski and L. Li, “Cut-off filters,” U.S. patent 6,271,968 (August 7, 2001).
  3. Advanced Materials’ CLEARTRAN. See, for example, http://www.lightmachinery.com/Cleartran.pdf.
  4. A. P. Bradford, G. Hass, and M. McFarland, “Optical properties of evaporated magnesium oxide films in the 0.22–8 μwavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2242–2248 (1972).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. Y. Znamenskii and V. A. Martsinovskii, “Study of the dependence of the condensation factors of the films Ge, SiO, ZnS, ZnSe, and PbTe on the temperature of the covered substrate and their effect on the spectral characteristics of narrow-band interference filters,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 46, 70–72 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. A. Dobrowolski, Y. Guo, L. Li, and T. Tiwald, “Implementation of long-wavelength cut-off filters based on critical angle,” in Optical Interference Coatings, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuD2.
  7. E. Ritter, “Properties of optical thin film materials,” Appl. Opt. 20, 21–25 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. J. A. Dobrowolski, Y. Guo, T. Tiwald, P. Ma, and D. Poitras, “Toward perfect antireflection coatings. 3. Experimental results obtained with the use of Reststrahlen materials,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1555–1562 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. L. Li and J. A. Dobrowolski, “Optical coatings with an integral FTIR air layer,” Opt. Express 18, 3784–3792 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Vol. 1 (Academic, 1985), pp. 749–763.
  11. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Vol. 2 (Academic, 1991), pp. 761–776.

2010 (1)

2006 (1)

1999 (1)

1987 (1)

M. Y. Znamenskii and V. A. Martsinovskii, “Study of the dependence of the condensation factors of the films Ge, SiO, ZnS, ZnSe, and PbTe on the temperature of the covered substrate and their effect on the spectral characteristics of narrow-band interference filters,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 46, 70–72 (1987).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

1972 (1)

Bradford, A. P.

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Guo, Y.

J. A. Dobrowolski, Y. Guo, T. Tiwald, P. Ma, and D. Poitras, “Toward perfect antireflection coatings. 3. Experimental results obtained with the use of Reststrahlen materials,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1555–1562 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Dobrowolski, Y. Guo, L. Li, and T. Tiwald, “Implementation of long-wavelength cut-off filters based on critical angle,” in Optical Interference Coatings, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuD2.

Hass, G.

Hilfiker, J.

Li, L.

L. Li and J. A. Dobrowolski, “Optical coatings with an integral FTIR air layer,” Opt. Express 18, 3784–3792 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Dobrowolski, L. Li, and J. Hilfiker, “Long-wavelength cut-off filters of a new type,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4891–4003 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. A. Dobrowolski and L. Li, “Cut-off filters,” U.S. patent 6,271,968 (August 7, 2001).

J. A. Dobrowolski, Y. Guo, L. Li, and T. Tiwald, “Implementation of long-wavelength cut-off filters based on critical angle,” in Optical Interference Coatings, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuD2.

Ma, P.

Martsinovskii, V. A.

M. Y. Znamenskii and V. A. Martsinovskii, “Study of the dependence of the condensation factors of the films Ge, SiO, ZnS, ZnSe, and PbTe on the temperature of the covered substrate and their effect on the spectral characteristics of narrow-band interference filters,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 46, 70–72 (1987).
[Crossref]

McFarland, M.

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Vol. 1 (Academic, 1985), pp. 749–763.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Vol. 2 (Academic, 1991), pp. 761–776.

Poitras, D.

Ritter, E.

Tiwald, T.

J. A. Dobrowolski, Y. Guo, T. Tiwald, P. Ma, and D. Poitras, “Toward perfect antireflection coatings. 3. Experimental results obtained with the use of Reststrahlen materials,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1555–1562 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Dobrowolski, Y. Guo, L. Li, and T. Tiwald, “Implementation of long-wavelength cut-off filters based on critical angle,” in Optical Interference Coatings, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuD2.

Znamenskii, M. Y.

M. Y. Znamenskii and V. A. Martsinovskii, “Study of the dependence of the condensation factors of the films Ge, SiO, ZnS, ZnSe, and PbTe on the temperature of the covered substrate and their effect on the spectral characteristics of narrow-band interference filters,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 46, 70–72 (1987).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

M. Y. Znamenskii and V. A. Martsinovskii, “Study of the dependence of the condensation factors of the films Ge, SiO, ZnS, ZnSe, and PbTe on the temperature of the covered substrate and their effect on the spectral characteristics of narrow-band interference filters,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 46, 70–72 (1987).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (5)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Vol. 1 (Academic, 1985), pp. 749–763.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Vol. 2 (Academic, 1991), pp. 761–776.

J. A. Dobrowolski, Y. Guo, L. Li, and T. Tiwald, “Implementation of long-wavelength cut-off filters based on critical angle,” in Optical Interference Coatings, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuD2.

J. A. Dobrowolski and L. Li, “Cut-off filters,” U.S. patent 6,271,968 (August 7, 2001).

Advanced Materials’ CLEARTRAN. See, for example, http://www.lightmachinery.com/Cleartran.pdf.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Long-wavelength infrared cut-off filter based on 21 layers of MgO and ZnS placed between two Cleartran prisms. (a) Refractive index profile, (b) calculated transmittance for light of average polarization. Also shown is the effect of non-antireflection- (AR-) coated prism surfaces on the transmittance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical constants of the coating materials used in the calculations in this paper. (a) Experimentally determined optical constants of MgO and ZnS, (b) optical constants of Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 taken from Palik’s books [10, 11].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Error corridors resulting from 10% and 10 nm random variations in the thicknesses of all the layers (a), (b) and for 0.1 and 0.01 random variations in the refractive indices of ZnS and MgO, respectively (c), (d).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Angular performance of the design of Fig. 1. (a) Variation of cut-off wavelength with angle of incidence, (b) effect of convergent light.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Surface roughnesses of multilayer coatings. (a) Witness glass without any coatings (RMS roughness 14.8 nm ), (b, c) witness glasses with the coatings deposited during first and second manufacturing attempts had RMS roughnesses of 28.6 and 2.96 nm , respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of (a) the calculated expected and (b) the ellipsometrically measured performances of the first attempt of the manufacture of the IR long-wavelength cut-off filter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The effect on the calculated performance of the multilayer of Fig. 1 of placing thin layers of ZnS, air, and SiO 2 at the center of the 21-layer system. (a) Refractive index profiles, (b), (c), (d) calculated transmittances for light of average polarization for central layers made of ZnS, air, and SiO 2 , respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Long-wavelength infrared cut-off filter based on MgO with thin Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 layers. (a) Refractive index profile of the 67 -layer system, (b) calculated transmittance for light of average polarization. Also shown is the effect of non-AR coated prism surfaces on the transmittance.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of (a) calculated and the measured average transmittances T avge of the second attempt of the manufacture of the IR long-wavelength cut-off filter, and (b) transmittance spectra measured at J. A.Woollam Co. Inc. immediately after the manufacture and 1 year later at the NRC.

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