Abstract

Very narrowband transmission filters, as parts of an instrument for the study of lightning phenomena, are described. Their performance must be maintained at an incidence angle of ±5.5° and this condition poses some limitations on the minimum bandwidth of the order of a few nanometers. The fabrication of such coatings on large area substrates is quite challenging because of the required thickness accuracy. Moreover, their performance should be not influenced by the environmental conditions in space.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Hawkins, R. Sherwood, and K. Djotni, “Mid-infrared filters for astronomical and remote sensing instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 710114 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Piegari, A. K. Sytchkova, J. Bulir, B. Harnisch, and A. Wuttig, “Thin-film filters for a high resolution miniaturised spectrometer,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 710113 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Piegari, J. Bulir, and A. K. Sytchkova, “Variable narrowband transmission filters for spectrometry from space. Fabrication process,” Appl. Opt. 47, C151–C156 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Meteosat Third Generation, document MTG-ESA-SA-RS-0055 (July 2009).
  5. J. A. Dobrowolski, “Coatings and filters,” in Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1978), Section 8.

2008

G. Hawkins, R. Sherwood, and K. Djotni, “Mid-infrared filters for astronomical and remote sensing instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 710114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Piegari, A. K. Sytchkova, J. Bulir, B. Harnisch, and A. Wuttig, “Thin-film filters for a high resolution miniaturised spectrometer,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 710113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

Bulir, J.

A. Piegari, A. K. Sytchkova, J. Bulir, B. Harnisch, and A. Wuttig, “Thin-film filters for a high resolution miniaturised spectrometer,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 710113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Piegari, J. Bulir, and A. K. Sytchkova, “Variable narrowband transmission filters for spectrometry from space. Fabrication process,” Appl. Opt. 47, C151–C156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Djotni, K.

G. Hawkins, R. Sherwood, and K. Djotni, “Mid-infrared filters for astronomical and remote sensing instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 710114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dobrowolski, J. A.

J. A. Dobrowolski, “Coatings and filters,” in Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1978), Section 8.

Harnisch, B.

A. Piegari, A. K. Sytchkova, J. Bulir, B. Harnisch, and A. Wuttig, “Thin-film filters for a high resolution miniaturised spectrometer,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 710113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, G.

G. Hawkins, R. Sherwood, and K. Djotni, “Mid-infrared filters for astronomical and remote sensing instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 710114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Piegari, A.

A. Piegari, A. K. Sytchkova, J. Bulir, B. Harnisch, and A. Wuttig, “Thin-film filters for a high resolution miniaturised spectrometer,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 710113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Piegari, J. Bulir, and A. K. Sytchkova, “Variable narrowband transmission filters for spectrometry from space. Fabrication process,” Appl. Opt. 47, C151–C156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sherwood, R.

G. Hawkins, R. Sherwood, and K. Djotni, “Mid-infrared filters for astronomical and remote sensing instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 710114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sytchkova, A. K.

A. Piegari, A. K. Sytchkova, J. Bulir, B. Harnisch, and A. Wuttig, “Thin-film filters for a high resolution miniaturised spectrometer,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 710113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Piegari, J. Bulir, and A. K. Sytchkova, “Variable narrowband transmission filters for spectrometry from space. Fabrication process,” Appl. Opt. 47, C151–C156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wuttig, A.

A. Piegari, A. K. Sytchkova, J. Bulir, B. Harnisch, and A. Wuttig, “Thin-film filters for a high resolution miniaturised spectrometer,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 710113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Proc. SPIE

G. Hawkins, R. Sherwood, and K. Djotni, “Mid-infrared filters for astronomical and remote sensing instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 710114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Piegari, A. K. Sytchkova, J. Bulir, B. Harnisch, and A. Wuttig, “Thin-film filters for a high resolution miniaturised spectrometer,” Proc. SPIE 7101, 710113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

Meteosat Third Generation, document MTG-ESA-SA-RS-0055 (July 2009).

J. A. Dobrowolski, “Coatings and filters,” in Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1978), Section 8.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmittance of the 35 layer double-cavity filter under illumination with (a) collimated beam, at normal incidence (black curve) and incidence angle ± 5.5 ° (gray curve) and (b) convergent beam, semi-angle 5.5 ° , compared to the useful transmission band (dashed line).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Thickness error simulation: (a) effect of 0.1% random errors in all layers on the performance of the double-cavity filter, (b) 0.1% random error in all layers except the spacers, (c) 1% random errors in all layers, (d) effect of 5% increase in layer 15 compensated with 5% decrease in layer 16 (dashed curve overlapped to the initial solid curve) and effect of an increase of 5% in layer 7 with a correspondent decrease of 5% in layer 8 (dotted curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated transmittance of (a) the blocking filter, (b) the narrowband filter, and (c) the combination of the two filters.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Mask design and (b) picture of mounting inside the vacuum chamber.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Radial distribution of deposited thickness ( Ti O 2 material) over the surface of a substrate with radius of 40 mm , without (red squares) and with masking (black circles).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured transmittance at normal incidence of a 35 layer double-cavity filter fabricated by dual ion beam sputtering.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Behavior of (a) a Ti O 2 film after temperature cycling and of (b) a narrowband filter after proton irradiation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Behavior of (a) a Ti O 2 single layer and (b) a narrowband filter, after gamma irradiation.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Refractive Index of Ti O 2 and Si O 2 Sputtered Films

Equations (2)

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δ λ λ 0 = θ 2 2 μ * 2 .
δ λ λ 0 = α 2 4 μ * 2 ,

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