Abstract

This study elucidates the effects of columnar angles and deposition angles on the thermal expansion coefficients and intrinsic stress behaviors of MgF2 films with columnar microstructures. The behaviors associated with temperature-dependent stresses in the MgF2 films are measured using a phase-shifting Twyman–Green interferometer with a heating stage and the application of a phase reduction algorithm. The thermal expansion coefficients of MgF2 films at various columnar angles were larger than those of glass substrates. The intrinsic stress in the MgF2 films with columnar microstructures was compressive, while the thermal stress was tensile. The thermal expansion coefficients of MgF2 films with columnar microstructures and their intrinsic stress evidently depended on the deposition angle and the columnar angle.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2010 (1)

C. C. Lee, K. H. Lee, C. J. Tang, C. C. Jaing, and H. C. Chen, “Reduction of residual stress in optical silicon nitcide thin films prepared by radio-frequency ion beam sputtering deposition,” Opt. Eng. 49, 063802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

G. C. A. M. Janssen, M. M. Abdalla, F. van Keulen, B. R. Pujada, and B. van Venrooy, “Celebrating the 100th anniversary of the Stoney equation for film stress: developments from polycrystalline steel strips to single crystal silicon wafers,” Thin Solid Films 517, 1858–1867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Tang, C. C. Jaing, K. Wu, and C. C. Lee, “Residual stress of graded-index-like films deposited by radio frequency ion-beam sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 517, 1746–1749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Jaing, H. C. Chen, and C. C. Lee, “Effects of thermal annealing on titanium oxide films prepared by ion-assisted deposition,” Opt. Rev. 16, 396–399 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2006 (1)

C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, C. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, “Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027–5029 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

K. D. Harris, D. Vick, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Column angle variations in porous chevron thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 2062–2067 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Ye, Y. P. Zhao, G. R. Yang, Y. G. Zhao, G. C. Wang, and T. M. Lu, “Manipulating the column tilt angles of nanocolumnar films by glancing-angle deposition,” Nanotechnology 13, 615–618 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Thielsch, A. Gatto, and N. Kaiser, “Mechanical stress and thermal-elastic properties of oxide coatings for use in the deep-ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3211–3217(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, and C. L. Tien, “Making parabolic mirrors by electron-beam gun evaporation method with ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 170, 654–657(2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. L. Tien, C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, and K. P. Chuang, “Simultaneous determination of the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of Ta2O5 thin film using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1681–1691(2000).

1999 (1)

D. Vick, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, M. J. Brett, K. Robbie, M. Seto, and T. Smy, “Self-shadowing and surface diffusion effects in obliquely deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 339, 88–94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

K. Robbie, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Advanced techniques for glancing angle deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 1115–1122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Rovira, R. A. Yarussi, R. W. Collins, V. C. Venugopal, A. Lakhtakia, R. Messier, K. Robbie, and M. J. Brett, “Rotating-compensator multichannel transmission ellipsometry of a thin-film helicoidal bianisotropic medium,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 373–378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, and J. Hazel, “Empirical equations for the principal refractive indices and column angle of obliquely deposited films of tantalum oxide, titanium oxide, and zirconium oxide,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2653–2659 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, “Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: growth mechanics and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 1460–1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Messier, T. Gehrke, C. Frankel, V. C. Venugopal, W. Otano, and A. Lakhtakia, “Engineered sculptured nematic thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 2148–2152 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Abelmann and C. Lodder, “Oblique evaporation and surface diffusion,” Thin Solid Films 305, 1–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032–1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Modelling and characterization of columnar growth in evaporated films,” Thin Solid Films 226, 196–201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Structural anisotropy in oblique incidence thin metal films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 1518–1521 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1987 (1)

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

1981 (1)

M. Miyagi and N. Funakoshi, “Internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of GDa-Si films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, 289–290 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. G. Dirks and H. J. Leamy, “Columnar microstructure in vapor-deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 47, 219–233(1977).
[CrossRef]

1909 (1)

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 172–175(1909).
[CrossRef]

Abdalla, M. M.

G. C. A. M. Janssen, M. M. Abdalla, F. van Keulen, B. R. Pujada, and B. van Venrooy, “Celebrating the 100th anniversary of the Stoney equation for film stress: developments from polycrystalline steel strips to single crystal silicon wafers,” Thin Solid Films 517, 1858–1867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Abelmann, L.

L. Abelmann and C. Lodder, “Oblique evaporation and surface diffusion,” Thin Solid Films 305, 1–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brett, M. J.

K. D. Harris, D. Vick, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Column angle variations in porous chevron thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 2062–2067 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Vick, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, M. J. Brett, K. Robbie, M. Seto, and T. Smy, “Self-shadowing and surface diffusion effects in obliquely deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 339, 88–94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Advanced techniques for glancing angle deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 1115–1122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Rovira, R. A. Yarussi, R. W. Collins, V. C. Venugopal, A. Lakhtakia, R. Messier, K. Robbie, and M. J. Brett, “Rotating-compensator multichannel transmission ellipsometry of a thin-film helicoidal bianisotropic medium,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 373–378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, “Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: growth mechanics and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 1460–1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032–1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Modelling and characterization of columnar growth in evaporated films,” Thin Solid Films 226, 196–201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Structural anisotropy in oblique incidence thin metal films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 1518–1521 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Carniglia, C. K.

Chen, H. C.

C. C. Lee, K. H. Lee, C. J. Tang, C. C. Jaing, and H. C. Chen, “Reduction of residual stress in optical silicon nitcide thin films prepared by radio-frequency ion beam sputtering deposition,” Opt. Eng. 49, 063802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Jaing, H. C. Chen, and C. C. Lee, “Effects of thermal annealing on titanium oxide films prepared by ion-assisted deposition,” Opt. Rev. 16, 396–399 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, C. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, “Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027–5029 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, W. H.

Chuang, K. P.

C. L. Tien, C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, and K. P. Chuang, “Simultaneous determination of the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of Ta2O5 thin film using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1681–1691(2000).

Cockayne, D. J. H.

Collins, R. W.

P. I. Rovira, R. A. Yarussi, R. W. Collins, V. C. Venugopal, A. Lakhtakia, R. Messier, K. Robbie, and M. J. Brett, “Rotating-compensator multichannel transmission ellipsometry of a thin-film helicoidal bianisotropic medium,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 373–378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Craighead, H. G.

Dew, S. K.

D. Vick, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, M. J. Brett, K. Robbie, M. Seto, and T. Smy, “Self-shadowing and surface diffusion effects in obliquely deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 339, 88–94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032–1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dirks, A. G.

A. G. Dirks and H. J. Leamy, “Columnar microstructure in vapor-deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 47, 219–233(1977).
[CrossRef]

Frankel, C.

R. Messier, T. Gehrke, C. Frankel, V. C. Venugopal, W. Otano, and A. Lakhtakia, “Engineered sculptured nematic thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 2148–2152 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Friedrich, L. J.

D. Vick, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, M. J. Brett, K. Robbie, M. Seto, and T. Smy, “Self-shadowing and surface diffusion effects in obliquely deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 339, 88–94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032–1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Funakoshi, N.

M. Miyagi and N. Funakoshi, “Internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of GDa-Si films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, 289–290 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gatto, A.

Gehrke, T.

R. Messier, T. Gehrke, C. Frankel, V. C. Venugopal, W. Otano, and A. Lakhtakia, “Engineered sculptured nematic thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 2148–2152 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, U. J.

Harris, K. D.

K. D. Harris, D. Vick, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Column angle variations in porous chevron thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 2062–2067 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hart, T. T.

Hazel, J.

Hodgkinson, I. J.

Hsu, J. C.

C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, and C. L. Tien, “Making parabolic mirrors by electron-beam gun evaporation method with ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 170, 654–657(2001).
[CrossRef]

Jaing, C. C.

C. C. Lee, K. H. Lee, C. J. Tang, C. C. Jaing, and H. C. Chen, “Reduction of residual stress in optical silicon nitcide thin films prepared by radio-frequency ion beam sputtering deposition,” Opt. Eng. 49, 063802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Jaing, H. C. Chen, and C. C. Lee, “Effects of thermal annealing on titanium oxide films prepared by ion-assisted deposition,” Opt. Rev. 16, 396–399 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Tang, C. C. Jaing, K. Wu, and C. C. Lee, “Residual stress of graded-index-like films deposited by radio frequency ion-beam sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 517, 1746–1749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Tang, C. C. Jaing, K. S. Lee, and C. C. Lee, “Residual stress in Ta2O5-SiO2 composite thin-film rugate filters prepared by radio frequency ion-beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 47, C167–C171 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Jaing, M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, W. H. Cho, W. T. Shen, C. J. Tang, and B. H. Liao, “Residual stress in obliquely deposited MgF2 thin films,” Appl. Opt. 47, C266–C270 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, C. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, “Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027–5029 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, and C. L. Tien, “Making parabolic mirrors by electron-beam gun evaporation method with ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 170, 654–657(2001).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Tien, C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, and K. P. Chuang, “Simultaneous determination of the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of Ta2O5 thin film using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1681–1691(2000).

Janssen, G. C. A. M.

G. C. A. M. Janssen, M. M. Abdalla, F. van Keulen, B. R. Pujada, and B. van Venrooy, “Celebrating the 100th anniversary of the Stoney equation for film stress: developments from polycrystalline steel strips to single crystal silicon wafers,” Thin Solid Films 517, 1858–1867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

R. Thielsch, A. Gatto, and N. Kaiser, “Mechanical stress and thermal-elastic properties of oxide coatings for use in the deep-ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3211–3217(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Kaiser, “Some fundamentals of optical thin film growth,” in Optical Interference Coatings, N.Kaiser and H.K.Pulker, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2003), pp. 59–80.

Kennemore, C. M.

Lakhtakia, A.

P. I. Rovira, R. A. Yarussi, R. W. Collins, V. C. Venugopal, A. Lakhtakia, R. Messier, K. Robbie, and M. J. Brett, “Rotating-compensator multichannel transmission ellipsometry of a thin-film helicoidal bianisotropic medium,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 373–378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Messier, T. Gehrke, C. Frankel, V. C. Venugopal, W. Otano, and A. Lakhtakia, “Engineered sculptured nematic thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 2148–2152 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leamy, H. J.

A. G. Dirks and H. J. Leamy, “Columnar microstructure in vapor-deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 47, 219–233(1977).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. C.

C. C. Lee, K. H. Lee, C. J. Tang, C. C. Jaing, and H. C. Chen, “Reduction of residual stress in optical silicon nitcide thin films prepared by radio-frequency ion beam sputtering deposition,” Opt. Eng. 49, 063802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Jaing, H. C. Chen, and C. C. Lee, “Effects of thermal annealing on titanium oxide films prepared by ion-assisted deposition,” Opt. Rev. 16, 396–399 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Tang, C. C. Jaing, K. Wu, and C. C. Lee, “Residual stress of graded-index-like films deposited by radio frequency ion-beam sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 517, 1746–1749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Tang, C. C. Jaing, K. S. Lee, and C. C. Lee, “Residual stress in Ta2O5-SiO2 composite thin-film rugate filters prepared by radio frequency ion-beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 47, C167–C171 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Jaing, M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, W. H. Cho, W. T. Shen, C. J. Tang, and B. H. Liao, “Residual stress in obliquely deposited MgF2 thin films,” Appl. Opt. 47, C266–C270 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, C. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, “Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027–5029 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, and C. L. Tien, “Making parabolic mirrors by electron-beam gun evaporation method with ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 170, 654–657(2001).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Tien, C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, and K. P. Chuang, “Simultaneous determination of the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of Ta2O5 thin film using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1681–1691(2000).

Lee, C. H.

C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, C. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, “Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027–5029 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. H.

C. C. Lee, K. H. Lee, C. J. Tang, C. C. Jaing, and H. C. Chen, “Reduction of residual stress in optical silicon nitcide thin films prepared by radio-frequency ion beam sputtering deposition,” Opt. Eng. 49, 063802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. S.

Liao, B. H.

Lichtenstein, T. L.

Liu, M. C.

C. C. Jaing, M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, W. H. Cho, W. T. Shen, C. J. Tang, and B. H. Liao, “Residual stress in obliquely deposited MgF2 thin films,” Appl. Opt. 47, C266–C270 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, C. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, “Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027–5029 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lodder, C.

L. Abelmann and C. Lodder, “Oblique evaporation and surface diffusion,” Thin Solid Films 305, 1–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lowdermilk, W. H.

Lu, C. J.

C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, C. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, “Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027–5029 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. M.

D. X. Ye, Y. P. Zhao, G. R. Yang, Y. G. Zhao, G. C. Wang, and T. M. Lu, “Manipulating the column tilt angles of nanocolumnar films by glancing-angle deposition,” Nanotechnology 13, 615–618 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Academic, 2001).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. J.

Mckenzie, D. R.

Messier, R.

P. I. Rovira, R. A. Yarussi, R. W. Collins, V. C. Venugopal, A. Lakhtakia, R. Messier, K. Robbie, and M. J. Brett, “Rotating-compensator multichannel transmission ellipsometry of a thin-film helicoidal bianisotropic medium,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 373–378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Messier, T. Gehrke, C. Frankel, V. C. Venugopal, W. Otano, and A. Lakhtakia, “Engineered sculptured nematic thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 2148–2152 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Milam, D.

Miyagi, M.

M. Miyagi and N. Funakoshi, “Internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of GDa-Si films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, 289–290 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Netterfield, R. P.

Ohring, M.

M. Ohring, The Materials Science of Thin Films(Academic, 1992).

Otano, W.

R. Messier, T. Gehrke, C. Frankel, V. C. Venugopal, W. Otano, and A. Lakhtakia, “Engineered sculptured nematic thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 2148–2152 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pujada, B. R.

G. C. A. M. Janssen, M. M. Abdalla, F. van Keulen, B. R. Pujada, and B. van Venrooy, “Celebrating the 100th anniversary of the Stoney equation for film stress: developments from polycrystalline steel strips to single crystal silicon wafers,” Thin Solid Films 517, 1858–1867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pulker, H. K.

H. K. Pulker, Coating on Glass (Elsevier, 1984).

H. K. Pulker, “Mechanical properties of optical thin films,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, F.R.Flory, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 1995), pp. 455–473.

Rainer, F.

Robbie, K.

D. Vick, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, M. J. Brett, K. Robbie, M. Seto, and T. Smy, “Self-shadowing and surface diffusion effects in obliquely deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 339, 88–94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Rovira, R. A. Yarussi, R. W. Collins, V. C. Venugopal, A. Lakhtakia, R. Messier, K. Robbie, and M. J. Brett, “Rotating-compensator multichannel transmission ellipsometry of a thin-film helicoidal bianisotropic medium,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 373–378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Advanced techniques for glancing angle deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 1115–1122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, “Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: growth mechanics and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 1460–1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032–1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rovira, P. I.

P. I. Rovira, R. A. Yarussi, R. W. Collins, V. C. Venugopal, A. Lakhtakia, R. Messier, K. Robbie, and M. J. Brett, “Rotating-compensator multichannel transmission ellipsometry of a thin-film helicoidal bianisotropic medium,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 373–378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sainty, W. G.

Seto, M.

D. Vick, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, M. J. Brett, K. Robbie, M. Seto, and T. Smy, “Self-shadowing and surface diffusion effects in obliquely deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 339, 88–94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shen, W. T.

Sheu, W. S.

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shiao, M. H.

C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, C. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, “Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027–5029 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sie, S. H.

Sit, J. C.

K. Robbie, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Advanced techniques for glancing angle deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 1115–1122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smy, T.

K. D. Harris, D. Vick, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Column angle variations in porous chevron thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 2062–2067 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Vick, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, M. J. Brett, K. Robbie, M. Seto, and T. Smy, “Self-shadowing and surface diffusion effects in obliquely deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 339, 88–94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032–1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Modelling and characterization of columnar growth in evaporated films,” Thin Solid Films 226, 196–201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Structural anisotropy in oblique incidence thin metal films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 1518–1521 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Spann, J. F.

Stoney, G. G.

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 172–175(1909).
[CrossRef]

Strauss, G. N.

G. N. Strauss, “Mechanical stress in optical coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, N.Kaiser and H.K.Pulker, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2003), pp. 207–229.

Tait, R. N.

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Modelling and characterization of columnar growth in evaporated films,” Thin Solid Films 226, 196–201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Structural anisotropy in oblique incidence thin metal films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 1518–1521 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. J.

C. C. Lee, K. H. Lee, C. J. Tang, C. C. Jaing, and H. C. Chen, “Reduction of residual stress in optical silicon nitcide thin films prepared by radio-frequency ion beam sputtering deposition,” Opt. Eng. 49, 063802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Tang, C. C. Jaing, K. Wu, and C. C. Lee, “Residual stress of graded-index-like films deposited by radio frequency ion-beam sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 517, 1746–1749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Tang, C. C. Jaing, K. S. Lee, and C. C. Lee, “Residual stress in Ta2O5-SiO2 composite thin-film rugate filters prepared by radio frequency ion-beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 47, C167–C171 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Jaing, M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, W. H. Cho, W. T. Shen, C. J. Tang, and B. H. Liao, “Residual stress in obliquely deposited MgF2 thin films,” Appl. Opt. 47, C266–C270 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thielsch, R.

Tien, C. L.

C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, and C. L. Tien, “Making parabolic mirrors by electron-beam gun evaporation method with ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 170, 654–657(2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Tien, C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, and K. P. Chuang, “Simultaneous determination of the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of Ta2O5 thin film using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1681–1691(2000).

Torr, D. G.

Torr, M. R.

van Keulen, F.

G. C. A. M. Janssen, M. M. Abdalla, F. van Keulen, B. R. Pujada, and B. van Venrooy, “Celebrating the 100th anniversary of the Stoney equation for film stress: developments from polycrystalline steel strips to single crystal silicon wafers,” Thin Solid Films 517, 1858–1867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van Venrooy, B.

G. C. A. M. Janssen, M. M. Abdalla, F. van Keulen, B. R. Pujada, and B. van Venrooy, “Celebrating the 100th anniversary of the Stoney equation for film stress: developments from polycrystalline steel strips to single crystal silicon wafers,” Thin Solid Films 517, 1858–1867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Venugopal, V. C.

P. I. Rovira, R. A. Yarussi, R. W. Collins, V. C. Venugopal, A. Lakhtakia, R. Messier, K. Robbie, and M. J. Brett, “Rotating-compensator multichannel transmission ellipsometry of a thin-film helicoidal bianisotropic medium,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 373–378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Messier, T. Gehrke, C. Frankel, V. C. Venugopal, W. Otano, and A. Lakhtakia, “Engineered sculptured nematic thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 2148–2152 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vick, D.

K. D. Harris, D. Vick, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Column angle variations in porous chevron thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 2062–2067 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Vick, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, M. J. Brett, K. Robbie, M. Seto, and T. Smy, “Self-shadowing and surface diffusion effects in obliquely deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 339, 88–94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. C.

D. X. Ye, Y. P. Zhao, G. R. Yang, Y. G. Zhao, G. C. Wang, and T. M. Lu, “Manipulating the column tilt angles of nanocolumnar films by glancing-angle deposition,” Nanotechnology 13, 615–618 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wood, O. R.

Wu, K.

C. J. Tang, C. C. Jaing, K. Wu, and C. C. Lee, “Residual stress of graded-index-like films deposited by radio frequency ion-beam sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 517, 1746–1749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q. H.

Yang, G. R.

D. X. Ye, Y. P. Zhao, G. R. Yang, Y. G. Zhao, G. C. Wang, and T. M. Lu, “Manipulating the column tilt angles of nanocolumnar films by glancing-angle deposition,” Nanotechnology 13, 615–618 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yarussi, R. A.

P. I. Rovira, R. A. Yarussi, R. W. Collins, V. C. Venugopal, A. Lakhtakia, R. Messier, K. Robbie, and M. J. Brett, “Rotating-compensator multichannel transmission ellipsometry of a thin-film helicoidal bianisotropic medium,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 373–378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ye, D. X.

D. X. Ye, Y. P. Zhao, G. R. Yang, Y. G. Zhao, G. C. Wang, and T. M. Lu, “Manipulating the column tilt angles of nanocolumnar films by glancing-angle deposition,” Nanotechnology 13, 615–618 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. G.

D. X. Ye, Y. P. Zhao, G. R. Yang, Y. G. Zhao, G. C. Wang, and T. M. Lu, “Manipulating the column tilt angles of nanocolumnar films by glancing-angle deposition,” Nanotechnology 13, 615–618 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. P.

D. X. Ye, Y. P. Zhao, G. R. Yang, Y. G. Zhao, G. C. Wang, and T. M. Lu, “Manipulating the column tilt angles of nanocolumnar films by glancing-angle deposition,” Nanotechnology 13, 615–618 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zukic, M.

Appl. Opt. (8)

C. M. Kennemore III and U. J. Gibson, “Ion beam processing for coating MgF2 onto ambient temperature substrates,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3608–3611 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Rainer, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, C. K. Carniglia, T. T. Hart, and T. L. Lichtenstein, “Materials for optical coating in the ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 24, 496–500 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Martin, W. G. Sainty, R. P. Netterfield, D. R. Mckenzie, D. J. H. Cockayne, S. H. Sie, O. R. Wood, and H. G. Craighead, “Influence of ion assistance on the optical properties of MgF2,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1235–1239 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zukic, D. G. Torr, J. F. Spann, and M. R. Torr, “Vacuum ultraviolet thin films. 1: optical constants of BaF2, CaF2, LaF3, MgF2, Al2O3, HfO2 and SiO2 thin films,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4284–4292 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, and J. Hazel, “Empirical equations for the principal refractive indices and column angle of obliquely deposited films of tantalum oxide, titanium oxide, and zirconium oxide,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2653–2659 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Thielsch, A. Gatto, and N. Kaiser, “Mechanical stress and thermal-elastic properties of oxide coatings for use in the deep-ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3211–3217(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Tang, C. C. Jaing, K. S. Lee, and C. C. Lee, “Residual stress in Ta2O5-SiO2 composite thin-film rugate filters prepared by radio frequency ion-beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 47, C167–C171 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Jaing, M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, W. H. Cho, W. T. Shen, C. J. Tang, and B. H. Liao, “Residual stress in obliquely deposited MgF2 thin films,” Appl. Opt. 47, C266–C270 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, and C. L. Tien, “Making parabolic mirrors by electron-beam gun evaporation method with ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 170, 654–657(2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

C. L. Tien, C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, and K. P. Chuang, “Simultaneous determination of the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of Ta2O5 thin film using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1681–1691(2000).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (5)

K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, “Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: growth mechanics and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 1460–1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032–1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Harris, D. Vick, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Column angle variations in porous chevron thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 2062–2067 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Structural anisotropy in oblique incidence thin metal films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 1518–1521 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Messier, T. Gehrke, C. Frankel, V. C. Venugopal, W. Otano, and A. Lakhtakia, “Engineered sculptured nematic thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 2148–2152 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

K. Robbie, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Advanced techniques for glancing angle deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 1115–1122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, C. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, “Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027–5029 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Miyagi and N. Funakoshi, “Internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of GDa-Si films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, 289–290 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

D. X. Ye, Y. P. Zhao, G. R. Yang, Y. G. Zhao, G. C. Wang, and T. M. Lu, “Manipulating the column tilt angles of nanocolumnar films by glancing-angle deposition,” Nanotechnology 13, 615–618 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. C. Lee, K. H. Lee, C. J. Tang, C. C. Jaing, and H. C. Chen, “Reduction of residual stress in optical silicon nitcide thin films prepared by radio-frequency ion beam sputtering deposition,” Opt. Eng. 49, 063802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Rev. (1)

C. C. Jaing, H. C. Chen, and C. C. Lee, “Effects of thermal annealing on titanium oxide films prepared by ion-assisted deposition,” Opt. Rev. 16, 396–399 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 172–175(1909).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128–2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (7)

D. Vick, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, M. J. Brett, K. Robbie, M. Seto, and T. Smy, “Self-shadowing and surface diffusion effects in obliquely deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 339, 88–94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Abelmann and C. Lodder, “Oblique evaporation and surface diffusion,” Thin Solid Films 305, 1–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, “Modelling and characterization of columnar growth in evaporated films,” Thin Solid Films 226, 196–201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Dirks and H. J. Leamy, “Columnar microstructure in vapor-deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 47, 219–233(1977).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Rovira, R. A. Yarussi, R. W. Collins, V. C. Venugopal, A. Lakhtakia, R. Messier, K. Robbie, and M. J. Brett, “Rotating-compensator multichannel transmission ellipsometry of a thin-film helicoidal bianisotropic medium,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 373–378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. C. A. M. Janssen, M. M. Abdalla, F. van Keulen, B. R. Pujada, and B. van Venrooy, “Celebrating the 100th anniversary of the Stoney equation for film stress: developments from polycrystalline steel strips to single crystal silicon wafers,” Thin Solid Films 517, 1858–1867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Tang, C. C. Jaing, K. Wu, and C. C. Lee, “Residual stress of graded-index-like films deposited by radio frequency ion-beam sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 517, 1746–1749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

G. N. Strauss, “Mechanical stress in optical coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, N.Kaiser and H.K.Pulker, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2003), pp. 207–229.

H. K. Pulker, “Mechanical properties of optical thin films,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, F.R.Flory, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 1995), pp. 455–473.

M. Ohring, The Materials Science of Thin Films(Academic, 1992).

I. J. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, Birefringent Thin Films and Polarizing Elements (World Scientific, 1998).

H. K. Pulker, Coating on Glass (Elsevier, 1984).

N. Kaiser, “Some fundamentals of optical thin film growth,” in Optical Interference Coatings, N.Kaiser and H.K.Pulker, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2003), pp. 59–80.

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Academic, 2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Deposition system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase-shifting Twyman–Green interferometer for measuring temperature-dependent stress in films.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Interferograms of MgF 2 films deposited at the deposition angle of 60 ° on Pyrex substrates (a) before deposition and (b) after deposition, and Vycor substrates (c) before deposition and (d) after deposition.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temperature-dependent residual stress in MgF 2 films prepared at various deposition angles on Pyrex substrates.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temperature-dependent residual stress in MgF 2 films prepared at various deposition angles on Vycor substrates.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of MgF 2 film against deposition angle.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Thermal stress measured at room temperature in MgF 2 films prepared at various angles on both Pyrex and Vycor glass substrates.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Intrinsic stress in MgF 2 films as a function of the deposition angle on both Pyrex and Vycor glass substrates.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Columnar Angles of MgF 2 Films Deposited at Deposition Angles θ from 20 ° to 60 ° , Measured from Normal to Substrate

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ f = E s t s 2 6 ( 1 ν s ) t f R t ,
σ f = σ I + ( α s α f ) E f 1 ν f ( T 1 T 2 ) ,
d σ f d T = ( α s α f ) E f 1 ν f ,

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