Abstract

Plasma beam sputtering was used to deposit dielectric-protected silver mirrors that exhibited excellent durability and controlled stress. The durability of the mirrors was strongly dependent upon the presence of a very thin chromium adhesion layer between the silver layer and the dielectric overcoat. The stress of the five-layer mirror was balanced by controlling the compressive stress in the top dielectric layer, offsetting the net tensile stress of the combination of layers below.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. X. Xiong, A. Wu, and A. Angal, “Assessment of MODIS scan mirror reflectance changes on-orbit,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 70810B (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X. Xiong, W. L. Barnes, B. Guenther, and R. E. Murphy, “Lessons learned from MODIS,” Adv. Space Res. 32, 2107–2112 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Ford, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, Z. I. Tsvetanov, F. Bartko, J. H. Crocker, P. Y. Bely, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, W. B. Sparks, R. L. White, T. Broadhurst, G. D. Illingworth, T. Kelly, R. A. Woodruff, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Kimble, C. A. Krebs, S. G. Neff, M. P. Lesser, and G. Miley, “Advanced camera for the Hubble space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2807, 184–196 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. F. Pellicori, “Scattering defects in silver mirror coatings,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3096–3098 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C.-T. Chu, P. D. Fuqua, and J. D. Barrie, “Corrosion characterization of durable silver coatings by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and accelerated environmental testing,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1583–1593 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. D. Fuqua and J. D. Barrie, “Optical properties and corrosion resistance of durable silver coatings,” in Properties and Processing of Vapor-Deposited Coatings, Vol. 555 of Materials Research Society Symposium Society Proceedings (Materials Research Society, 1999), pp. 85–90.
  7. M. J. Thwaites, “High density plasmas,” U.S. patent 6,463,873 B1 (15 October 2002).
  8. P. Baumeister, Optical Coating Technology (SPIE, 2004), pp. 9–73.
  9. H. Windischmann, “Intrinsic stress in sputter-deposited thin films,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 17, 547–596 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. V. Plunkett, R. M. Johnson, and C. D. Wiseman, “Stresses in sputter-deposited nickel and copper oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 64, 121–128 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Mraz and J. M. Schneider, “Influence of the negative oxygen ions on the structural evolution of transition metal oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 023503 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Tominaga, T. Kikuma, and T. Hanabusa, “Energetic oxygen ions in ZrO2 deposition by reactive sputtering of Zr,” Vacuum 66, 279–284 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

X. Xiong, A. Wu, and A. Angal, “Assessment of MODIS scan mirror reflectance changes on-orbit,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 70810B (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

C.-T. Chu, P. D. Fuqua, and J. D. Barrie, “Corrosion characterization of durable silver coatings by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and accelerated environmental testing,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1583–1593 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mraz and J. M. Schneider, “Influence of the negative oxygen ions on the structural evolution of transition metal oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 023503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

X. Xiong, W. L. Barnes, B. Guenther, and R. E. Murphy, “Lessons learned from MODIS,” Adv. Space Res. 32, 2107–2112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. Tominaga, T. Kikuma, and T. Hanabusa, “Energetic oxygen ions in ZrO2 deposition by reactive sputtering of Zr,” Vacuum 66, 279–284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. Ford, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, Z. I. Tsvetanov, F. Bartko, J. H. Crocker, P. Y. Bely, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, W. B. Sparks, R. L. White, T. Broadhurst, G. D. Illingworth, T. Kelly, R. A. Woodruff, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Kimble, C. A. Krebs, S. G. Neff, M. P. Lesser, and G. Miley, “Advanced camera for the Hubble space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2807, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

H. Windischmann, “Intrinsic stress in sputter-deposited thin films,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 17, 547–596 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

P. V. Plunkett, R. M. Johnson, and C. D. Wiseman, “Stresses in sputter-deposited nickel and copper oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 64, 121–128 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Angal, A.

X. Xiong, A. Wu, and A. Angal, “Assessment of MODIS scan mirror reflectance changes on-orbit,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 70810B (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

X. Xiong, W. L. Barnes, B. Guenther, and R. E. Murphy, “Lessons learned from MODIS,” Adv. Space Res. 32, 2107–2112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barrie, J. D.

C.-T. Chu, P. D. Fuqua, and J. D. Barrie, “Corrosion characterization of durable silver coatings by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and accelerated environmental testing,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1583–1593 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. Fuqua and J. D. Barrie, “Optical properties and corrosion resistance of durable silver coatings,” in Properties and Processing of Vapor-Deposited Coatings, Vol. 555 of Materials Research Society Symposium Society Proceedings (Materials Research Society, 1999), pp. 85–90.

Bartko, F.

H. Ford, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, Z. I. Tsvetanov, F. Bartko, J. H. Crocker, P. Y. Bely, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, W. B. Sparks, R. L. White, T. Broadhurst, G. D. Illingworth, T. Kelly, R. A. Woodruff, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Kimble, C. A. Krebs, S. G. Neff, M. P. Lesser, and G. Miley, “Advanced camera for the Hubble space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2807, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baumeister, P.

P. Baumeister, Optical Coating Technology (SPIE, 2004), pp. 9–73.

Bely, P. Y.

H. Ford, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, Z. I. Tsvetanov, F. Bartko, J. H. Crocker, P. Y. Bely, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, W. B. Sparks, R. L. White, T. Broadhurst, G. D. Illingworth, T. Kelly, R. A. Woodruff, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Kimble, C. A. Krebs, S. G. Neff, M. P. Lesser, and G. Miley, “Advanced camera for the Hubble space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2807, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Broadhurst, T.

H. Ford, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, Z. I. Tsvetanov, F. Bartko, J. H. Crocker, P. Y. Bely, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, W. B. Sparks, R. L. White, T. Broadhurst, G. D. Illingworth, T. Kelly, R. A. Woodruff, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Kimble, C. A. Krebs, S. G. Neff, M. P. Lesser, and G. Miley, “Advanced camera for the Hubble space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2807, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R. A.

H. Ford, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, Z. I. Tsvetanov, F. Bartko, J. H. Crocker, P. Y. Bely, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, W. B. Sparks, R. L. White, T. Broadhurst, G. D. Illingworth, T. Kelly, R. A. Woodruff, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Kimble, C. A. Krebs, S. G. Neff, M. P. Lesser, and G. Miley, “Advanced camera for the Hubble space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2807, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, C. J.

H. Ford, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, Z. I. Tsvetanov, F. Bartko, J. H. Crocker, P. Y. Bely, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, W. B. Sparks, R. L. White, T. Broadhurst, G. D. Illingworth, T. Kelly, R. A. Woodruff, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Kimble, C. A. Krebs, S. G. Neff, M. P. Lesser, and G. Miley, “Advanced camera for the Hubble space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2807, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, E. S.

H. Ford, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, Z. I. Tsvetanov, F. Bartko, J. H. Crocker, P. Y. Bely, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, W. B. Sparks, R. L. White, T. Broadhurst, G. D. Illingworth, T. Kelly, R. A. Woodruff, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Kimble, C. A. Krebs, S. G. Neff, M. P. Lesser, and G. Miley, “Advanced camera for the Hubble space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2807, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chu, C.-T.

Clampin, M.

H. Ford, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, Z. I. Tsvetanov, F. Bartko, J. H. Crocker, P. Y. Bely, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, W. B. Sparks, R. L. White, T. Broadhurst, G. D. Illingworth, T. Kelly, R. A. Woodruff, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Kimble, C. A. Krebs, S. G. Neff, M. P. Lesser, and G. Miley, “Advanced camera for the Hubble space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2807, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Crocker, J. H.

H. Ford, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, Z. I. Tsvetanov, F. Bartko, J. H. Crocker, P. Y. Bely, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, W. B. Sparks, R. L. White, T. Broadhurst, G. D. Illingworth, T. Kelly, R. A. Woodruff, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Kimble, C. A. Krebs, S. G. Neff, M. P. Lesser, and G. Miley, “Advanced camera for the Hubble space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2807, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, P. D.

H. Ford, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, Z. I. Tsvetanov, F. Bartko, J. H. Crocker, P. Y. Bely, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, W. B. Sparks, R. L. White, T. Broadhurst, G. D. Illingworth, T. Kelly, R. A. Woodruff, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Kimble, C. A. Krebs, S. G. Neff, M. P. Lesser, and G. Miley, “Advanced camera for the Hubble space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2807, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ford, H.

H. Ford, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, Z. I. Tsvetanov, F. Bartko, J. H. Crocker, P. Y. Bely, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, W. B. Sparks, R. L. White, T. Broadhurst, G. D. Illingworth, T. Kelly, R. A. Woodruff, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Kimble, C. A. Krebs, S. G. Neff, M. P. Lesser, and G. Miley, “Advanced camera for the Hubble space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2807, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fuqua, P. D.

C.-T. Chu, P. D. Fuqua, and J. D. Barrie, “Corrosion characterization of durable silver coatings by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and accelerated environmental testing,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1583–1593 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. Fuqua and J. D. Barrie, “Optical properties and corrosion resistance of durable silver coatings,” in Properties and Processing of Vapor-Deposited Coatings, Vol. 555 of Materials Research Society Symposium Society Proceedings (Materials Research Society, 1999), pp. 85–90.

Golimowski, D. A.

H. Ford, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, Z. I. Tsvetanov, F. Bartko, J. H. Crocker, P. Y. Bely, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, W. B. Sparks, R. L. White, T. Broadhurst, G. D. Illingworth, T. Kelly, R. A. Woodruff, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Kimble, C. A. Krebs, S. G. Neff, M. P. Lesser, and G. Miley, “Advanced camera for the Hubble space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2807, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, B.

X. Xiong, W. L. Barnes, B. Guenther, and R. E. Murphy, “Lessons learned from MODIS,” Adv. Space Res. 32, 2107–2112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hanabusa, T.

K. Tominaga, T. Kikuma, and T. Hanabusa, “Energetic oxygen ions in ZrO2 deposition by reactive sputtering of Zr,” Vacuum 66, 279–284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hartig, G. F.

H. Ford, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, Z. I. Tsvetanov, F. Bartko, J. H. Crocker, P. Y. Bely, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, W. B. Sparks, R. L. White, T. Broadhurst, G. D. Illingworth, T. Kelly, R. A. Woodruff, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Kimble, C. A. Krebs, S. G. Neff, M. P. Lesser, and G. Miley, “Advanced camera for the Hubble space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2807, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Illingworth, G. D.

H. Ford, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, Z. I. Tsvetanov, F. Bartko, J. H. Crocker, P. Y. Bely, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, W. B. Sparks, R. L. White, T. Broadhurst, G. D. Illingworth, T. Kelly, R. A. Woodruff, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Kimble, C. A. Krebs, S. G. Neff, M. P. Lesser, and G. Miley, “Advanced camera for the Hubble space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2807, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, R. M.

P. V. Plunkett, R. M. Johnson, and C. D. Wiseman, “Stresses in sputter-deposited nickel and copper oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 64, 121–128 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, T.

H. Ford, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, Z. I. Tsvetanov, F. Bartko, J. H. Crocker, P. Y. Bely, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, W. B. Sparks, R. L. White, T. Broadhurst, G. D. Illingworth, T. Kelly, R. A. Woodruff, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Kimble, C. A. Krebs, S. G. Neff, M. P. Lesser, and G. Miley, “Advanced camera for the Hubble space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2807, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kikuma, T.

K. Tominaga, T. Kikuma, and T. Hanabusa, “Energetic oxygen ions in ZrO2 deposition by reactive sputtering of Zr,” Vacuum 66, 279–284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, R. A.

H. Ford, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, Z. I. Tsvetanov, F. Bartko, J. H. Crocker, P. Y. Bely, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, W. B. Sparks, R. L. White, T. Broadhurst, G. D. Illingworth, T. Kelly, R. A. Woodruff, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Kimble, C. A. Krebs, S. G. Neff, M. P. Lesser, and G. Miley, “Advanced camera for the Hubble space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2807, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krebs, C. A.

H. Ford, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, Z. I. Tsvetanov, F. Bartko, J. H. Crocker, P. Y. Bely, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, W. B. Sparks, R. L. White, T. Broadhurst, G. D. Illingworth, T. Kelly, R. A. Woodruff, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Kimble, C. A. Krebs, S. G. Neff, M. P. Lesser, and G. Miley, “Advanced camera for the Hubble space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2807, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lesser, M. P.

H. Ford, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, Z. I. Tsvetanov, F. Bartko, J. H. Crocker, P. Y. Bely, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, W. B. Sparks, R. L. White, T. Broadhurst, G. D. Illingworth, T. Kelly, R. A. Woodruff, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Kimble, C. A. Krebs, S. G. Neff, M. P. Lesser, and G. Miley, “Advanced camera for the Hubble space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2807, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miley, G.

H. Ford, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, Z. I. Tsvetanov, F. Bartko, J. H. Crocker, P. Y. Bely, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, W. B. Sparks, R. L. White, T. Broadhurst, G. D. Illingworth, T. Kelly, R. A. Woodruff, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Kimble, C. A. Krebs, S. G. Neff, M. P. Lesser, and G. Miley, “Advanced camera for the Hubble space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2807, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mraz, S.

S. Mraz and J. M. Schneider, “Influence of the negative oxygen ions on the structural evolution of transition metal oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 023503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, R. E.

X. Xiong, W. L. Barnes, B. Guenther, and R. E. Murphy, “Lessons learned from MODIS,” Adv. Space Res. 32, 2107–2112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Neff, S. G.

H. Ford, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, Z. I. Tsvetanov, F. Bartko, J. H. Crocker, P. Y. Bely, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, W. B. Sparks, R. L. White, T. Broadhurst, G. D. Illingworth, T. Kelly, R. A. Woodruff, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Kimble, C. A. Krebs, S. G. Neff, M. P. Lesser, and G. Miley, “Advanced camera for the Hubble space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2807, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pellicori, S. F.

Plunkett, P. V.

P. V. Plunkett, R. M. Johnson, and C. D. Wiseman, “Stresses in sputter-deposited nickel and copper oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 64, 121–128 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Postman, M.

H. Ford, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, Z. I. Tsvetanov, F. Bartko, J. H. Crocker, P. Y. Bely, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, W. B. Sparks, R. L. White, T. Broadhurst, G. D. Illingworth, T. Kelly, R. A. Woodruff, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Kimble, C. A. Krebs, S. G. Neff, M. P. Lesser, and G. Miley, “Advanced camera for the Hubble space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2807, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rafal, M. D.

H. Ford, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, Z. I. Tsvetanov, F. Bartko, J. H. Crocker, P. Y. Bely, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, W. B. Sparks, R. L. White, T. Broadhurst, G. D. Illingworth, T. Kelly, R. A. Woodruff, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Kimble, C. A. Krebs, S. G. Neff, M. P. Lesser, and G. Miley, “Advanced camera for the Hubble space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2807, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, J. M.

S. Mraz and J. M. Schneider, “Influence of the negative oxygen ions on the structural evolution of transition metal oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 023503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sparks, W. B.

H. Ford, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, Z. I. Tsvetanov, F. Bartko, J. H. Crocker, P. Y. Bely, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, W. B. Sparks, R. L. White, T. Broadhurst, G. D. Illingworth, T. Kelly, R. A. Woodruff, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Kimble, C. A. Krebs, S. G. Neff, M. P. Lesser, and G. Miley, “Advanced camera for the Hubble space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2807, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thwaites, M. J.

M. J. Thwaites, “High density plasmas,” U.S. patent 6,463,873 B1 (15 October 2002).

Tominaga, K.

K. Tominaga, T. Kikuma, and T. Hanabusa, “Energetic oxygen ions in ZrO2 deposition by reactive sputtering of Zr,” Vacuum 66, 279–284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsvetanov, Z. I.

H. Ford, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, Z. I. Tsvetanov, F. Bartko, J. H. Crocker, P. Y. Bely, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, W. B. Sparks, R. L. White, T. Broadhurst, G. D. Illingworth, T. Kelly, R. A. Woodruff, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Kimble, C. A. Krebs, S. G. Neff, M. P. Lesser, and G. Miley, “Advanced camera for the Hubble space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2807, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

White, R. L.

H. Ford, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, Z. I. Tsvetanov, F. Bartko, J. H. Crocker, P. Y. Bely, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, W. B. Sparks, R. L. White, T. Broadhurst, G. D. Illingworth, T. Kelly, R. A. Woodruff, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Kimble, C. A. Krebs, S. G. Neff, M. P. Lesser, and G. Miley, “Advanced camera for the Hubble space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2807, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Windischmann, H.

H. Windischmann, “Intrinsic stress in sputter-deposited thin films,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 17, 547–596 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wiseman, C. D.

P. V. Plunkett, R. M. Johnson, and C. D. Wiseman, “Stresses in sputter-deposited nickel and copper oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 64, 121–128 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Woodruff, R. A.

H. Ford, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, Z. I. Tsvetanov, F. Bartko, J. H. Crocker, P. Y. Bely, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, W. B. Sparks, R. L. White, T. Broadhurst, G. D. Illingworth, T. Kelly, R. A. Woodruff, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Kimble, C. A. Krebs, S. G. Neff, M. P. Lesser, and G. Miley, “Advanced camera for the Hubble space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2807, 184–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, A.

X. Xiong, A. Wu, and A. Angal, “Assessment of MODIS scan mirror reflectance changes on-orbit,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 70810B (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, X.

X. Xiong, A. Wu, and A. Angal, “Assessment of MODIS scan mirror reflectance changes on-orbit,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 70810B (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiong, W. L. Barnes, B. Guenther, and R. E. Murphy, “Lessons learned from MODIS,” Adv. Space Res. 32, 2107–2112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res. (1)

X. Xiong, W. L. Barnes, B. Guenther, and R. E. Murphy, “Lessons learned from MODIS,” Adv. Space Res. 32, 2107–2112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. (1)

H. Windischmann, “Intrinsic stress in sputter-deposited thin films,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 17, 547–596 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Mraz and J. M. Schneider, “Influence of the negative oxygen ions on the structural evolution of transition metal oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 023503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

X. Xiong, A. Wu, and A. Angal, “Assessment of MODIS scan mirror reflectance changes on-orbit,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 70810B (2008).
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H. Ford, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, Z. I. Tsvetanov, F. Bartko, J. H. Crocker, P. Y. Bely, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, W. B. Sparks, R. L. White, T. Broadhurst, G. D. Illingworth, T. Kelly, R. A. Woodruff, E. S. Cheng, R. A. Kimble, C. A. Krebs, S. G. Neff, M. P. Lesser, and G. Miley, “Advanced camera for the Hubble space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2807, 184–196 (1996).
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Thin Solid Films (1)

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[CrossRef]

Vacuum (1)

K. Tominaga, T. Kikuma, and T. Hanabusa, “Energetic oxygen ions in ZrO2 deposition by reactive sputtering of Zr,” Vacuum 66, 279–284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

P. D. Fuqua and J. D. Barrie, “Optical properties and corrosion resistance of durable silver coatings,” in Properties and Processing of Vapor-Deposited Coatings, Vol. 555 of Materials Research Society Symposium Society Proceedings (Materials Research Society, 1999), pp. 85–90.

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P. Baumeister, Optical Coating Technology (SPIE, 2004), pp. 9–73.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The honeycomb structure of this mirror results in a very light weight structure that is susceptible to quilting that can result from a high stress mirror coating (polished mirror blank image provided by ITT Corporation, used with permission).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plasma beam deposition system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectance spectrum of a silver mirror prepared by plasma beam sputtering. The peak visible reflectance exceeds 98%.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Stress in the zirconium dioxide dielectric layers as a function of bias voltage on the zirconium target during deposition.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a), (b) Index of refraction versus wavelength for zirconium dioxide films prepared under two different target bias conditions without substrate bias, and (c) with 20 V substrate bias. The stress of the films was (a) 550, (b) 1520, and (c) 1900 MPa , even though the conditions in (c) would have produced a stress intermediate to (a) and (b) without addition of substrate bias.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reflectance spectra of a stress-balanced silver mirror before and after salt-fog testing.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reflectance spectra of silver mirrors before and after salt-fog testing. (a) Note that the mirror without the adhesion layer is initially slightly more reflective, but (b) that it is severely degraded after just 2 h . (c), (d) The reflectance of the sample with the adhesion layer is unchanged.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dark field images of the samples in Fig. 7, before and after the salt-fog testing. (a) The sample without the adhesion layer is (b) severely degraded, while (c) that with the adhesion layer only exhibits (d) a few small surface defects.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Photomicrographs of silver mirrors with (a) 0.2 and (b) 0.3 nm adhesion layer after 24 h exposure to salt fog. Even a slight increase in the adhesion layer thickness improves the stability of the mirror.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Reflectance spectra of a silver mirror before and after salt-fog testing. An adhesion layer thickness of only 0.2 nm is sufficient to enable the mirror to withstand a 24 h exposure.

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