Abstract

We systemically investigate the chain formation speed in magnetic fluid (MF) at various volume fractions, temperatures, and magnetic fields. Experiments are carried out on a water-based Fe3O4 MF to investigate the agglomeration response of the nanoparticles under an applied magnetic field. The transmission of light is monitored to determine the response time undergoing a squared pulsed external magnetic field. The results reveal that enhancement of the response performance of photonic devices based on MF can be realized by properly adjusting the physical parameters, which are essential for both the phys ics of chain formation and practical applications.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Li, X. Liu, Y. Lin, L. Bai, Q. Li, and X. Chen, “Field modulation of light transmission through ferrofluid film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253108 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. E. Horng, S. Y. Yang, S. L. Lee, and C.-Y. Hong, “Magnetochromatics of the magnetic fluid film under a dynamic magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 350–352 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931–4933 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, and S. Y. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30, 543–545 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. I. M. Jiang, M. S. Tsai, C. K. Lu, and H. E. Horng, “Ordering formation of columnar lattices in magnetic fluid thin films subjected to oscillating perpendicular magnetic fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 245–247 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Pu, T. Geng, X. Chen, X. Zeng, M. Liu, and Z. Di, “Tuning the band gap of self-assembled superparamagnetic photonic crystals in colloidal magnetic fluids using external magnetic fields,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 320, 2345–2349 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J.-W. Seo, S. J. Park, and K. O. Jang, “An experimental study of light modulator using magnetic fluid,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 5956–5958 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C.-Y. Hong, “Optical switch devices using the magnetic fluid thin films,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 201, 178–181 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592–5594 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Pu, X. Chen, Z. Di, and Y. Xia, “Relaxation property of the magnetic-fluid-based fiber-optic evanescent field modulator,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 053532 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Y. Yang, Y. T. Hsiao, Y. W. Huang, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Retarded response of the optical transmittance through a magnetic fluid film under switching-on/off external magnetic fields,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 281, 48–52(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C.-Y. Hong, “Field-induced structural anisotropy in magnetic fluids,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 5962–5964 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Taketomi, S. Ogawa, H. Miyajima, and S. Chikazumi, “Magnetic birefringence and dichroism in magnetic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 4, 384–394 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. Pu, T. Geng, X. Chen, X. Zeng, M. Liu, and Z. Di, “Tuning the band gap of self-assembled superparamagnetic photonic crystals in colloidal magnetic fluids using external magnetic fields,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 320, 2345–2349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. Pu, X. Chen, Z. Di, and Y. Xia, “Relaxation property of the magnetic-fluid-based fiber-optic evanescent field modulator,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 053532 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, X. Liu, Y. Lin, L. Bai, Q. Li, and X. Chen, “Field modulation of light transmission through ferrofluid film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, and S. Y. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30, 543–545 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

S. Y. Yang, Y. T. Hsiao, Y. W. Huang, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Retarded response of the optical transmittance through a magnetic fluid film under switching-on/off external magnetic fields,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 281, 48–52(2004).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Jiang, M. S. Tsai, C. K. Lu, and H. E. Horng, “Ordering formation of columnar lattices in magnetic fluid thin films subjected to oscillating perpendicular magnetic fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 245–247 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592–5594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931–4933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. E. Horng, S. Y. Yang, S. L. Lee, and C.-Y. Hong, “Magnetochromatics of the magnetic fluid film under a dynamic magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 350–352 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

J.-W. Seo, S. J. Park, and K. O. Jang, “An experimental study of light modulator using magnetic fluid,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 5956–5958 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Hong, “Optical switch devices using the magnetic fluid thin films,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 201, 178–181 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Hong, “Field-induced structural anisotropy in magnetic fluids,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 5962–5964 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. Taketomi, S. Ogawa, H. Miyajima, and S. Chikazumi, “Magnetic birefringence and dichroism in magnetic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 4, 384–394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bai, L.

J. Li, X. Liu, Y. Lin, L. Bai, Q. Li, and X. Chen, “Field modulation of light transmission through ferrofluid film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chao, Y. H.

Chen, C. S.

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592–5594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

S. Pu, T. Geng, X. Chen, X. Zeng, M. Liu, and Z. Di, “Tuning the band gap of self-assembled superparamagnetic photonic crystals in colloidal magnetic fluids using external magnetic fields,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 320, 2345–2349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, Z. Di, and Y. Xia, “Relaxation property of the magnetic-fluid-based fiber-optic evanescent field modulator,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 053532 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, X. Liu, Y. Lin, L. Bai, Q. Li, and X. Chen, “Field modulation of light transmission through ferrofluid film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931–4933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chieh, J. J.

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, and S. Y. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30, 543–545 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592–5594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chikazumi, S.

S. Taketomi, S. Ogawa, H. Miyajima, and S. Chikazumi, “Magnetic birefringence and dichroism in magnetic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 4, 384–394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Di, Z.

S. Pu, T. Geng, X. Chen, X. Zeng, M. Liu, and Z. Di, “Tuning the band gap of self-assembled superparamagnetic photonic crystals in colloidal magnetic fluids using external magnetic fields,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 320, 2345–2349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, Z. Di, and Y. Xia, “Relaxation property of the magnetic-fluid-based fiber-optic evanescent field modulator,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 053532 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fang, K. L.

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592–5594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Geng, T.

S. Pu, T. Geng, X. Chen, X. Zeng, M. Liu, and Z. Di, “Tuning the band gap of self-assembled superparamagnetic photonic crystals in colloidal magnetic fluids using external magnetic fields,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 320, 2345–2349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.-Y.

S. Y. Yang, Y. T. Hsiao, Y. W. Huang, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Retarded response of the optical transmittance through a magnetic fluid film under switching-on/off external magnetic fields,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 281, 48–52(2004).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592–5594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931–4933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, S. Y. Yang, S. L. Lee, and C.-Y. Hong, “Magnetochromatics of the magnetic fluid film under a dynamic magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 350–352 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Hong, “Field-induced structural anisotropy in magnetic fluids,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 5962–5964 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Hong, “Optical switch devices using the magnetic fluid thin films,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 201, 178–181 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Horng, H. E.

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, and S. Y. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30, 543–545 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Jiang, M. S. Tsai, C. K. Lu, and H. E. Horng, “Ordering formation of columnar lattices in magnetic fluid thin films subjected to oscillating perpendicular magnetic fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 245–247 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592–5594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. T. Hsiao, Y. W. Huang, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Retarded response of the optical transmittance through a magnetic fluid film under switching-on/off external magnetic fields,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 281, 48–52(2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931–4933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, S. Y. Yang, S. L. Lee, and C.-Y. Hong, “Magnetochromatics of the magnetic fluid film under a dynamic magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 350–352 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, Y. T.

S. Y. Yang, Y. T. Hsiao, Y. W. Huang, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Retarded response of the optical transmittance through a magnetic fluid film under switching-on/off external magnetic fields,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 281, 48–52(2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. W.

S. Y. Yang, Y. T. Hsiao, Y. W. Huang, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Retarded response of the optical transmittance through a magnetic fluid film under switching-on/off external magnetic fields,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 281, 48–52(2004).
[CrossRef]

Jang, K. O.

J.-W. Seo, S. J. Park, and K. O. Jang, “An experimental study of light modulator using magnetic fluid,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 5956–5958 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, I. M.

I. M. Jiang, M. S. Tsai, C. K. Lu, and H. E. Horng, “Ordering formation of columnar lattices in magnetic fluid thin films subjected to oscillating perpendicular magnetic fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 245–247 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. L.

H. E. Horng, S. Y. Yang, S. L. Lee, and C.-Y. Hong, “Magnetochromatics of the magnetic fluid film under a dynamic magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 350–352 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, X. Liu, Y. Lin, L. Bai, Q. Li, and X. Chen, “Field modulation of light transmission through ferrofluid film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

J. Li, X. Liu, Y. Lin, L. Bai, Q. Li, and X. Chen, “Field modulation of light transmission through ferrofluid film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, W.

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.

J. Li, X. Liu, Y. Lin, L. Bai, Q. Li, and X. Chen, “Field modulation of light transmission through ferrofluid film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

S. Pu, T. Geng, X. Chen, X. Zeng, M. Liu, and Z. Di, “Tuning the band gap of self-assembled superparamagnetic photonic crystals in colloidal magnetic fluids using external magnetic fields,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 320, 2345–2349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

J. Li, X. Liu, Y. Lin, L. Bai, Q. Li, and X. Chen, “Field modulation of light transmission through ferrofluid film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C. K.

I. M. Jiang, M. S. Tsai, C. K. Lu, and H. E. Horng, “Ordering formation of columnar lattices in magnetic fluid thin films subjected to oscillating perpendicular magnetic fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 245–247 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miyajima, H.

S. Taketomi, S. Ogawa, H. Miyajima, and S. Chikazumi, “Magnetic birefringence and dichroism in magnetic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 4, 384–394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, S.

S. Taketomi, S. Ogawa, H. Miyajima, and S. Chikazumi, “Magnetic birefringence and dichroism in magnetic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 4, 384–394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

J.-W. Seo, S. J. Park, and K. O. Jang, “An experimental study of light modulator using magnetic fluid,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 5956–5958 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pu, S.

S. Pu, T. Geng, X. Chen, X. Zeng, M. Liu, and Z. Di, “Tuning the band gap of self-assembled superparamagnetic photonic crystals in colloidal magnetic fluids using external magnetic fields,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 320, 2345–2349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, Z. Di, and Y. Xia, “Relaxation property of the magnetic-fluid-based fiber-optic evanescent field modulator,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 053532 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seo, J.-W.

J.-W. Seo, S. J. Park, and K. O. Jang, “An experimental study of light modulator using magnetic fluid,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 5956–5958 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taketomi, S.

S. Taketomi, S. Ogawa, H. Miyajima, and S. Chikazumi, “Magnetic birefringence and dichroism in magnetic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 4, 384–394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M. S.

I. M. Jiang, M. S. Tsai, C. K. Lu, and H. E. Horng, “Ordering formation of columnar lattices in magnetic fluid thin films subjected to oscillating perpendicular magnetic fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 245–247 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tse, W. S.

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931–4933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

S. Pu, X. Chen, Z. Di, and Y. Xia, “Relaxation property of the magnetic-fluid-based fiber-optic evanescent field modulator,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 053532 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. C.

S. Y. Yang, Y. T. Hsiao, Y. W. Huang, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Retarded response of the optical transmittance through a magnetic fluid film under switching-on/off external magnetic fields,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 281, 48–52(2004).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592–5594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931–4933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. Y.

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, and S. Y. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30, 543–545 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592–5594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. T. Hsiao, Y. W. Huang, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Retarded response of the optical transmittance through a magnetic fluid film under switching-on/off external magnetic fields,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 281, 48–52(2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931–4933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, S. Y. Yang, S. L. Lee, and C.-Y. Hong, “Magnetochromatics of the magnetic fluid film under a dynamic magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 350–352 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, X.

S. Pu, T. Geng, X. Chen, X. Zeng, M. Liu, and Z. Di, “Tuning the band gap of self-assembled superparamagnetic photonic crystals in colloidal magnetic fluids using external magnetic fields,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 320, 2345–2349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

I. M. Jiang, M. S. Tsai, C. K. Lu, and H. E. Horng, “Ordering formation of columnar lattices in magnetic fluid thin films subjected to oscillating perpendicular magnetic fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 245–247 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592–5594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, L. Chen, W. Liao, Y. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable magnetic fluid grating by applying a magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, X. Liu, Y. Lin, L. Bai, Q. Li, and X. Chen, “Field modulation of light transmission through ferrofluid film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, S. Y. Yang, S. L. Lee, and C.-Y. Hong, “Magnetochromatics of the magnetic fluid film under a dynamic magnetic field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 350–352 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931–4933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Magn. (1)

S. Taketomi, S. Ogawa, H. Miyajima, and S. Chikazumi, “Magnetic birefringence and dichroism in magnetic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 4, 384–394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

C.-Y. Hong, “Field-induced structural anisotropy in magnetic fluids,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 5962–5964 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, Z. Di, and Y. Xia, “Relaxation property of the magnetic-fluid-based fiber-optic evanescent field modulator,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 053532 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-W. Seo, S. J. Park, and K. O. Jang, “An experimental study of light modulator using magnetic fluid,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 5956–5958 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Magn. Magn. Mater. (3)

C.-Y. Hong, “Optical switch devices using the magnetic fluid thin films,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 201, 178–181 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, T. Geng, X. Chen, X. Zeng, M. Liu, and Z. Di, “Tuning the band gap of self-assembled superparamagnetic photonic crystals in colloidal magnetic fluids using external magnetic fields,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 320, 2345–2349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. T. Hsiao, Y. W. Huang, H. E. Horng, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Retarded response of the optical transmittance through a magnetic fluid film under switching-on/off external magnetic fields,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 281, 48–52(2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic working principle for measuring the response time of MF.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmittance as a function of time: (a) for volume fractions of 0.44%, 0.86%, 1.08%, 3.24%, and 6.47%; (b) for temperatures of 30 ° C , 42 ° C , 52 ° C , 60 ° C , 70 ° C , 80 ° C , and 90 ° C ; and (c) for magnetic fields of 48, 102, 152, 252, 302, 352, 399, 499, 547, and 596 Oe . (d) Ratio of absorption and scattering cross-section term versus the number of nanoparticles forming chains.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Falling and rising response times of the MF: (a), (d) with increasing volume fraction, (b), (e) with increasing temperature, and (c), (f) with increasing magnetic field.

Equations (2)

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T = exp [ 2 π ( d λ ) Φ ( 4 π σ / ω [ 1 + N ( ε 1 ) ] 2 + 4 ( 2 π ) 2 3 ν 0 λ 3 [ ε 1 1 + N ( ε 1 ) ] 2 n c ) ] ,
ψ abs ψ scat = 3 σ λ 3 4 π v 0 ω ( ε 1 ) 2 n c = 6.6466 × 10 8 n c .

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