Abstract

We realized metal fluoride coatings with a high packing density and a low extinction coefficient by plasma (ion)-assisted deposition. The densification can be performed by different types of plasma sources, e.g., by a Leybold LION source and a Leybold APSpro, respectively. But the as-deposited coatings show a characteristic absorption behavior, whereas the absorption losses can be reduced in a postdeposition UV treatment step. We show experimental results of the plasma-assisted metal fluorides before and after the UV treatment and present a new model that allows us to describe and calculate the characteristic absorption losses of LaF3, MgF2, and AlF3.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. M.-C. Liu, C.-C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Microstructure related properties of lanthanum fluoride films deposited by molybdenum boat evaporation at 193 nm,” Thin Solid Films 492, 45–51 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Ristau, S. Günster, S. Bosch, A. Duparré, E. Masetti, J. Ferre-Borrull, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and A. Tikhonravov, “Ultraviolet optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 and LaF3 coatings deposited by ion-beam sputtering and boat and electron-beam evaporation,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3196–3204 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Iwahori, M. Furuta, Y. Taki, T. Yamamura, and A. Tanaka, “Optical properties of fluoride thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4598–4602 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C.-C. Jaing, M.-H. Shiao, C.-C. Lee, C.-J. Lu, M.-C. Liu, C.-H. Lee, and H.-C. Chen, “Effects of ion assist and substrate temperature on the optical properties and microstructure of MgF2 films produced by e-beam evaporation,” Proc. SPIE 5870, 58700F (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. Kai Fu, and Y. Sheng Dai, “Mechanical, optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 342, 83–92 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Bischoff, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical and structural properties of LaF3 thin films,” Appl. Opt. 47, C157–C161 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Bischoff, M. Sode, D. Gäbler, H. Bernitzki, C. Zaczek, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal fluoride coatings prepared by ion-assisted deposition,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 71010L (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Bischoff, “Plasmagestützte Beschichtung von Metallfluoriden für den tiefen ultravioletten Spektralbereich,” Ph.D. dissertation (Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, 2008).
  9. E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiró, “Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869–2876 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Dumas, E. Quesnel, J. Y. Robic, and Y. Pauleau, “Characterization of magnesium fluoride thin films produced by argon ion beam-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 382, 61–68(2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. J. Lingg, J. D. Targove, J. P. Lehan, and H. A. Macleod, “Ion-assisted deposition of lanthanide trifluorides for VUV applications,” Proc. SPIE 818, 86–92 (1987).
  12. M. Kennedy, D. Ristau, and H. S. Niederwald, “Ion beam-assisted deposition of MgF2 and YbF3 films,” Thin Solid Films 333, 191–195 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Yoshida, K. Nishimoto, K. Sekine, and K. Etoh, “Fluoride antireflection coatings for deep ultraviolet optics deposited by ion-beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1375–1379 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. N. Toyoda and I. Yamada, “MgF2 and LaF3 thin film formation with gas cluster ion beam assisted deposition,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 201, 8620–8623 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Dumas, E. Quesnel, F. Pierre, and F. Bertin, “Optical properties of magnesium fluoride thin films produced by argon ion-beam assisted deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 102–106 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. O. Amolo, J. D. Comins, A. T. Davidson, A. G. Kozakiewicz, T. E. Derry, and D. S. McLachlan, “Visible and VUV optical absorption studies of Mg-colloids and colour centres in MgF2 crystals implanted by 100 keV Mg-ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 218, 244–248 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. D. Landau, L. P. Pitaevskii, and E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media, 2nd ed. (Elsevier, 1993).
  18. Olaf Stenzel, The Physics of Thin Film Optical Spectra: an Introduction (Springer-Verlag, 2005).
  19. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids: Part I (Academic, 1998).
  20. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids: Part III (Academic, 1998).
  21. M. N. Mikheeva and V. G. Nazin, “Electron energy loss spectroscopy study of the initial stage of lanthanum oxidation,” Phys. Solid State 48, 1219–1222 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, M. Bischoff, and N. Kaiser, “Combined in situ and ex situ optical data analysis of magnesium fluoride coatings deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition,” Appl. Opt. 50, C5–C10 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2008 (2)

M. Bischoff, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical and structural properties of LaF3 thin films,” Appl. Opt. 47, C157–C161 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bischoff, M. Sode, D. Gäbler, H. Bernitzki, C. Zaczek, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal fluoride coatings prepared by ion-assisted deposition,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 71010L (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

N. Toyoda and I. Yamada, “MgF2 and LaF3 thin film formation with gas cluster ion beam assisted deposition,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 201, 8620–8623 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

M.-C. Liu, C.-C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Microstructure related properties of lanthanum fluoride films deposited by molybdenum boat evaporation at 193 nm,” Thin Solid Films 492, 45–51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Jaing, M.-H. Shiao, C.-C. Lee, C.-J. Lu, M.-C. Liu, C.-H. Lee, and H.-C. Chen, “Effects of ion assist and substrate temperature on the optical properties and microstructure of MgF2 films produced by e-beam evaporation,” Proc. SPIE 5870, 58700F (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

G. O. Amolo, J. D. Comins, A. T. Davidson, A. G. Kozakiewicz, T. E. Derry, and D. S. McLachlan, “Visible and VUV optical absorption studies of Mg-colloids and colour centres in MgF2 crystals implanted by 100 keV Mg-ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 218, 244–248 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

L. Dumas, E. Quesnel, J. Y. Robic, and Y. Pauleau, “Characterization of magnesium fluoride thin films produced by argon ion beam-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 382, 61–68(2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiró, “Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869–2876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. Kai Fu, and Y. Sheng Dai, “Mechanical, optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 342, 83–92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Kennedy, D. Ristau, and H. S. Niederwald, “Ion beam-assisted deposition of MgF2 and YbF3 films,” Thin Solid Films 333, 191–195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

L. J. Lingg, J. D. Targove, J. P. Lehan, and H. A. Macleod, “Ion-assisted deposition of lanthanide trifluorides for VUV applications,” Proc. SPIE 818, 86–92 (1987).

Amolo, G. O.

G. O. Amolo, J. D. Comins, A. T. Davidson, A. G. Kozakiewicz, T. E. Derry, and D. S. McLachlan, “Visible and VUV optical absorption studies of Mg-colloids and colour centres in MgF2 crystals implanted by 100 keV Mg-ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 218, 244–248 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Atanassov, G.

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. Kai Fu, and Y. Sheng Dai, “Mechanical, optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 342, 83–92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bernitzki, H.

M. Bischoff, M. Sode, D. Gäbler, H. Bernitzki, C. Zaczek, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal fluoride coatings prepared by ion-assisted deposition,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 71010L (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bertin, F.

L. Dumas, E. Quesnel, F. Pierre, and F. Bertin, “Optical properties of magnesium fluoride thin films produced by argon ion-beam assisted deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 102–106 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bischoff, M.

S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, M. Bischoff, and N. Kaiser, “Combined in situ and ex situ optical data analysis of magnesium fluoride coatings deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition,” Appl. Opt. 50, C5–C10 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bischoff, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical and structural properties of LaF3 thin films,” Appl. Opt. 47, C157–C161 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bischoff, M. Sode, D. Gäbler, H. Bernitzki, C. Zaczek, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal fluoride coatings prepared by ion-assisted deposition,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 71010L (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Bischoff, “Plasmagestützte Beschichtung von Metallfluoriden für den tiefen ultravioletten Spektralbereich,” Ph.D. dissertation (Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, 2008).

Bosch, S.

Chen, H.-C.

C.-C. Jaing, M.-H. Shiao, C.-C. Lee, C.-J. Lu, M.-C. Liu, C.-H. Lee, and H.-C. Chen, “Effects of ion assist and substrate temperature on the optical properties and microstructure of MgF2 films produced by e-beam evaporation,” Proc. SPIE 5870, 58700F (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chuvilin, A.

Comins, J. D.

G. O. Amolo, J. D. Comins, A. T. Davidson, A. G. Kozakiewicz, T. E. Derry, and D. S. McLachlan, “Visible and VUV optical absorption studies of Mg-colloids and colour centres in MgF2 crystals implanted by 100 keV Mg-ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 218, 244–248 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Y. Sheng

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. Kai Fu, and Y. Sheng Dai, “Mechanical, optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 342, 83–92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, A. T.

G. O. Amolo, J. D. Comins, A. T. Davidson, A. G. Kozakiewicz, T. E. Derry, and D. S. McLachlan, “Visible and VUV optical absorption studies of Mg-colloids and colour centres in MgF2 crystals implanted by 100 keV Mg-ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 218, 244–248 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Derry, T. E.

G. O. Amolo, J. D. Comins, A. T. Davidson, A. G. Kozakiewicz, T. E. Derry, and D. S. McLachlan, “Visible and VUV optical absorption studies of Mg-colloids and colour centres in MgF2 crystals implanted by 100 keV Mg-ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 218, 244–248 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dumas, L.

L. Dumas, E. Quesnel, F. Pierre, and F. Bertin, “Optical properties of magnesium fluoride thin films produced by argon ion-beam assisted deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 102–106 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Dumas, E. Quesnel, J. Y. Robic, and Y. Pauleau, “Characterization of magnesium fluoride thin films produced by argon ion beam-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 382, 61–68(2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiró, “Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869–2876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Duparré, A.

Etoh, K.

Ferre-Borrull, J.

Fu, J. Kai

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. Kai Fu, and Y. Sheng Dai, “Mechanical, optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 342, 83–92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Furuta, M.

Gäbler, D.

M. Bischoff, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical and structural properties of LaF3 thin films,” Appl. Opt. 47, C157–C161 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bischoff, M. Sode, D. Gäbler, H. Bernitzki, C. Zaczek, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal fluoride coatings prepared by ion-assisted deposition,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 71010L (2008).
[CrossRef]

Günster, S.

Iwahori, K.

Jacob, D.

E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiró, “Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869–2876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jaing, C.-C.

C.-C. Jaing, M.-H. Shiao, C.-C. Lee, C.-J. Lu, M.-C. Liu, C.-H. Lee, and H.-C. Chen, “Effects of ion assist and substrate temperature on the optical properties and microstructure of MgF2 films produced by e-beam evaporation,” Proc. SPIE 5870, 58700F (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

Kaiser, U.

Kaneko, M.

M.-C. Liu, C.-C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Microstructure related properties of lanthanum fluoride films deposited by molybdenum boat evaporation at 193 nm,” Thin Solid Films 492, 45–51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, M.

M. Kennedy, D. Ristau, and H. S. Niederwald, “Ion beam-assisted deposition of MgF2 and YbF3 films,” Thin Solid Films 333, 191–195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kiriakidis, G.

Kozakiewicz, A. G.

G. O. Amolo, J. D. Comins, A. T. Davidson, A. G. Kozakiewicz, T. E. Derry, and D. S. McLachlan, “Visible and VUV optical absorption studies of Mg-colloids and colour centres in MgF2 crystals implanted by 100 keV Mg-ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 218, 244–248 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Landau, L. D.

L. D. Landau, L. P. Pitaevskii, and E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media, 2nd ed. (Elsevier, 1993).

Lee, C.-C.

C.-C. Jaing, M.-H. Shiao, C.-C. Lee, C.-J. Lu, M.-C. Liu, C.-H. Lee, and H.-C. Chen, “Effects of ion assist and substrate temperature on the optical properties and microstructure of MgF2 films produced by e-beam evaporation,” Proc. SPIE 5870, 58700F (2005).
[CrossRef]

M.-C. Liu, C.-C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Microstructure related properties of lanthanum fluoride films deposited by molybdenum boat evaporation at 193 nm,” Thin Solid Films 492, 45–51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-H.

C.-C. Jaing, M.-H. Shiao, C.-C. Lee, C.-J. Lu, M.-C. Liu, C.-H. Lee, and H.-C. Chen, “Effects of ion assist and substrate temperature on the optical properties and microstructure of MgF2 films produced by e-beam evaporation,” Proc. SPIE 5870, 58700F (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lehan, J. P.

L. J. Lingg, J. D. Targove, J. P. Lehan, and H. A. Macleod, “Ion-assisted deposition of lanthanide trifluorides for VUV applications,” Proc. SPIE 818, 86–92 (1987).

Lifshitz, E. M.

L. D. Landau, L. P. Pitaevskii, and E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media, 2nd ed. (Elsevier, 1993).

Lingg, L. J.

L. J. Lingg, J. D. Targove, J. P. Lehan, and H. A. Macleod, “Ion-assisted deposition of lanthanide trifluorides for VUV applications,” Proc. SPIE 818, 86–92 (1987).

Liu, M.-C.

C.-C. Jaing, M.-H. Shiao, C.-C. Lee, C.-J. Lu, M.-C. Liu, C.-H. Lee, and H.-C. Chen, “Effects of ion assist and substrate temperature on the optical properties and microstructure of MgF2 films produced by e-beam evaporation,” Proc. SPIE 5870, 58700F (2005).
[CrossRef]

M.-C. Liu, C.-C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Microstructure related properties of lanthanum fluoride films deposited by molybdenum boat evaporation at 193 nm,” Thin Solid Films 492, 45–51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.-J.

C.-C. Jaing, M.-H. Shiao, C.-C. Lee, C.-J. Lu, M.-C. Liu, C.-H. Lee, and H.-C. Chen, “Effects of ion assist and substrate temperature on the optical properties and microstructure of MgF2 films produced by e-beam evaporation,” Proc. SPIE 5870, 58700F (2005).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

L. J. Lingg, J. D. Targove, J. P. Lehan, and H. A. Macleod, “Ion-assisted deposition of lanthanide trifluorides for VUV applications,” Proc. SPIE 818, 86–92 (1987).

Masetti, E.

McLachlan, D. S.

G. O. Amolo, J. D. Comins, A. T. Davidson, A. G. Kozakiewicz, T. E. Derry, and D. S. McLachlan, “Visible and VUV optical absorption studies of Mg-colloids and colour centres in MgF2 crystals implanted by 100 keV Mg-ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 218, 244–248 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mikheeva, M. N.

M. N. Mikheeva and V. G. Nazin, “Electron energy loss spectroscopy study of the initial stage of lanthanum oxidation,” Phys. Solid State 48, 1219–1222 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakahira, K.

M.-C. Liu, C.-C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Microstructure related properties of lanthanum fluoride films deposited by molybdenum boat evaporation at 193 nm,” Thin Solid Films 492, 45–51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nazin, V. G.

M. N. Mikheeva and V. G. Nazin, “Electron energy loss spectroscopy study of the initial stage of lanthanum oxidation,” Phys. Solid State 48, 1219–1222 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Niederwald, H. S.

M. Kennedy, D. Ristau, and H. S. Niederwald, “Ion beam-assisted deposition of MgF2 and YbF3 films,” Thin Solid Films 333, 191–195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nishimoto, K.

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids: Part I (Academic, 1998).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids: Part III (Academic, 1998).

Pauleau, Y.

L. Dumas, E. Quesnel, J. Y. Robic, and Y. Pauleau, “Characterization of magnesium fluoride thin films produced by argon ion beam-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 382, 61–68(2001).
[CrossRef]

Peiro, F.

Peiró, F.

E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiró, “Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869–2876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pierre, F.

L. Dumas, E. Quesnel, F. Pierre, and F. Bertin, “Optical properties of magnesium fluoride thin films produced by argon ion-beam assisted deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 102–106 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pitaevskii, L. P.

L. D. Landau, L. P. Pitaevskii, and E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media, 2nd ed. (Elsevier, 1993).

Quesnel, E.

D. Ristau, S. Günster, S. Bosch, A. Duparré, E. Masetti, J. Ferre-Borrull, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and A. Tikhonravov, “Ultraviolet optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 and LaF3 coatings deposited by ion-beam sputtering and boat and electron-beam evaporation,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3196–3204 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dumas, E. Quesnel, F. Pierre, and F. Bertin, “Optical properties of magnesium fluoride thin films produced by argon ion-beam assisted deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 102–106 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Dumas, E. Quesnel, J. Y. Robic, and Y. Pauleau, “Characterization of magnesium fluoride thin films produced by argon ion beam-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 382, 61–68(2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiró, “Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869–2876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ristau, D.

Robic, J. Y.

L. Dumas, E. Quesnel, J. Y. Robic, and Y. Pauleau, “Characterization of magnesium fluoride thin films produced by argon ion beam-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 382, 61–68(2001).
[CrossRef]

Sekine, K.

Shiao, M.-H.

C.-C. Jaing, M.-H. Shiao, C.-C. Lee, C.-J. Lu, M.-C. Liu, C.-H. Lee, and H.-C. Chen, “Effects of ion assist and substrate temperature on the optical properties and microstructure of MgF2 films produced by e-beam evaporation,” Proc. SPIE 5870, 58700F (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sode, M.

M. Bischoff, M. Sode, D. Gäbler, H. Bernitzki, C. Zaczek, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal fluoride coatings prepared by ion-assisted deposition,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 71010L (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stenzel, O.

Stenzel, Olaf

Olaf Stenzel, The Physics of Thin Film Optical Spectra: an Introduction (Springer-Verlag, 2005).

Takano, Y.

M.-C. Liu, C.-C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Microstructure related properties of lanthanum fluoride films deposited by molybdenum boat evaporation at 193 nm,” Thin Solid Films 492, 45–51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taki, Y.

Tanaka, A.

Targove, J. D.

L. J. Lingg, J. D. Targove, J. P. Lehan, and H. A. Macleod, “Ion-assisted deposition of lanthanide trifluorides for VUV applications,” Proc. SPIE 818, 86–92 (1987).

Tikhonravov, A.

Toyoda, N.

N. Toyoda and I. Yamada, “MgF2 and LaF3 thin film formation with gas cluster ion beam assisted deposition,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 201, 8620–8623 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

M. Bischoff, M. Sode, D. Gäbler, H. Bernitzki, C. Zaczek, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal fluoride coatings prepared by ion-assisted deposition,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 71010L (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Bischoff, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, A. Chuvilin, U. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical and structural properties of LaF3 thin films,” Appl. Opt. 47, C157–C161 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turlo, J.

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. Kai Fu, and Y. Sheng Dai, “Mechanical, optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 342, 83–92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wilbrandt, S.

Yamada, I.

N. Toyoda and I. Yamada, “MgF2 and LaF3 thin film formation with gas cluster ion beam assisted deposition,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 201, 8620–8623 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamamura, T.

Yoshida, T.

Zaczek, C.

M. Bischoff, M. Sode, D. Gäbler, H. Bernitzki, C. Zaczek, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal fluoride coatings prepared by ion-assisted deposition,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 71010L (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (2)

L. Dumas, E. Quesnel, F. Pierre, and F. Bertin, “Optical properties of magnesium fluoride thin films produced by argon ion-beam assisted deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 102–106 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiró, “Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869–2876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (1)

G. O. Amolo, J. D. Comins, A. T. Davidson, A. G. Kozakiewicz, T. E. Derry, and D. S. McLachlan, “Visible and VUV optical absorption studies of Mg-colloids and colour centres in MgF2 crystals implanted by 100 keV Mg-ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 218, 244–248 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Solid State (1)

M. N. Mikheeva and V. G. Nazin, “Electron energy loss spectroscopy study of the initial stage of lanthanum oxidation,” Phys. Solid State 48, 1219–1222 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

L. J. Lingg, J. D. Targove, J. P. Lehan, and H. A. Macleod, “Ion-assisted deposition of lanthanide trifluorides for VUV applications,” Proc. SPIE 818, 86–92 (1987).

C.-C. Jaing, M.-H. Shiao, C.-C. Lee, C.-J. Lu, M.-C. Liu, C.-H. Lee, and H.-C. Chen, “Effects of ion assist and substrate temperature on the optical properties and microstructure of MgF2 films produced by e-beam evaporation,” Proc. SPIE 5870, 58700F (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Bischoff, M. Sode, D. Gäbler, H. Bernitzki, C. Zaczek, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal fluoride coatings prepared by ion-assisted deposition,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 71010L (2008).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Coat. Technol. (1)

N. Toyoda and I. Yamada, “MgF2 and LaF3 thin film formation with gas cluster ion beam assisted deposition,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 201, 8620–8623 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (4)

M.-C. Liu, C.-C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, “Microstructure related properties of lanthanum fluoride films deposited by molybdenum boat evaporation at 193 nm,” Thin Solid Films 492, 45–51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. Kai Fu, and Y. Sheng Dai, “Mechanical, optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 342, 83–92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Kennedy, D. Ristau, and H. S. Niederwald, “Ion beam-assisted deposition of MgF2 and YbF3 films,” Thin Solid Films 333, 191–195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Dumas, E. Quesnel, J. Y. Robic, and Y. Pauleau, “Characterization of magnesium fluoride thin films produced by argon ion beam-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 382, 61–68(2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

M. Bischoff, “Plasmagestützte Beschichtung von Metallfluoriden für den tiefen ultravioletten Spektralbereich,” Ph.D. dissertation (Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, 2008).

L. D. Landau, L. P. Pitaevskii, and E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media, 2nd ed. (Elsevier, 1993).

Olaf Stenzel, The Physics of Thin Film Optical Spectra: an Introduction (Springer-Verlag, 2005).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids: Part I (Academic, 1998).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids: Part III (Academic, 1998).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Model of the absorption losses: small metal clusters embedded in a metal fluoride matrix.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral photometry measurements R + T of as-deposited PIAD MeF coatings.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated (a) dielectric function and (b) optical constants of lanthanum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the calculated extinction coefficients for (a) LaF 3 , (b) MgF 2 , and (c) AlF 3 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral photometry measurements R + T of PIAD MeF coatings after UV treatment.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral photometry measurements (a) R + T , (b) reflectance spectra, and (c) IR spectra of LaF 3 single layers deposited conventionally and with the assistance of the LION plasma source and the APS. The substrate material was Sup2 for spectral photometry and Si for the IR measurements.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral photometry measurement of plasma assisted LaF 3 single layers: (a) variation of the F 2 flow ( ϕ F ) of LION-assisted LaF 3 layers and (b) results of different plasma sources without the addition of F 2 .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Spectral photometry measurement of a conventional MeF mirror and (b) an angle-resolved laser measurement at 193 nm of a plasma-assisted MeF mirror by Jenoptik LOS GmbH.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Results from Spectral Photometry and FTIR Measurement after UV Treatment: Optical Constants (n, k), Bulk (First-Order Schroeder) Inhomogeneity (Δn/n), Film Thickness, and Packing Density

Equations (7)

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( ε mixture ε MeF ) ε MeF + ( ε mixture ε MeF ) L = p ( ε Me ε MeF ) ε MeF + ( ε Me ε MeF ) L ,
n ( λ ) + i k ( λ ) = ε ( λ ) .
L j = l x l y l z 2 0 d s ( s + l j 2 ) { ( s + l x 2 ) ( s + l y 2 ) ( s + l z 2 ) } 1 / 2 , ( j = x , y , or z ) .
1 = 0 1 g j ( L j ) d L j     j .
g ( L ) = 1 3 [ g x ( L x ) + g y ( L y ) + g z ( L z ) ] .
ε mixture ( λ ) = ε MeF ( λ ) 0 1 g ( L ) · 1 + p ( 1 L ) ( ε Me ( λ ) ε MeF ( λ ) ) ε MeF ( λ ) + ( ε Me ( λ ) ε MeF ( λ ) ) L 1 p L ( ε Me ( λ ) ε MeF ( λ ) ) ε MeF ( λ ) + ( ε Me ( λ ) ε MeF ( λ ) ) L · d L .
k mixture ( λ ) = Im ε mixture ( λ ) .

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