Abstract

In a forced light scattering experiment, after the diffraction efficiency arrives to a stable state, both direct current (DC) voltage and two writing beams are turned off, and then by reapplication of the DC voltage we observed a peak. We provide an explanation based on periodically changed anchoring energy and also discuss the evolution of diffraction efficiency under different grating constants, laser polarization, and the direction of the optical axis of a liquid crystal cell. Experiment results show that photo-introduced charge density is nearly in proportion to the intensity of writing beams.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals (Wiley Interscience, 1995), p. 45.
  2. I. C. Khoo, H. Li, and Y. Liang, “Observation of orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1723–1725 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. I. C. Khoo, “Orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystal films,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525–534 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. C. Khoo, “Holographic grating formation in dye- and fullerene C60-doped nematic liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2137–2139 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Xiang, Y. K. Liu, T. Li, S. L. Yang, and Z. J. Jiang, “Laser induced gratings enhanced by surface-charge mediated electric field in doped nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 063107 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. L. Wu, G. G. Siu, C. L. Fu, and H. C. Ong, “Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2285–2287(2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Y. Garces, L. Wang, L. Bai, N. C. Giles, L. E. Halliburton, and G. Cantwell, “Role of copper in the green luminescence from ZnO crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 622–624 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Abdullah, T. Morimoto, and K. Okuyama, “Generating blue and red luminescence from ZnO/Poly (ethylene glycol) nanocomposites prepared using an in-situ method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 800–804 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. K. Shan, G. X. Liu, W. J. Lee, G. H. Lee, I. S. Kim, and B. C. Shin, “Aging effect and origin of deep-level emission in ZnO thin film deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221910 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shin, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, “Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation,” Proc. SPIE 87, 1897–1911 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Q. Zhang, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, “Orientational photorefractive effect in nematic liquid crystal with externally applied fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1709–1717 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M. Y. Shih, P. Chen, and W. V. Wood, “Optically induced space-charge field, dc voltage, and extraordinarily large nonlinearity in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23, 253–255 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Y. Xiang, Y. K. Liu, T. Li, S. L. Yang, and Z. J. Jiang, “Laser induced gratings enhanced by surface-charge mediated electric field in doped nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 063107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

F. K. Shan, G. X. Liu, W. J. Lee, G. H. Lee, I. S. Kim, and B. C. Shin, “Aging effect and origin of deep-level emission in ZnO thin film deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221910 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Abdullah, T. Morimoto, and K. Okuyama, “Generating blue and red luminescence from ZnO/Poly (ethylene glycol) nanocomposites prepared using an in-situ method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 800–804 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. Y. Garces, L. Wang, L. Bai, N. C. Giles, L. E. Halliburton, and G. Cantwell, “Role of copper in the green luminescence from ZnO crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 622–624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

X. L. Wu, G. G. Siu, C. L. Fu, and H. C. Ong, “Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2285–2287(2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

G. Q. Zhang, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, “Orientational photorefractive effect in nematic liquid crystal with externally applied fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1709–1717 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shin, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, “Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation,” Proc. SPIE 87, 1897–1911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

I. C. Khoo, “Orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystal films,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525–534 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

Abdullah, M.

M. Abdullah, T. Morimoto, and K. Okuyama, “Generating blue and red luminescence from ZnO/Poly (ethylene glycol) nanocomposites prepared using an in-situ method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 800–804 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bai, L.

N. Y. Garces, L. Wang, L. Bai, N. C. Giles, L. E. Halliburton, and G. Cantwell, “Role of copper in the green luminescence from ZnO crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 622–624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cantwell, G.

N. Y. Garces, L. Wang, L. Bai, N. C. Giles, L. E. Halliburton, and G. Cantwell, “Role of copper in the green luminescence from ZnO crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 622–624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

Chen, P. H.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shin, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, “Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation,” Proc. SPIE 87, 1897–1911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Francescangeli, O.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shin, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, “Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation,” Proc. SPIE 87, 1897–1911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fu, C. L.

X. L. Wu, G. G. Siu, C. L. Fu, and H. C. Ong, “Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2285–2287(2001).
[CrossRef]

Garces, N. Y.

N. Y. Garces, L. Wang, L. Bai, N. C. Giles, L. E. Halliburton, and G. Cantwell, “Role of copper in the green luminescence from ZnO crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 622–624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Giles, N. C.

N. Y. Garces, L. Wang, L. Bai, N. C. Giles, L. E. Halliburton, and G. Cantwell, “Role of copper in the green luminescence from ZnO crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 622–624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, B. D.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shin, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, “Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation,” Proc. SPIE 87, 1897–1911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M. Y. Shih, P. Chen, and W. V. Wood, “Optically induced space-charge field, dc voltage, and extraordinarily large nonlinearity in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23, 253–255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gunter, P.

G. Q. Zhang, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, “Orientational photorefractive effect in nematic liquid crystal with externally applied fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1709–1717 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Halliburton, L. E.

N. Y. Garces, L. Wang, L. Bai, N. C. Giles, L. E. Halliburton, and G. Cantwell, “Role of copper in the green luminescence from ZnO crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 622–624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z. J.

Y. Xiang, Y. K. Liu, T. Li, S. L. Yang, and Z. J. Jiang, “Laser induced gratings enhanced by surface-charge mediated electric field in doped nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 063107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shin, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, “Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation,” Proc. SPIE 87, 1897–1911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M. Y. Shih, P. Chen, and W. V. Wood, “Optically induced space-charge field, dc voltage, and extraordinarily large nonlinearity in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23, 253–255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, “Orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystal films,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525–534 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, “Holographic grating formation in dye- and fullerene C60-doped nematic liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2137–2139 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, H. Li, and Y. Liang, “Observation of orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1723–1725 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals (Wiley Interscience, 1995), p. 45.

Kim, I. S.

F. K. Shan, G. X. Liu, W. J. Lee, G. H. Lee, I. S. Kim, and B. C. Shin, “Aging effect and origin of deep-level emission in ZnO thin film deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221910 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G. H.

F. K. Shan, G. X. Liu, W. J. Lee, G. H. Lee, I. S. Kim, and B. C. Shin, “Aging effect and origin of deep-level emission in ZnO thin film deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221910 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. J.

F. K. Shan, G. X. Liu, W. J. Lee, G. H. Lee, I. S. Kim, and B. C. Shin, “Aging effect and origin of deep-level emission in ZnO thin film deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221910 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Li, T.

Y. Xiang, Y. K. Liu, T. Li, S. L. Yang, and Z. J. Jiang, “Laser induced gratings enhanced by surface-charge mediated electric field in doped nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 063107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Y.

Liu, G. X.

F. K. Shan, G. X. Liu, W. J. Lee, G. H. Lee, I. S. Kim, and B. C. Shin, “Aging effect and origin of deep-level emission in ZnO thin film deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221910 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. K.

Y. Xiang, Y. K. Liu, T. Li, S. L. Yang, and Z. J. Jiang, “Laser induced gratings enhanced by surface-charge mediated electric field in doped nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 063107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lucchetti, L.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shin, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, “Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation,” Proc. SPIE 87, 1897–1911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Montemezzani, G.

G. Q. Zhang, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, “Orientational photorefractive effect in nematic liquid crystal with externally applied fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1709–1717 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morimoto, T.

M. Abdullah, T. Morimoto, and K. Okuyama, “Generating blue and red luminescence from ZnO/Poly (ethylene glycol) nanocomposites prepared using an in-situ method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 800–804 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Okuyama, K.

M. Abdullah, T. Morimoto, and K. Okuyama, “Generating blue and red luminescence from ZnO/Poly (ethylene glycol) nanocomposites prepared using an in-situ method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 800–804 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ong, H. C.

X. L. Wu, G. G. Siu, C. L. Fu, and H. C. Ong, “Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2285–2287(2001).
[CrossRef]

Shan, F. K.

F. K. Shan, G. X. Liu, W. J. Lee, G. H. Lee, I. S. Kim, and B. C. Shin, “Aging effect and origin of deep-level emission in ZnO thin film deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221910 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shih, M. Y.

Shin, B. C.

F. K. Shan, G. X. Liu, W. J. Lee, G. H. Lee, I. S. Kim, and B. C. Shin, “Aging effect and origin of deep-level emission in ZnO thin film deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221910 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shin, M. Y.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shin, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, “Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation,” Proc. SPIE 87, 1897–1911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Simoni, F.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shin, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, “Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation,” Proc. SPIE 87, 1897–1911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Siu, G. G.

X. L. Wu, G. G. Siu, C. L. Fu, and H. C. Ong, “Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2285–2287(2001).
[CrossRef]

Slussarenko, S.

Slussarenko, S. S.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shin, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, “Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation,” Proc. SPIE 87, 1897–1911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

N. Y. Garces, L. Wang, L. Bai, N. C. Giles, L. E. Halliburton, and G. Cantwell, “Role of copper in the green luminescence from ZnO crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 622–624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wood, M. V.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shin, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, “Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation,” Proc. SPIE 87, 1897–1911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wood, W. V.

Wu, X. L.

X. L. Wu, G. G. Siu, C. L. Fu, and H. C. Ong, “Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2285–2287(2001).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, Y.

Y. Xiang, Y. K. Liu, T. Li, S. L. Yang, and Z. J. Jiang, “Laser induced gratings enhanced by surface-charge mediated electric field in doped nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 063107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. L.

Y. Xiang, Y. K. Liu, T. Li, S. L. Yang, and Z. J. Jiang, “Laser induced gratings enhanced by surface-charge mediated electric field in doped nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 063107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. Q.

G. Q. Zhang, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, “Orientational photorefractive effect in nematic liquid crystal with externally applied fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1709–1717 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

M. Abdullah, T. Morimoto, and K. Okuyama, “Generating blue and red luminescence from ZnO/Poly (ethylene glycol) nanocomposites prepared using an in-situ method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 800–804 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

F. K. Shan, G. X. Liu, W. J. Lee, G. H. Lee, I. S. Kim, and B. C. Shin, “Aging effect and origin of deep-level emission in ZnO thin film deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221910 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Wu, G. G. Siu, C. L. Fu, and H. C. Ong, “Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2285–2287(2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Garces, L. Wang, L. Bai, N. C. Giles, L. E. Halliburton, and G. Cantwell, “Role of copper in the green luminescence from ZnO crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 622–624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. C. Khoo, “Orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystal films,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525–534 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

G. Q. Zhang, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, “Orientational photorefractive effect in nematic liquid crystal with externally applied fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1709–1717 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xiang, Y. K. Liu, T. Li, S. L. Yang, and Z. J. Jiang, “Laser induced gratings enhanced by surface-charge mediated electric field in doped nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 063107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shin, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, “Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation,” Proc. SPIE 87, 1897–1911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals (Wiley Interscience, 1995), p. 45.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diffraction efficiency as a function of grating constant under different DC voltage.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffraction efficiency as a function of DC voltage under different condition. (a) Laser polarization and optical axis of LC both along the horizontal direction, (b) laser polarization along the horizontal direction while optical axis of LC along the vertical direction, (c) laser polarization along the vertical direction while optical axis of LC along the horizontal direction, and (d) laser polarization and optical axis of LC both along the vertical direction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evolution of diffraction efficiency under different conditions. (a) At 14 s both DC voltage and two writing beams are turned off, and at 17 s DC voltage is reapplied. (b) At 14 s both DC voltage and two writing beams are turned off, and at 33 s DC voltage is reapplied.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffraction efficiency as a function of laser power of writing beam. The dots correspond to experiment dates, while the curve corresponds to the fitting of the dots.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η = I 4.2 .
η ( π Δ n d / λ ) 2 .
Δ n = C E ph 2 ,
η E ph 4 .
ρ I 1.05 .

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