Abstract

Low resistivity and high transmittance of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) and Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) transparent conductive thin films have been achieved by use of pulsed dc magnetron sputtering in a hydrogen environment at room temperature. The addition of hydrogen to the sputtering gas can reduce the re sistivity of the films and improve their electrical properties compared to those prepared without H2, because the hydrogen acts a shallow donor. The average transmittance was over 85% in the visible region, and the lowest resistivity of the AZO and GZO films was 4.01×104(Ω-cm) and 4.39×104(Ω-cm), respectively.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351, 247–253 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafb, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition for organic light-emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 377, 798–802(2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. U. Betz, M. Kharrazi Olsson, J. Marthy, M. F. Escolá, and F. Atamny, “Thin films engineering of indium tin oxide: large area flat panel displays application,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 200, 5751–5759 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Katayama, “TFT-LCD technology,” Thin Solid Films 341, 140–147 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Raniero, I. Ferreira, A. Pimentel, A. Gonçalves, P. Canhola, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Role of hydrogen plasma on electrical and optical properties of ZGO, ITO and IZO transparent and conductive coatings,” Thin Solid Films 511, 295–298 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Hashimoto, S. Ogawa, A. Nonoguchi, T. Omori, and M. Yamaguchi, “Preparation of piezoelectric ZnO films by target facing type of sputtering method,” in Proceedings of IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 1998), pp. 207–212.
  7. K. B. Sundaram and A. Khan, “Characterization and optimization of zinc oxide films by r.f. magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 295, 87–91 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. C. Look, J. W. Hemsky, and J. R. Sizelove, “Residual native shallow donor in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2552–2555(1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. W. Lee, S. P. Lau, Y. G. Wang, K. Y. Tse, H. H. Hng, and B. K. Tay, “Structural, electrical and optical properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique,” J. Cryst. Growth 268, 596–601(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Miyazaki, K. Sato, A. Mitsui, and H. Nishimura, “Properties of Ga-doped ZnO films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 323–328 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Yim and C. Lee, “Dependence of the electrical and optical properties of sputter-deposited ZnO:Ga films on the annealing temperature, time, and atmosphere,” J. Mater. Sci. 18, 385–390 (2007).
  12. Y. J. Park, H. N. Kim, and H. H. Shin, “Effects of deposition temperature on the crystallinity of Ga-doped ZnO thin films on glass substrates prepared by sputtering method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 7532–7536 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. G. Van de Walle, “Hydrogen as a cause of doping in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1012–1015 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. S. Moss, “The interpretation of the properties of indium antimonide,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B 67, 775–782(1954).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Burstein, “Anomalous optical absorption limit in InSb,” Phys. Rev. 93, 632–633 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. Fujimura, T. Nishihara, S. Goto, J. Xu, and T. Ito, “Control of preferred orientation for ZnOx films: control of self-texture,” J. Cryst. Growth 130, 269–279 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. Y. Chen, W. H. Chen, J. J. Wang, C. N. Hong, and Y. K. Su, “Hydrogen-doped high conductivity ZnO films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5628–5630 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

Y. J. Park, H. N. Kim, and H. H. Shin, “Effects of deposition temperature on the crystallinity of Ga-doped ZnO thin films on glass substrates prepared by sputtering method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 7532–7536 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

K. Yim and C. Lee, “Dependence of the electrical and optical properties of sputter-deposited ZnO:Ga films on the annealing temperature, time, and atmosphere,” J. Mater. Sci. 18, 385–390 (2007).

2006 (2)

U. Betz, M. Kharrazi Olsson, J. Marthy, M. F. Escolá, and F. Atamny, “Thin films engineering of indium tin oxide: large area flat panel displays application,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 200, 5751–5759 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Raniero, I. Ferreira, A. Pimentel, A. Gonçalves, P. Canhola, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Role of hydrogen plasma on electrical and optical properties of ZGO, ITO and IZO transparent and conductive coatings,” Thin Solid Films 511, 295–298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

H. W. Lee, S. P. Lau, Y. G. Wang, K. Y. Tse, H. H. Hng, and B. K. Tay, “Structural, electrical and optical properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique,” J. Cryst. Growth 268, 596–601(2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Chen, W. H. Chen, J. J. Wang, C. N. Hong, and Y. K. Su, “Hydrogen-doped high conductivity ZnO films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5628–5630 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

C. G. Van de Walle, “Hydrogen as a cause of doping in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1012–1015 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafb, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition for organic light-emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 377, 798–802(2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Katayama, “TFT-LCD technology,” Thin Solid Films 341, 140–147 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Look, J. W. Hemsky, and J. R. Sizelove, “Residual native shallow donor in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2552–2555(1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

M. Miyazaki, K. Sato, A. Mitsui, and H. Nishimura, “Properties of Ga-doped ZnO films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 323–328 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Sundaram and A. Khan, “Characterization and optimization of zinc oxide films by r.f. magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 295, 87–91 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

N. Fujimura, T. Nishihara, S. Goto, J. Xu, and T. Ito, “Control of preferred orientation for ZnOx films: control of self-texture,” J. Cryst. Growth 130, 269–279 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1954 (2)

T. S. Moss, “The interpretation of the properties of indium antimonide,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B 67, 775–782(1954).
[CrossRef]

E. Burstein, “Anomalous optical absorption limit in InSb,” Phys. Rev. 93, 632–633 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Atamny, F.

U. Betz, M. Kharrazi Olsson, J. Marthy, M. F. Escolá, and F. Atamny, “Thin films engineering of indium tin oxide: large area flat panel displays application,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 200, 5751–5759 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beneking, C.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Betz, U.

U. Betz, M. Kharrazi Olsson, J. Marthy, M. F. Escolá, and F. Atamny, “Thin films engineering of indium tin oxide: large area flat panel displays application,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 200, 5751–5759 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burstein, E.

E. Burstein, “Anomalous optical absorption limit in InSb,” Phys. Rev. 93, 632–633 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Canhola, P.

L. Raniero, I. Ferreira, A. Pimentel, A. Gonçalves, P. Canhola, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Role of hydrogen plasma on electrical and optical properties of ZGO, ITO and IZO transparent and conductive coatings,” Thin Solid Films 511, 295–298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. Y.

L. Y. Chen, W. H. Chen, J. J. Wang, C. N. Hong, and Y. K. Su, “Hydrogen-doped high conductivity ZnO films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5628–5630 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. H.

L. Y. Chen, W. H. Chen, J. J. Wang, C. N. Hong, and Y. K. Su, “Hydrogen-doped high conductivity ZnO films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5628–5630 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chrisey, D. B.

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafb, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition for organic light-emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 377, 798–802(2000).
[CrossRef]

Escolá, M. F.

U. Betz, M. Kharrazi Olsson, J. Marthy, M. F. Escolá, and F. Atamny, “Thin films engineering of indium tin oxide: large area flat panel displays application,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 200, 5751–5759 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, I.

L. Raniero, I. Ferreira, A. Pimentel, A. Gonçalves, P. Canhola, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Role of hydrogen plasma on electrical and optical properties of ZGO, ITO and IZO transparent and conductive coatings,” Thin Solid Films 511, 295–298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fortunato, E.

L. Raniero, I. Ferreira, A. Pimentel, A. Gonçalves, P. Canhola, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Role of hydrogen plasma on electrical and optical properties of ZGO, ITO and IZO transparent and conductive coatings,” Thin Solid Films 511, 295–298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fujimura, N.

N. Fujimura, T. Nishihara, S. Goto, J. Xu, and T. Ito, “Control of preferred orientation for ZnOx films: control of self-texture,” J. Cryst. Growth 130, 269–279 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gilmore, C. M.

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafb, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition for organic light-emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 377, 798–802(2000).
[CrossRef]

Gonçalves, A.

L. Raniero, I. Ferreira, A. Pimentel, A. Gonçalves, P. Canhola, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Role of hydrogen plasma on electrical and optical properties of ZGO, ITO and IZO transparent and conductive coatings,” Thin Solid Films 511, 295–298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goto, S.

N. Fujimura, T. Nishihara, S. Goto, J. Xu, and T. Ito, “Control of preferred orientation for ZnOx films: control of self-texture,” J. Cryst. Growth 130, 269–279 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, K.

K. Hashimoto, S. Ogawa, A. Nonoguchi, T. Omori, and M. Yamaguchi, “Preparation of piezoelectric ZnO films by target facing type of sputtering method,” in Proceedings of IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 1998), pp. 207–212.

Hemsky, J. W.

D. C. Look, J. W. Hemsky, and J. R. Sizelove, “Residual native shallow donor in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2552–2555(1999).
[CrossRef]

Hng, H. H.

H. W. Lee, S. P. Lau, Y. G. Wang, K. Y. Tse, H. H. Hng, and B. K. Tay, “Structural, electrical and optical properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique,” J. Cryst. Growth 268, 596–601(2004).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. N.

L. Y. Chen, W. H. Chen, J. J. Wang, C. N. Hong, and Y. K. Su, “Hydrogen-doped high conductivity ZnO films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5628–5630 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Horwitz, J. S.

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafb, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition for organic light-emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 377, 798–802(2000).
[CrossRef]

Houben, L.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ito, T.

N. Fujimura, T. Nishihara, S. Goto, J. Xu, and T. Ito, “Control of preferred orientation for ZnOx films: control of self-texture,” J. Cryst. Growth 130, 269–279 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kafafb, Z. H.

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafb, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition for organic light-emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 377, 798–802(2000).
[CrossRef]

Katayama, M.

M. Katayama, “TFT-LCD technology,” Thin Solid Films 341, 140–147 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Khan, A.

K. B. Sundaram and A. Khan, “Characterization and optimization of zinc oxide films by r.f. magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 295, 87–91 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafb, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition for organic light-emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 377, 798–802(2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. N.

Y. J. Park, H. N. Kim, and H. H. Shin, “Effects of deposition temperature on the crystallinity of Ga-doped ZnO thin films on glass substrates prepared by sputtering method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 7532–7536 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kluth, O.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lau, S. P.

H. W. Lee, S. P. Lau, Y. G. Wang, K. Y. Tse, H. H. Hng, and B. K. Tay, “Structural, electrical and optical properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique,” J. Cryst. Growth 268, 596–601(2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

K. Yim and C. Lee, “Dependence of the electrical and optical properties of sputter-deposited ZnO:Ga films on the annealing temperature, time, and atmosphere,” J. Mater. Sci. 18, 385–390 (2007).

Lee, H. W.

H. W. Lee, S. P. Lau, Y. G. Wang, K. Y. Tse, H. H. Hng, and B. K. Tay, “Structural, electrical and optical properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique,” J. Cryst. Growth 268, 596–601(2004).
[CrossRef]

Loffl, A.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Look, D. C.

D. C. Look, J. W. Hemsky, and J. R. Sizelove, “Residual native shallow donor in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2552–2555(1999).
[CrossRef]

Marthy, J.

U. Betz, M. Kharrazi Olsson, J. Marthy, M. F. Escolá, and F. Atamny, “Thin films engineering of indium tin oxide: large area flat panel displays application,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 200, 5751–5759 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martins, R.

L. Raniero, I. Ferreira, A. Pimentel, A. Gonçalves, P. Canhola, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Role of hydrogen plasma on electrical and optical properties of ZGO, ITO and IZO transparent and conductive coatings,” Thin Solid Films 511, 295–298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mitsui, A.

M. Miyazaki, K. Sato, A. Mitsui, and H. Nishimura, “Properties of Ga-doped ZnO films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 323–328 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, M.

M. Miyazaki, K. Sato, A. Mitsui, and H. Nishimura, “Properties of Ga-doped ZnO films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 323–328 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moss, T. S.

T. S. Moss, “The interpretation of the properties of indium antimonide,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B 67, 775–782(1954).
[CrossRef]

Murata, H.

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafb, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition for organic light-emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 377, 798–802(2000).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, T.

N. Fujimura, T. Nishihara, S. Goto, J. Xu, and T. Ito, “Control of preferred orientation for ZnOx films: control of self-texture,” J. Cryst. Growth 130, 269–279 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, H.

M. Miyazaki, K. Sato, A. Mitsui, and H. Nishimura, “Properties of Ga-doped ZnO films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 323–328 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nonoguchi, A.

K. Hashimoto, S. Ogawa, A. Nonoguchi, T. Omori, and M. Yamaguchi, “Preparation of piezoelectric ZnO films by target facing type of sputtering method,” in Proceedings of IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 1998), pp. 207–212.

Ogawa, S.

K. Hashimoto, S. Ogawa, A. Nonoguchi, T. Omori, and M. Yamaguchi, “Preparation of piezoelectric ZnO films by target facing type of sputtering method,” in Proceedings of IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 1998), pp. 207–212.

Olsson, M. Kharrazi

U. Betz, M. Kharrazi Olsson, J. Marthy, M. F. Escolá, and F. Atamny, “Thin films engineering of indium tin oxide: large area flat panel displays application,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 200, 5751–5759 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Omori, T.

K. Hashimoto, S. Ogawa, A. Nonoguchi, T. Omori, and M. Yamaguchi, “Preparation of piezoelectric ZnO films by target facing type of sputtering method,” in Proceedings of IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 1998), pp. 207–212.

Park, Y. J.

Y. J. Park, H. N. Kim, and H. H. Shin, “Effects of deposition temperature on the crystallinity of Ga-doped ZnO thin films on glass substrates prepared by sputtering method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 7532–7536 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pimentel, A.

L. Raniero, I. Ferreira, A. Pimentel, A. Gonçalves, P. Canhola, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Role of hydrogen plasma on electrical and optical properties of ZGO, ITO and IZO transparent and conductive coatings,” Thin Solid Films 511, 295–298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pique, A.

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafb, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition for organic light-emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 377, 798–802(2000).
[CrossRef]

Raniero, L.

L. Raniero, I. Ferreira, A. Pimentel, A. Gonçalves, P. Canhola, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Role of hydrogen plasma on electrical and optical properties of ZGO, ITO and IZO transparent and conductive coatings,” Thin Solid Films 511, 295–298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rech, B.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sato, K.

M. Miyazaki, K. Sato, A. Mitsui, and H. Nishimura, “Properties of Ga-doped ZnO films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 323–328 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schock, H. W.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schope, G.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shin, H. H.

Y. J. Park, H. N. Kim, and H. H. Shin, “Effects of deposition temperature on the crystallinity of Ga-doped ZnO thin films on glass substrates prepared by sputtering method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 7532–7536 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sizelove, J. R.

D. C. Look, J. W. Hemsky, and J. R. Sizelove, “Residual native shallow donor in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2552–2555(1999).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. K.

L. Y. Chen, W. H. Chen, J. J. Wang, C. N. Hong, and Y. K. Su, “Hydrogen-doped high conductivity ZnO films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5628–5630 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sundaram, K. B.

K. B. Sundaram and A. Khan, “Characterization and optimization of zinc oxide films by r.f. magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 295, 87–91 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tay, B. K.

H. W. Lee, S. P. Lau, Y. G. Wang, K. Y. Tse, H. H. Hng, and B. K. Tay, “Structural, electrical and optical properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique,” J. Cryst. Growth 268, 596–601(2004).
[CrossRef]

Tse, K. Y.

H. W. Lee, S. P. Lau, Y. G. Wang, K. Y. Tse, H. H. Hng, and B. K. Tay, “Structural, electrical and optical properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique,” J. Cryst. Growth 268, 596–601(2004).
[CrossRef]

Van de Walle, C. G.

C. G. Van de Walle, “Hydrogen as a cause of doping in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1012–1015 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, H.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. J.

L. Y. Chen, W. H. Chen, J. J. Wang, C. N. Hong, and Y. K. Su, “Hydrogen-doped high conductivity ZnO films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5628–5630 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. G.

H. W. Lee, S. P. Lau, Y. G. Wang, K. Y. Tse, H. H. Hng, and B. K. Tay, “Structural, electrical and optical properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique,” J. Cryst. Growth 268, 596–601(2004).
[CrossRef]

Wieder, S.

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

N. Fujimura, T. Nishihara, S. Goto, J. Xu, and T. Ito, “Control of preferred orientation for ZnOx films: control of self-texture,” J. Cryst. Growth 130, 269–279 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

K. Hashimoto, S. Ogawa, A. Nonoguchi, T. Omori, and M. Yamaguchi, “Preparation of piezoelectric ZnO films by target facing type of sputtering method,” in Proceedings of IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 1998), pp. 207–212.

Yim, K.

K. Yim and C. Lee, “Dependence of the electrical and optical properties of sputter-deposited ZnO:Ga films on the annealing temperature, time, and atmosphere,” J. Mater. Sci. 18, 385–390 (2007).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Y. Chen, W. H. Chen, J. J. Wang, C. N. Hong, and Y. K. Su, “Hydrogen-doped high conductivity ZnO films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5628–5630 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

Y. J. Park, H. N. Kim, and H. H. Shin, “Effects of deposition temperature on the crystallinity of Ga-doped ZnO thin films on glass substrates prepared by sputtering method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 7532–7536 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

H. W. Lee, S. P. Lau, Y. G. Wang, K. Y. Tse, H. H. Hng, and B. K. Tay, “Structural, electrical and optical properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique,” J. Cryst. Growth 268, 596–601(2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Fujimura, T. Nishihara, S. Goto, J. Xu, and T. Ito, “Control of preferred orientation for ZnOx films: control of self-texture,” J. Cryst. Growth 130, 269–279 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

K. Yim and C. Lee, “Dependence of the electrical and optical properties of sputter-deposited ZnO:Ga films on the annealing temperature, time, and atmosphere,” J. Mater. Sci. 18, 385–390 (2007).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

M. Miyazaki, K. Sato, A. Mitsui, and H. Nishimura, “Properties of Ga-doped ZnO films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 323–328 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. Burstein, “Anomalous optical absorption limit in InSb,” Phys. Rev. 93, 632–633 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

C. G. Van de Walle, “Hydrogen as a cause of doping in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1012–1015 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Look, J. W. Hemsky, and J. R. Sizelove, “Residual native shallow donor in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2552–2555(1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B (1)

T. S. Moss, “The interpretation of the properties of indium antimonide,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B 67, 775–782(1954).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Coat. Technol. (1)

U. Betz, M. Kharrazi Olsson, J. Marthy, M. F. Escolá, and F. Atamny, “Thin films engineering of indium tin oxide: large area flat panel displays application,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 200, 5751–5759 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (5)

M. Katayama, “TFT-LCD technology,” Thin Solid Films 341, 140–147 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Raniero, I. Ferreira, A. Pimentel, A. Gonçalves, P. Canhola, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Role of hydrogen plasma on electrical and optical properties of ZGO, ITO and IZO transparent and conductive coatings,” Thin Solid Films 511, 295–298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Sundaram and A. Khan, “Characterization and optimization of zinc oxide films by r.f. magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 295, 87–91 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schope, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Loffl, and H. W. Schock, “Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 351, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafb, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition for organic light-emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 377, 798–802(2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

K. Hashimoto, S. Ogawa, A. Nonoguchi, T. Omori, and M. Yamaguchi, “Preparation of piezoelectric ZnO films by target facing type of sputtering method,” in Proceedings of IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 1998), pp. 207–212.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the experimental setup for pulsed dc magnetron sputtering.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical transmission spectrum of (a) AZO and (b) GZO films prepared with various hydrogen flow rates. The bandgap shifts according to the Burstein–Moss shift.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

( αhν ) 2 plots for (a) AZO and (b) GZO films prepared with different hydrogen flow rates.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the electrical properties of (a) AZO and (b) GZO films with various hydrogen flow rates.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

X-ray diffraction of (a) AZO and (b) GZO films prepared with various hydrogen flow rates.

Metrics