Abstract

We fabricated an orderly inclined Al2O3 column array using a hollow microsphere template. The microstructure and optical properties were investigated with scanning electron micrography and a UV/VIS spectrometer, respectively. Microsphere shell templates were formed using atomic layer deposition to prevent the melting of polystyrene microspheres during the following high-temperature deposition process. An inclined Al2O3 column array with a 30° tilt angle was grown by oblique deposition on a substrate with a 75.5° tilt angle with respect to the substrate normal. Birefringence and photonic crystalline behavior can be observed in the orderly inclined column array. The difference in the refractive indices between the p and s polarizations of the orderly inclined Al2O3 column array was about 0.1. The photonic properties of the crystal were enhanced compared to those of substrates without patterns.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2009 (2)

Y.-J. Liu, Z.-Y. Zhang, Q. Zhao, R. A. Dluhy, and Y. P. Zhao, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering from an Ag nanorod array substrate: the site dependent enhancement and layer absorbance effect,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9664–9669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Hou, S. Z. Tseng, C. H. Chan, T. J. Chen, H. T. Chien, F. L. Hsiao, H. K. Chiu, C. C. Lee, Y. L. Tsai, and C. C. Chen, “Output power enhancement of light-emitting diodes via two-dimensional hole arrays generated by a monolayer of microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

J. J. Steele, M. T. Taschuk, and M. J. Brett, “Nanostructured metal oxide thin films for humidity sensors,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1422–1429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Taschuk, J. B. Sorge, J. J. Steele, and M. J. Brett, “Ion-beam assisted glancing angle deposition for relative humidity sensors,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1521–1522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Jen, Y.-H. Chen, C.-W. Yu, and Y.-P. Li, “Near-perfect modulator for polarization state of light,” J. Nanophoton. 2, 029504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, T. P. Lin, M. Y. Ke, Y. W. Cheng, Y. C. Yu, C. P. Chen, D. M. Yeh, C. F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 29, 658–660 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Qian, J. Li, D. Wasserman, and W. D. Goodhue, “Uniform InGaAs quantum dot arrays fabricated using nanosphere lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 231907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

S. Wang, D. F. P. Pile, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Nanopin plasmonic resonator array and its optical properties,” Nano Lett. 7, 1076–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photon. 1, 176–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Wang, C. C. Kei, Y. W. Yu, and T. P. Perng, “Organic nanowire-templated fabrication of alumina nanotubes by atomic layer deposition,” Nano Lett. 7, 1566–1569 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Huang, C. P. Yu, H. C. Chang, K. P. Chiu, H. M. Chen, R. S. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “Plasmonic optical properties of a single gold nano-rod,” Opt. Express 15, 473–479 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with complete a photonic bandgap in chalcogenide glasses,” Adv. Mater. 18, 265–269 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Kei, K. H. Kuo, C. Y. Su, C. T. Lee, C. N. Hsiao, and T. P. Perng, “Metal oxide nano-honeycombs prepared by solution-based nanosphere lithography and the field emission properties,” Chem. Mater. 18, 4544–4546 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Graugnard, D. P. Gaillot, S. N. Dunham, C. W. Neff, T. Yamashita, and C. J. Summers, “Photonic band tuning in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. O. Jensen and M. J. Brett, “Periodically structured glancing angle deposition thin films,” IEEE Trans. Nanotech. 4, 269–277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. C. van Popta, M. M. Hawkeye, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Gradient-index narrow-bandpass filter fabricated with glancing-angle deposition,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2545–2547 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, M. Arnold, L. D. Silva, and R. Blaikie, “Bideposited thin-film retardation plates for use at deep UV wavelengths,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 4, 106–107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y.-P. Zhao, D.-X. Ye, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, “Designing nanostructures by glancing angle deposition,” Proc. SPIE 5219, 59–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

W. C. Liu and D. P. Tsai, “Optical tunneling effect of surface plasmon polaritons and localized surface plasmon resonance,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 155423 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. Vick, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, M. J. Brett, M. Seto, and T. Smy, “Self-shadowing and surface diffusion effects in obliquely deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 339, 88–94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1959 (1)

N. O. Young and J. Kowal, “Optically active fluorite films,” Nature 183, 104–105 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Aoyagi, T.

Arnold, M.

I. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, M. Arnold, L. D. Silva, and R. Blaikie, “Bideposited thin-film retardation plates for use at deep UV wavelengths,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 4, 106–107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blaikie, R.

I. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, M. Arnold, L. D. Silva, and R. Blaikie, “Bideposited thin-film retardation plates for use at deep UV wavelengths,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 4, 106–107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brett, M. J.

J. J. Steele, M. T. Taschuk, and M. J. Brett, “Nanostructured metal oxide thin films for humidity sensors,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1422–1429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Taschuk, J. B. Sorge, J. J. Steele, and M. J. Brett, “Ion-beam assisted glancing angle deposition for relative humidity sensors,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1521–1522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Jensen and M. J. Brett, “Periodically structured glancing angle deposition thin films,” IEEE Trans. Nanotech. 4, 269–277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. C. van Popta, M. M. Hawkeye, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Gradient-index narrow-bandpass filter fabricated with glancing-angle deposition,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2545–2547 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Vick, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, M. J. Brett, M. Seto, and T. Smy, “Self-shadowing and surface diffusion effects in obliquely deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 339, 88–94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. H.

C. H. Hou, S. Z. Tseng, C. H. Chan, T. J. Chen, H. T. Chien, F. L. Hsiao, H. K. Chiu, C. C. Lee, Y. L. Tsai, and C. C. Chen, “Output power enhancement of light-emitting diodes via two-dimensional hole arrays generated by a monolayer of microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H. C.

Chen, C. C.

C. H. Hou, S. Z. Tseng, C. H. Chan, T. J. Chen, H. T. Chien, F. L. Hsiao, H. K. Chiu, C. C. Lee, Y. L. Tsai, and C. C. Chen, “Output power enhancement of light-emitting diodes via two-dimensional hole arrays generated by a monolayer of microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. P.

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, T. P. Lin, M. Y. Ke, Y. W. Cheng, Y. C. Yu, C. P. Chen, D. M. Yeh, C. F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 29, 658–660 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. M.

Chen, L. Y.

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, T. P. Lin, M. Y. Ke, Y. W. Cheng, Y. C. Yu, C. P. Chen, D. M. Yeh, C. F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 29, 658–660 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photon. 1, 176–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. J.

C. H. Hou, S. Z. Tseng, C. H. Chan, T. J. Chen, H. T. Chien, F. L. Hsiao, H. K. Chiu, C. C. Lee, Y. L. Tsai, and C. C. Chen, “Output power enhancement of light-emitting diodes via two-dimensional hole arrays generated by a monolayer of microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-H.

Y.-J. Jen, Y.-H. Chen, C.-W. Yu, and Y.-P. Li, “Near-perfect modulator for polarization state of light,” J. Nanophoton. 2, 029504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. W.

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, T. P. Lin, M. Y. Ke, Y. W. Cheng, Y. C. Yu, C. P. Chen, D. M. Yeh, C. F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 29, 658–660 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chhajed, S.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chien, H. T.

C. H. Hou, S. Z. Tseng, C. H. Chan, T. J. Chen, H. T. Chien, F. L. Hsiao, H. K. Chiu, C. C. Lee, Y. L. Tsai, and C. C. Chen, “Output power enhancement of light-emitting diodes via two-dimensional hole arrays generated by a monolayer of microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, H. K.

C. H. Hou, S. Z. Tseng, C. H. Chan, T. J. Chen, H. T. Chien, F. L. Hsiao, H. K. Chiu, C. C. Lee, Y. L. Tsai, and C. C. Chen, “Output power enhancement of light-emitting diodes via two-dimensional hole arrays generated by a monolayer of microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, K. P.

Deubel, M.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with complete a photonic bandgap in chalcogenide glasses,” Adv. Mater. 18, 265–269 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dew, S. K.

D. Vick, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, M. J. Brett, M. Seto, and T. Smy, “Self-shadowing and surface diffusion effects in obliquely deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 339, 88–94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dluhy, R. A.

Y.-J. Liu, Z.-Y. Zhang, Q. Zhao, R. A. Dluhy, and Y. P. Zhao, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering from an Ag nanorod array substrate: the site dependent enhancement and layer absorbance effect,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9664–9669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dunham, S. N.

E. Graugnard, D. P. Gaillot, S. N. Dunham, C. W. Neff, T. Yamashita, and C. J. Summers, “Photonic band tuning in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Friedrich, L. J.

D. Vick, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, M. J. Brett, M. Seto, and T. Smy, “Self-shadowing and surface diffusion effects in obliquely deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 339, 88–94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gaillot, D. P.

E. Graugnard, D. P. Gaillot, S. N. Dunham, C. W. Neff, T. Yamashita, and C. J. Summers, “Photonic band tuning in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goodhue, W. D.

X. Qian, J. Li, D. Wasserman, and W. D. Goodhue, “Uniform InGaAs quantum dot arrays fabricated using nanosphere lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 231907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Graugnard, E.

E. Graugnard, D. P. Gaillot, S. N. Dunham, C. W. Neff, T. Yamashita, and C. J. Summers, “Photonic band tuning in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hawkeye, M. M.

Hodgkinson, I.

I. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, M. Arnold, L. D. Silva, and R. Blaikie, “Bideposited thin-film retardation plates for use at deep UV wavelengths,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 4, 106–107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hou, C. H.

C. H. Hou, S. Z. Tseng, C. H. Chan, T. J. Chen, H. T. Chien, F. L. Hsiao, H. K. Chiu, C. C. Lee, Y. L. Tsai, and C. C. Chen, “Output power enhancement of light-emitting diodes via two-dimensional hole arrays generated by a monolayer of microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, C. N.

C. C. Kei, K. H. Kuo, C. Y. Su, C. T. Lee, C. N. Hsiao, and T. P. Perng, “Metal oxide nano-honeycombs prepared by solution-based nanosphere lithography and the field emission properties,” Chem. Mater. 18, 4544–4546 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, F. L.

C. H. Hou, S. Z. Tseng, C. H. Chan, T. J. Chen, H. T. Chien, F. L. Hsiao, H. K. Chiu, C. C. Lee, Y. L. Tsai, and C. C. Chen, “Output power enhancement of light-emitting diodes via two-dimensional hole arrays generated by a monolayer of microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, M. Y.

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, T. P. Lin, M. Y. Ke, Y. W. Cheng, Y. C. Yu, C. P. Chen, D. M. Yeh, C. F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 29, 658–660 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. F.

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, T. P. Lin, M. Y. Ke, Y. W. Cheng, Y. C. Yu, C. P. Chen, D. M. Yeh, C. F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 29, 658–660 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. J.

Huang, J. J.

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, T. P. Lin, M. Y. Ke, Y. W. Cheng, Y. C. Yu, C. P. Chen, D. M. Yeh, C. F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 29, 658–660 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jen, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Jen, Y.-H. Chen, C.-W. Yu, and Y.-P. Li, “Near-perfect modulator for polarization state of light,” J. Nanophoton. 2, 029504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, M. O.

M. O. Jensen and M. J. Brett, “Periodically structured glancing angle deposition thin films,” IEEE Trans. Nanotech. 4, 269–277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with complete a photonic bandgap in chalcogenide glasses,” Adv. Mater. 18, 265–269 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ke, M. Y.

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, T. P. Lin, M. Y. Ke, Y. W. Cheng, Y. C. Yu, C. P. Chen, D. M. Yeh, C. F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 29, 658–660 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kei, C. C.

C. C. Wang, C. C. Kei, Y. W. Yu, and T. P. Perng, “Organic nanowire-templated fabrication of alumina nanotubes by atomic layer deposition,” Nano Lett. 7, 1566–1569 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Kei, K. H. Kuo, C. Y. Su, C. T. Lee, C. N. Hsiao, and T. P. Perng, “Metal oxide nano-honeycombs prepared by solution-based nanosphere lithography and the field emission properties,” Chem. Mater. 18, 4544–4546 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photon. 1, 176–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kowal, J.

N. O. Young and J. Kowal, “Optically active fluorite films,” Nature 183, 104–105 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, K. H.

C. C. Kei, K. H. Kuo, C. Y. Su, C. T. Lee, C. N. Hsiao, and T. P. Perng, “Metal oxide nano-honeycombs prepared by solution-based nanosphere lithography and the field emission properties,” Chem. Mater. 18, 4544–4546 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. C.

C. H. Hou, S. Z. Tseng, C. H. Chan, T. J. Chen, H. T. Chien, F. L. Hsiao, H. K. Chiu, C. C. Lee, Y. L. Tsai, and C. C. Chen, “Output power enhancement of light-emitting diodes via two-dimensional hole arrays generated by a monolayer of microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. T.

C. C. Kei, K. H. Kuo, C. Y. Su, C. T. Lee, C. N. Hsiao, and T. P. Perng, “Metal oxide nano-honeycombs prepared by solution-based nanosphere lithography and the field emission properties,” Chem. Mater. 18, 4544–4546 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

X. Qian, J. Li, D. Wasserman, and W. D. Goodhue, “Uniform InGaAs quantum dot arrays fabricated using nanosphere lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 231907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.-P.

Y.-J. Jen, Y.-H. Chen, C.-W. Yu, and Y.-P. Li, “Near-perfect modulator for polarization state of light,” J. Nanophoton. 2, 029504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. Y.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photon. 1, 176–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T. P.

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, T. P. Lin, M. Y. Ke, Y. W. Cheng, Y. C. Yu, C. P. Chen, D. M. Yeh, C. F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 29, 658–660 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R. S.

Liu, W.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photon. 1, 176–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. C.

W. C. Liu and D. P. Tsai, “Optical tunneling effect of surface plasmon polaritons and localized surface plasmon resonance,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 155423 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Liu, Z.-Y. Zhang, Q. Zhao, R. A. Dluhy, and Y. P. Zhao, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering from an Ag nanorod array substrate: the site dependent enhancement and layer absorbance effect,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9664–9669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C. F.

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, T. P. Lin, M. Y. Ke, Y. W. Cheng, Y. C. Yu, C. P. Chen, D. M. Yeh, C. F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 29, 658–660 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T.-M.

Y.-P. Zhao, D.-X. Ye, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, “Designing nanostructures by glancing angle deposition,” Proc. SPIE 5219, 59–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Neff, C. W.

E. Graugnard, D. P. Gaillot, S. N. Dunham, C. W. Neff, T. Yamashita, and C. J. Summers, “Photonic band tuning in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ozin, G. A.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with complete a photonic bandgap in chalcogenide glasses,” Adv. Mater. 18, 265–269 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perez-Willard, F.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with complete a photonic bandgap in chalcogenide glasses,” Adv. Mater. 18, 265–269 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perng, T. P.

C. C. Wang, C. C. Kei, Y. W. Yu, and T. P. Perng, “Organic nanowire-templated fabrication of alumina nanotubes by atomic layer deposition,” Nano Lett. 7, 1566–1569 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Kei, K. H. Kuo, C. Y. Su, C. T. Lee, C. N. Hsiao, and T. P. Perng, “Metal oxide nano-honeycombs prepared by solution-based nanosphere lithography and the field emission properties,” Chem. Mater. 18, 4544–4546 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pile, D. F. P.

S. Wang, D. F. P. Pile, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Nanopin plasmonic resonator array and its optical properties,” Nano Lett. 7, 1076–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, X.

X. Qian, J. Li, D. Wasserman, and W. D. Goodhue, “Uniform InGaAs quantum dot arrays fabricated using nanosphere lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 231907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photon. 1, 176–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photon. 1, 176–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seto, M.

D. Vick, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, M. J. Brett, M. Seto, and T. Smy, “Self-shadowing and surface diffusion effects in obliquely deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 339, 88–94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shiraishi, K.

Silva, L. D.

I. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, M. Arnold, L. D. Silva, and R. Blaikie, “Bideposited thin-film retardation plates for use at deep UV wavelengths,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 4, 106–107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sit, J. C.

Smart, J. A.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photon. 1, 176–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smy, T.

D. Vick, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, M. J. Brett, M. Seto, and T. Smy, “Self-shadowing and surface diffusion effects in obliquely deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 339, 88–94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sorge, J. B.

M. T. Taschuk, J. B. Sorge, J. J. Steele, and M. J. Brett, “Ion-beam assisted glancing angle deposition for relative humidity sensors,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1521–1522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Steele, J. J.

M. T. Taschuk, J. B. Sorge, J. J. Steele, and M. J. Brett, “Ion-beam assisted glancing angle deposition for relative humidity sensors,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1521–1522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Steele, M. T. Taschuk, and M. J. Brett, “Nanostructured metal oxide thin films for humidity sensors,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1422–1429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Su, C. Y.

C. C. Kei, K. H. Kuo, C. Y. Su, C. T. Lee, C. N. Hsiao, and T. P. Perng, “Metal oxide nano-honeycombs prepared by solution-based nanosphere lithography and the field emission properties,” Chem. Mater. 18, 4544–4546 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Summers, C. J.

E. Graugnard, D. P. Gaillot, S. N. Dunham, C. W. Neff, T. Yamashita, and C. J. Summers, “Photonic band tuning in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

S. Wang, D. F. P. Pile, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Nanopin plasmonic resonator array and its optical properties,” Nano Lett. 7, 1076–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taschuk, M. T.

M. T. Taschuk, J. B. Sorge, J. J. Steele, and M. J. Brett, “Ion-beam assisted glancing angle deposition for relative humidity sensors,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1521–1522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Steele, M. T. Taschuk, and M. J. Brett, “Nanostructured metal oxide thin films for humidity sensors,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1422–1429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, D. P.

H. J. Huang, C. P. Yu, H. C. Chang, K. P. Chiu, H. M. Chen, R. S. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “Plasmonic optical properties of a single gold nano-rod,” Opt. Express 15, 473–479 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. Liu and D. P. Tsai, “Optical tunneling effect of surface plasmon polaritons and localized surface plasmon resonance,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 155423 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, Y. L.

C. H. Hou, S. Z. Tseng, C. H. Chan, T. J. Chen, H. T. Chien, F. L. Hsiao, H. K. Chiu, C. C. Lee, Y. L. Tsai, and C. C. Chen, “Output power enhancement of light-emitting diodes via two-dimensional hole arrays generated by a monolayer of microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, S. Z.

C. H. Hou, S. Z. Tseng, C. H. Chan, T. J. Chen, H. T. Chien, F. L. Hsiao, H. K. Chiu, C. C. Lee, Y. L. Tsai, and C. C. Chen, “Output power enhancement of light-emitting diodes via two-dimensional hole arrays generated by a monolayer of microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van Popta, A. C.

Vick, D.

D. Vick, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, M. J. Brett, M. Seto, and T. Smy, “Self-shadowing and surface diffusion effects in obliquely deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 339, 88–94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

von Freymann, G.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with complete a photonic bandgap in chalcogenide glasses,” Adv. Mater. 18, 265–269 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. C.

C. C. Wang, C. C. Kei, Y. W. Yu, and T. P. Perng, “Organic nanowire-templated fabrication of alumina nanotubes by atomic layer deposition,” Nano Lett. 7, 1566–1569 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C. Y.

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, T. P. Lin, M. Y. Ke, Y. W. Cheng, Y. C. Yu, C. P. Chen, D. M. Yeh, C. F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 29, 658–660 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.-C.

Y.-P. Zhao, D.-X. Ye, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, “Designing nanostructures by glancing angle deposition,” Proc. SPIE 5219, 59–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, D. F. P. Pile, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Nanopin plasmonic resonator array and its optical properties,” Nano Lett. 7, 1076–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wasserman, D.

X. Qian, J. Li, D. Wasserman, and W. D. Goodhue, “Uniform InGaAs quantum dot arrays fabricated using nanosphere lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 231907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with complete a photonic bandgap in chalcogenide glasses,” Adv. Mater. 18, 265–269 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, S.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with complete a photonic bandgap in chalcogenide glasses,” Adv. Mater. 18, 265–269 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q. H.

I. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, M. Arnold, L. D. Silva, and R. Blaikie, “Bideposited thin-film retardation plates for use at deep UV wavelengths,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 4, 106–107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J. Q.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photon. 1, 176–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, T.

E. Graugnard, D. P. Gaillot, S. N. Dunham, C. W. Neff, T. Yamashita, and C. J. Summers, “Photonic band tuning in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, T. P. Lin, M. Y. Ke, Y. W. Cheng, Y. C. Yu, C. P. Chen, D. M. Yeh, C. F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 29, 658–660 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ye, D.-X.

Y.-P. Zhao, D.-X. Ye, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, “Designing nanostructures by glancing angle deposition,” Proc. SPIE 5219, 59–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, D. M.

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, T. P. Lin, M. Y. Ke, Y. W. Cheng, Y. C. Yu, C. P. Chen, D. M. Yeh, C. F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 29, 658–660 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Young, N. O.

N. O. Young and J. Kowal, “Optically active fluorite films,” Nature 183, 104–105 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. P.

Yu, C.-W.

Y.-J. Jen, Y.-H. Chen, C.-W. Yu, and Y.-P. Li, “Near-perfect modulator for polarization state of light,” J. Nanophoton. 2, 029504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y. C.

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, T. P. Lin, M. Y. Ke, Y. W. Cheng, Y. C. Yu, C. P. Chen, D. M. Yeh, C. F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 29, 658–660 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y. W.

C. C. Wang, C. C. Kei, Y. W. Yu, and T. P. Perng, “Organic nanowire-templated fabrication of alumina nanotubes by atomic layer deposition,” Nano Lett. 7, 1566–1569 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

S. Wang, D. F. P. Pile, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Nanopin plasmonic resonator array and its optical properties,” Nano Lett. 7, 1076–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.-Y.

Y.-J. Liu, Z.-Y. Zhang, Q. Zhao, R. A. Dluhy, and Y. P. Zhao, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering from an Ag nanorod array substrate: the site dependent enhancement and layer absorbance effect,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9664–9669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Q.

Y.-J. Liu, Z.-Y. Zhang, Q. Zhao, R. A. Dluhy, and Y. P. Zhao, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering from an Ag nanorod array substrate: the site dependent enhancement and layer absorbance effect,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9664–9669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. P.

Y.-J. Liu, Z.-Y. Zhang, Q. Zhao, R. A. Dluhy, and Y. P. Zhao, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering from an Ag nanorod array substrate: the site dependent enhancement and layer absorbance effect,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9664–9669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.-P.

Y.-P. Zhao, D.-X. Ye, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, “Designing nanostructures by glancing angle deposition,” Proc. SPIE 5219, 59–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with complete a photonic bandgap in chalcogenide glasses,” Adv. Mater. 18, 265–269 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

X. Qian, J. Li, D. Wasserman, and W. D. Goodhue, “Uniform InGaAs quantum dot arrays fabricated using nanosphere lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 231907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Graugnard, D. P. Gaillot, S. N. Dunham, C. W. Neff, T. Yamashita, and C. J. Summers, “Photonic band tuning in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Hou, S. Z. Tseng, C. H. Chan, T. J. Chen, H. T. Chien, F. L. Hsiao, H. K. Chiu, C. C. Lee, Y. L. Tsai, and C. C. Chen, “Output power enhancement of light-emitting diodes via two-dimensional hole arrays generated by a monolayer of microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

C. C. Kei, K. H. Kuo, C. Y. Su, C. T. Lee, C. N. Hsiao, and T. P. Perng, “Metal oxide nano-honeycombs prepared by solution-based nanosphere lithography and the field emission properties,” Chem. Mater. 18, 4544–4546 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

I. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, M. Arnold, L. D. Silva, and R. Blaikie, “Bideposited thin-film retardation plates for use at deep UV wavelengths,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 4, 106–107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron. Device Lett. (1)

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, T. P. Lin, M. Y. Ke, Y. W. Cheng, Y. C. Yu, C. P. Chen, D. M. Yeh, C. F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 29, 658–660 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (2)

J. J. Steele, M. T. Taschuk, and M. J. Brett, “Nanostructured metal oxide thin films for humidity sensors,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1422–1429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Taschuk, J. B. Sorge, J. J. Steele, and M. J. Brett, “Ion-beam assisted glancing angle deposition for relative humidity sensors,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1521–1522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nanotech. (1)

M. O. Jensen and M. J. Brett, “Periodically structured glancing angle deposition thin films,” IEEE Trans. Nanotech. 4, 269–277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanophoton. (1)

Y.-J. Jen, Y.-H. Chen, C.-W. Yu, and Y.-P. Li, “Near-perfect modulator for polarization state of light,” J. Nanophoton. 2, 029504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

Y.-J. Liu, Z.-Y. Zhang, Q. Zhao, R. A. Dluhy, and Y. P. Zhao, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering from an Ag nanorod array substrate: the site dependent enhancement and layer absorbance effect,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9664–9669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

S. Wang, D. F. P. Pile, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Nanopin plasmonic resonator array and its optical properties,” Nano Lett. 7, 1076–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Wang, C. C. Kei, Y. W. Yu, and T. P. Perng, “Organic nanowire-templated fabrication of alumina nanotubes by atomic layer deposition,” Nano Lett. 7, 1566–1569 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon. (1)

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photon. 1, 176–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

N. O. Young and J. Kowal, “Optically active fluorite films,” Nature 183, 104–105 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

W. C. Liu and D. P. Tsai, “Optical tunneling effect of surface plasmon polaritons and localized surface plasmon resonance,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 155423 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y.-P. Zhao, D.-X. Ye, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, “Designing nanostructures by glancing angle deposition,” Proc. SPIE 5219, 59–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

D. Vick, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, M. J. Brett, M. Seto, and T. Smy, “Self-shadowing and surface diffusion effects in obliquely deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 339, 88–94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Flow chart for preparation of ordered arrays of Al 2 O 3 columns: (a) microspheres were spin coated on the substrate, (b) the diameter of the microspheres was reduced after a 130 s RIE treatment, (c) after the ALD process, Al 2 O 3 was coated on the surface of the microspheres, (d) microsphere shells were formed by heating at 350 ° C , and (e) after oblique deposition inclined.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plane-view SEM images of the (a) microsphere array and (b)  Al 2 O 3 inclined columns.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-sectional SEM images of Al 2 O 3 : (a) film and (b), (c) inclined columns created by using the bottom-up oblique deposition process. The images in samples (b) and (c) were captured along directions a and b in Fig. 2b, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmittance spectra of Al 2 O 3 film, PS microspheres with Al 2 O 3 shells, Al 2 O 3 hollow microspheres, and inclined column array.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cross-sectional SEM images of inclined Al 2 O 3 columnar array fabricated using 400 nm nanosphere shell template: (a) cross section including a hollow sphere shell and (b) cross section along the deposition plane.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmittance spectra for p and s polarizations of sample fabricated using a 400 nm microsphere shell template.

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