Abstract

Different HfO2 monolayers under different deposition conditions, such as substrate temperature and oxygen partial pressure, were prepared from metal hafnium using the reactive electron beam evaporation method. X-ray diffraction was applied to determine the crystalline phase of these films, the surface morphology of the samples was examined by atomic force microscopy, and the optical properties were analyzed using a spectrophotometer and the surface thermal lens technique. The relationship between substrate temperature and film characteristic was investigated, and the correlation between the observed film properties and the laser damage threshold was also discussed.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Zhang, P. Fan, C. Wang, X. Cai, G. Liang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Properties of HfO2 thin films prepared by dual-ion-beam reactive sputtering,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41, 820–822 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009

D. Zhang, P. Fan, C. Wang, X. Cai, G. Liang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Properties of HfO2 thin films prepared by dual-ion-beam reactive sputtering,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41, 820–822 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hackley and T. Gougousi, “Properties of atomic layer deposited HfO2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6576–6583 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Wang, R. L. Maier, and H. Schreiber, “Crystal phase transition of HfO2 films evaporated by plasma-ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Opt. Suppl. 47, C189–C192 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Oliver, S. Papernov, A. W. Schmid, and J. C. Lambropoulos, “Optimization of laser-damage resistance of evaporated hafnia films at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71320J (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. Kremmer, H. Wurmbauer, C. Teichert, G. Tallarida, S. Spiga, C. Wiemer, and M. Fanciulli, “Nanoscale morphological and electrical homogeneity of HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films studied by conducting atomic-force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 074315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

R. Thielsch, A. Gatto, J. Heber, and N. Kaiser, “A comparative study of the UV optical and structural properties of SiO2, Al2O3, and HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, ion-assisted deposition and plasma ion-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 410, 86–93 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. Alvisi, F. De Tomasi, M. R. Perrone, M. L. Protopapa, A. Rizzo, F. Sarto, and S. Scaglione, “Laser damage dependence on structural and optical properties of ion-assisted HfO2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 396, 44–52(2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. Scaglione, F. Sarto, M. Alvisi, A. Rizzo, M. R. Perrone, and M. L. Protopapa, “Correlation between the structural and optical properties of ion-assisted hafnia thin films,” Proc. SPIE 3902, 194–203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Thielsch, T. Feigi, N. Kaiser, S. Martin, S. Scaglione, F. Sarto, M. Alvisi, and A. Rizzo, “Comparison of the optical properties and UV radiation resistance of HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, IAD, and PIAD,” Proc. SPIE 3902, 182–193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Alvisi, S. Scaglion, S. Martelli, A. Rizzo, and L. Vasanelli, “Structural and optical modification in hafnium oxide thin films related to the momentum parameter transferred by ion beam assistance,” Thin Solid Films 354, 19–23(1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

C. J. Stolz, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Long, R. Lalazari, Z. Wu, and P.-K. Kuo, “Influence of microstructure on laser damage threshold of IBS coatings,” Proc. SPIE 2714, 351–359(1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

E. J. Hacker, H. Lauth, P. Weisbrodt, and R. Wolf, “Structural influences on the laser damage thresholds of oxide coatings,” Proc. SPIE 1782, 447–458 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1982

1974

J. A. Thornton, “Influence of apparatus geometry and deposition conditions on the structure and topography of thick sputter coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 666–670(1974).
[CrossRef]

Alvisi, M.

M. Alvisi, F. De Tomasi, M. R. Perrone, M. L. Protopapa, A. Rizzo, F. Sarto, and S. Scaglione, “Laser damage dependence on structural and optical properties of ion-assisted HfO2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 396, 44–52(2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Scaglione, F. Sarto, M. Alvisi, A. Rizzo, M. R. Perrone, and M. L. Protopapa, “Correlation between the structural and optical properties of ion-assisted hafnia thin films,” Proc. SPIE 3902, 194–203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Thielsch, T. Feigi, N. Kaiser, S. Martin, S. Scaglione, F. Sarto, M. Alvisi, and A. Rizzo, “Comparison of the optical properties and UV radiation resistance of HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, IAD, and PIAD,” Proc. SPIE 3902, 182–193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Alvisi, S. Scaglion, S. Martelli, A. Rizzo, and L. Vasanelli, “Structural and optical modification in hafnium oxide thin films related to the momentum parameter transferred by ion beam assistance,” Thin Solid Films 354, 19–23(1999).
[CrossRef]

Borgogno, J. P.

Cai, X.

D. Zhang, P. Fan, C. Wang, X. Cai, G. Liang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Properties of HfO2 thin films prepared by dual-ion-beam reactive sputtering,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41, 820–822 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Tomasi, F.

M. Alvisi, F. De Tomasi, M. R. Perrone, M. L. Protopapa, A. Rizzo, F. Sarto, and S. Scaglione, “Laser damage dependence on structural and optical properties of ion-assisted HfO2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 396, 44–52(2001).
[CrossRef]

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Fan, P.

D. Zhang, P. Fan, C. Wang, X. Cai, G. Liang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Properties of HfO2 thin films prepared by dual-ion-beam reactive sputtering,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41, 820–822 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z.

D. Zhang, P. Fan, C. Wang, X. Cai, G. Liang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Properties of HfO2 thin films prepared by dual-ion-beam reactive sputtering,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41, 820–822 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fanciulli, M.

S. Kremmer, H. Wurmbauer, C. Teichert, G. Tallarida, S. Spiga, C. Wiemer, and M. Fanciulli, “Nanoscale morphological and electrical homogeneity of HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films studied by conducting atomic-force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 074315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feigi, T.

R. Thielsch, T. Feigi, N. Kaiser, S. Martin, S. Scaglione, F. Sarto, M. Alvisi, and A. Rizzo, “Comparison of the optical properties and UV radiation resistance of HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, IAD, and PIAD,” Proc. SPIE 3902, 182–193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gallais, L.

Gatto, A.

R. Thielsch, A. Gatto, J. Heber, and N. Kaiser, “A comparative study of the UV optical and structural properties of SiO2, Al2O3, and HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, ion-assisted deposition and plasma ion-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 410, 86–93 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Genin, F. Y.

C. J. Stolz, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Long, R. Lalazari, Z. Wu, and P.-K. Kuo, “Influence of microstructure on laser damage threshold of IBS coatings,” Proc. SPIE 2714, 351–359(1996).
[CrossRef]

Gougousi, T.

J. C. Hackley and T. Gougousi, “Properties of atomic layer deposited HfO2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6576–6583 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hacker, E. J.

E. J. Hacker, H. Lauth, P. Weisbrodt, and R. Wolf, “Structural influences on the laser damage thresholds of oxide coatings,” Proc. SPIE 1782, 447–458 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hackley, J. C.

J. C. Hackley and T. Gougousi, “Properties of atomic layer deposited HfO2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6576–6583 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heber, J.

R. Thielsch, A. Gatto, J. Heber, and N. Kaiser, “A comparative study of the UV optical and structural properties of SiO2, Al2O3, and HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, ion-assisted deposition and plasma ion-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 410, 86–93 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

R. Thielsch, A. Gatto, J. Heber, and N. Kaiser, “A comparative study of the UV optical and structural properties of SiO2, Al2O3, and HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, ion-assisted deposition and plasma ion-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 410, 86–93 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Thielsch, T. Feigi, N. Kaiser, S. Martin, S. Scaglione, F. Sarto, M. Alvisi, and A. Rizzo, “Comparison of the optical properties and UV radiation resistance of HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, IAD, and PIAD,” Proc. SPIE 3902, 182–193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kozlowski, M. R.

C. J. Stolz, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Long, R. Lalazari, Z. Wu, and P.-K. Kuo, “Influence of microstructure on laser damage threshold of IBS coatings,” Proc. SPIE 2714, 351–359(1996).
[CrossRef]

Kremmer, S.

S. Kremmer, H. Wurmbauer, C. Teichert, G. Tallarida, S. Spiga, C. Wiemer, and M. Fanciulli, “Nanoscale morphological and electrical homogeneity of HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films studied by conducting atomic-force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 074315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, P.-K.

C. J. Stolz, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Long, R. Lalazari, Z. Wu, and P.-K. Kuo, “Influence of microstructure on laser damage threshold of IBS coatings,” Proc. SPIE 2714, 351–359(1996).
[CrossRef]

Lalazari, R.

C. J. Stolz, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Long, R. Lalazari, Z. Wu, and P.-K. Kuo, “Influence of microstructure on laser damage threshold of IBS coatings,” Proc. SPIE 2714, 351–359(1996).
[CrossRef]

Lambropoulos, J. C.

J. B. Oliver, S. Papernov, A. W. Schmid, and J. C. Lambropoulos, “Optimization of laser-damage resistance of evaporated hafnia films at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71320J (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lauth, H.

E. J. Hacker, H. Lauth, P. Weisbrodt, and R. Wolf, “Structural influences on the laser damage thresholds of oxide coatings,” Proc. SPIE 1782, 447–458 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lazarides, B.

Liang, G.

D. Zhang, P. Fan, C. Wang, X. Cai, G. Liang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Properties of HfO2 thin films prepared by dual-ion-beam reactive sputtering,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41, 820–822 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Long, D.

C. J. Stolz, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Long, R. Lalazari, Z. Wu, and P.-K. Kuo, “Influence of microstructure on laser damage threshold of IBS coatings,” Proc. SPIE 2714, 351–359(1996).
[CrossRef]

Maier, R. L.

J. Wang, R. L. Maier, and H. Schreiber, “Crystal phase transition of HfO2 films evaporated by plasma-ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Opt. Suppl. 47, C189–C192 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martelli, S.

M. Alvisi, S. Scaglion, S. Martelli, A. Rizzo, and L. Vasanelli, “Structural and optical modification in hafnium oxide thin films related to the momentum parameter transferred by ion beam assistance,” Thin Solid Films 354, 19–23(1999).
[CrossRef]

Martin, S.

R. Thielsch, T. Feigi, N. Kaiser, S. Martin, S. Scaglione, F. Sarto, M. Alvisi, and A. Rizzo, “Comparison of the optical properties and UV radiation resistance of HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, IAD, and PIAD,” Proc. SPIE 3902, 182–193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Natoli, J. Y.

Oliver, J. B.

J. B. Oliver, S. Papernov, A. W. Schmid, and J. C. Lambropoulos, “Optimization of laser-damage resistance of evaporated hafnia films at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71320J (2008).
[CrossRef]

Papernov, S.

J. B. Oliver, S. Papernov, A. W. Schmid, and J. C. Lambropoulos, “Optimization of laser-damage resistance of evaporated hafnia films at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71320J (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pelletier, E.

Perrone, M. R.

M. Alvisi, F. De Tomasi, M. R. Perrone, M. L. Protopapa, A. Rizzo, F. Sarto, and S. Scaglione, “Laser damage dependence on structural and optical properties of ion-assisted HfO2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 396, 44–52(2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Scaglione, F. Sarto, M. Alvisi, A. Rizzo, M. R. Perrone, and M. L. Protopapa, “Correlation between the structural and optical properties of ion-assisted hafnia thin films,” Proc. SPIE 3902, 194–203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Protopapa, M. L.

M. Alvisi, F. De Tomasi, M. R. Perrone, M. L. Protopapa, A. Rizzo, F. Sarto, and S. Scaglione, “Laser damage dependence on structural and optical properties of ion-assisted HfO2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 396, 44–52(2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Scaglione, F. Sarto, M. Alvisi, A. Rizzo, M. R. Perrone, and M. L. Protopapa, “Correlation between the structural and optical properties of ion-assisted hafnia thin films,” Proc. SPIE 3902, 194–203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rizzo, A.

M. Alvisi, F. De Tomasi, M. R. Perrone, M. L. Protopapa, A. Rizzo, F. Sarto, and S. Scaglione, “Laser damage dependence on structural and optical properties of ion-assisted HfO2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 396, 44–52(2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Scaglione, F. Sarto, M. Alvisi, A. Rizzo, M. R. Perrone, and M. L. Protopapa, “Correlation between the structural and optical properties of ion-assisted hafnia thin films,” Proc. SPIE 3902, 194–203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Thielsch, T. Feigi, N. Kaiser, S. Martin, S. Scaglione, F. Sarto, M. Alvisi, and A. Rizzo, “Comparison of the optical properties and UV radiation resistance of HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, IAD, and PIAD,” Proc. SPIE 3902, 182–193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Alvisi, S. Scaglion, S. Martelli, A. Rizzo, and L. Vasanelli, “Structural and optical modification in hafnium oxide thin films related to the momentum parameter transferred by ion beam assistance,” Thin Solid Films 354, 19–23(1999).
[CrossRef]

Sarto, F.

M. Alvisi, F. De Tomasi, M. R. Perrone, M. L. Protopapa, A. Rizzo, F. Sarto, and S. Scaglione, “Laser damage dependence on structural and optical properties of ion-assisted HfO2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 396, 44–52(2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Scaglione, F. Sarto, M. Alvisi, A. Rizzo, M. R. Perrone, and M. L. Protopapa, “Correlation between the structural and optical properties of ion-assisted hafnia thin films,” Proc. SPIE 3902, 194–203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Thielsch, T. Feigi, N. Kaiser, S. Martin, S. Scaglione, F. Sarto, M. Alvisi, and A. Rizzo, “Comparison of the optical properties and UV radiation resistance of HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, IAD, and PIAD,” Proc. SPIE 3902, 182–193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scaglion, S.

M. Alvisi, S. Scaglion, S. Martelli, A. Rizzo, and L. Vasanelli, “Structural and optical modification in hafnium oxide thin films related to the momentum parameter transferred by ion beam assistance,” Thin Solid Films 354, 19–23(1999).
[CrossRef]

Scaglione, S.

M. Alvisi, F. De Tomasi, M. R. Perrone, M. L. Protopapa, A. Rizzo, F. Sarto, and S. Scaglione, “Laser damage dependence on structural and optical properties of ion-assisted HfO2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 396, 44–52(2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Scaglione, F. Sarto, M. Alvisi, A. Rizzo, M. R. Perrone, and M. L. Protopapa, “Correlation between the structural and optical properties of ion-assisted hafnia thin films,” Proc. SPIE 3902, 194–203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Thielsch, T. Feigi, N. Kaiser, S. Martin, S. Scaglione, F. Sarto, M. Alvisi, and A. Rizzo, “Comparison of the optical properties and UV radiation resistance of HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, IAD, and PIAD,” Proc. SPIE 3902, 182–193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, A. W.

J. B. Oliver, S. Papernov, A. W. Schmid, and J. C. Lambropoulos, “Optimization of laser-damage resistance of evaporated hafnia films at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71320J (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, H.

J. Wang, R. L. Maier, and H. Schreiber, “Crystal phase transition of HfO2 films evaporated by plasma-ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Opt. Suppl. 47, C189–C192 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shao, J.

D. Zhang, P. Fan, C. Wang, X. Cai, G. Liang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Properties of HfO2 thin films prepared by dual-ion-beam reactive sputtering,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41, 820–822 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spiga, S.

S. Kremmer, H. Wurmbauer, C. Teichert, G. Tallarida, S. Spiga, C. Wiemer, and M. Fanciulli, “Nanoscale morphological and electrical homogeneity of HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films studied by conducting atomic-force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 074315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stolz, C. J.

C. J. Stolz, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Long, R. Lalazari, Z. Wu, and P.-K. Kuo, “Influence of microstructure on laser damage threshold of IBS coatings,” Proc. SPIE 2714, 351–359(1996).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, B. T.

Tallarida, G.

S. Kremmer, H. Wurmbauer, C. Teichert, G. Tallarida, S. Spiga, C. Wiemer, and M. Fanciulli, “Nanoscale morphological and electrical homogeneity of HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films studied by conducting atomic-force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 074315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Teichert, C.

S. Kremmer, H. Wurmbauer, C. Teichert, G. Tallarida, S. Spiga, C. Wiemer, and M. Fanciulli, “Nanoscale morphological and electrical homogeneity of HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films studied by conducting atomic-force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 074315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thielsch, R.

R. Thielsch, A. Gatto, J. Heber, and N. Kaiser, “A comparative study of the UV optical and structural properties of SiO2, Al2O3, and HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, ion-assisted deposition and plasma ion-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 410, 86–93 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Thielsch, T. Feigi, N. Kaiser, S. Martin, S. Scaglione, F. Sarto, M. Alvisi, and A. Rizzo, “Comparison of the optical properties and UV radiation resistance of HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, IAD, and PIAD,” Proc. SPIE 3902, 182–193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thornton, J. A.

J. A. Thornton, “Influence of apparatus geometry and deposition conditions on the structure and topography of thick sputter coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 666–670(1974).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonravov, A. V.

Trubetskov, M. K.

Vasanelli, L.

M. Alvisi, S. Scaglion, S. Martelli, A. Rizzo, and L. Vasanelli, “Structural and optical modification in hafnium oxide thin films related to the momentum parameter transferred by ion beam assistance,” Thin Solid Films 354, 19–23(1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

D. Zhang, P. Fan, C. Wang, X. Cai, G. Liang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Properties of HfO2 thin films prepared by dual-ion-beam reactive sputtering,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41, 820–822 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, R. L. Maier, and H. Schreiber, “Crystal phase transition of HfO2 films evaporated by plasma-ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Opt. Suppl. 47, C189–C192 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weisbrodt, P.

E. J. Hacker, H. Lauth, P. Weisbrodt, and R. Wolf, “Structural influences on the laser damage thresholds of oxide coatings,” Proc. SPIE 1782, 447–458 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wiemer, C.

S. Kremmer, H. Wurmbauer, C. Teichert, G. Tallarida, S. Spiga, C. Wiemer, and M. Fanciulli, “Nanoscale morphological and electrical homogeneity of HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films studied by conducting atomic-force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 074315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, R.

E. J. Hacker, H. Lauth, P. Weisbrodt, and R. Wolf, “Structural influences on the laser damage thresholds of oxide coatings,” Proc. SPIE 1782, 447–458 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

C. J. Stolz, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Long, R. Lalazari, Z. Wu, and P.-K. Kuo, “Influence of microstructure on laser damage threshold of IBS coatings,” Proc. SPIE 2714, 351–359(1996).
[CrossRef]

Wurmbauer, H.

S. Kremmer, H. Wurmbauer, C. Teichert, G. Tallarida, S. Spiga, C. Wiemer, and M. Fanciulli, “Nanoscale morphological and electrical homogeneity of HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films studied by conducting atomic-force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 074315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

D. Zhang, P. Fan, C. Wang, X. Cai, G. Liang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Properties of HfO2 thin films prepared by dual-ion-beam reactive sputtering,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41, 820–822 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Opt. Suppl.

J. Wang, R. L. Maier, and H. Schreiber, “Crystal phase transition of HfO2 films evaporated by plasma-ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Opt. Suppl. 47, C189–C192 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

XRD spectra of all the samples; the diffraction plans are indicated by a dotted line. (a) Under substrate temperature 373 K : A1, A2, A3; (b) under substrate temperature 423 K : B1, B2, B3; (c) under substrate temperature 473 K : C1, C2, C3; (d) under substrate temperature 523 K : D1, D2, D3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of refractive index of these samples with the same oxygen pressure but under different substrate temperatures: (a) samples A1, B1, C1, and D1; (b) samples A2, B2, C2, and D2; (c) samples A3, B3, and C3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AFM measurements of two different structure samples; scanning range is 10 μm × 10 μm . (a) Sample A2, amorphous structure, (b) sample C2, crystalline structure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorption of samples using the STL technique.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Laser-damaged threshold of samples A1, A3, and D3 and substrate BK7 at 1064 nm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Beam spatial profiles of the laser used in the test.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 RMS of Samples with Different Technological Parameters (nm)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Uncertainty Analysis of the Test Setting

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