Abstract

To overcome the serious current crowding effect in top-emitting vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) with large aperture, a distributed-ring-contact (DRC) VCSEL is proposed and demonstrated. A maximal cw light output power of more than 0.3W and a wall-plug efficiency of 17.4% are achieved for a 300μm-diameter VCSEL. The DRC VCSEL exhibits a more homogeneous emission profile, and the laser emits at 803.3nm with a narrow spectrum (less than 0.2nm FWHM).

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Iga, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser: its conception and evolution,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1–10 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Miller, M. Grabherr, R. King, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, “Improved output performance of high-power VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 210–216(2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Q. Li, J. Zhang, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, Y. Q. Ning, C. L. Yan, L. Qin, Y. Liu, L. J. Wang, and J. L. Cao, “Optimal designs for high-power vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Acta Phys. Sin. 53, 2986–2990 (2004).
  4. L. A. D’Asaro, J.-F. Seurin, and J. D. Wynn, “High-power, high-efficiency VCSELs pursue the goal,” Photon. Spectra 39, 64–66 (2005).
  5. M. Grabherr, M. Miller, R. Jäger, D. Wiedenmann, and R. King, “Commercial VCSELs reach 0.1 W cw output power,” Proc. SPIE 5364, 174–182 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. F. Seurin, G. Y. Xu, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, C. L. Ghosh, and L. A. D’Asaro, “Progress in high-power high-efficiency VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722903 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Ning, L. Qin, Y. Wang, J. J. Cui, G. Y. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. F. Wang, Y. F. Sun, Y. Liu, and L. J. Wang, “High-power vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with an optimized p-contact diameter,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3793–3797 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Falko, C. Gordon, M. Youri, V. G. Bart, T. Hugo, L. Uli, and V. Guy, “Low-speckle laser projection with a broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser in the nonmodal emission regime,” Appl. Opt. 48, 792–798 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. L. Lear, S. P. Kilcoyne, and S. A. Chalmers, “High power conversion efficiencies and scaling issues for multimode vertical-cavity top-surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 778–781 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Wu, G. Iordache, H. D. Summers, and J. S. Roberts, “Optical characteristics of VCSEL pumped microchip lasers,” Opt. Commun. 196, 251–256 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Nakwask and P. Mac’Kowiak, “Transverse-mode selectivity in possible nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 1037–1054 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2010

2009

R. Falko, C. Gordon, M. Youri, V. G. Bart, T. Hugo, L. Uli, and V. Guy, “Low-speckle laser projection with a broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser in the nonmodal emission regime,” Appl. Opt. 48, 792–798 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seurin, G. Y. Xu, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, C. L. Ghosh, and L. A. D’Asaro, “Progress in high-power high-efficiency VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

K. Iga, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser: its conception and evolution,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1–10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

L. A. D’Asaro, J.-F. Seurin, and J. D. Wynn, “High-power, high-efficiency VCSELs pursue the goal,” Photon. Spectra 39, 64–66 (2005).

2004

M. Grabherr, M. Miller, R. Jäger, D. Wiedenmann, and R. King, “Commercial VCSELs reach 0.1 W cw output power,” Proc. SPIE 5364, 174–182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Q. Li, J. Zhang, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, Y. Q. Ning, C. L. Yan, L. Qin, Y. Liu, L. J. Wang, and J. L. Cao, “Optimal designs for high-power vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Acta Phys. Sin. 53, 2986–2990 (2004).

2003

W. Nakwask and P. Mac’Kowiak, “Transverse-mode selectivity in possible nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 1037–1054 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. Wu, G. Iordache, H. D. Summers, and J. S. Roberts, “Optical characteristics of VCSEL pumped microchip lasers,” Opt. Commun. 196, 251–256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Miller, M. Grabherr, R. King, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, “Improved output performance of high-power VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 210–216(2001).
[CrossRef]

1994

K. L. Lear, S. P. Kilcoyne, and S. A. Chalmers, “High power conversion efficiencies and scaling issues for multimode vertical-cavity top-surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 778–781 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bart, V. G.

Cao, J. L.

H. Q. Li, J. Zhang, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, Y. Q. Ning, C. L. Yan, L. Qin, Y. Liu, L. J. Wang, and J. L. Cao, “Optimal designs for high-power vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Acta Phys. Sin. 53, 2986–2990 (2004).

Chalmers, S. A.

K. L. Lear, S. P. Kilcoyne, and S. A. Chalmers, “High power conversion efficiencies and scaling issues for multimode vertical-cavity top-surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 778–781 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cui, D. F.

H. Q. Li, J. Zhang, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, Y. Q. Ning, C. L. Yan, L. Qin, Y. Liu, L. J. Wang, and J. L. Cao, “Optimal designs for high-power vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Acta Phys. Sin. 53, 2986–2990 (2004).

Cui, J. J.

D’Asaro, L. A.

J. F. Seurin, G. Y. Xu, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, C. L. Ghosh, and L. A. D’Asaro, “Progress in high-power high-efficiency VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. A. D’Asaro, J.-F. Seurin, and J. D. Wynn, “High-power, high-efficiency VCSELs pursue the goal,” Photon. Spectra 39, 64–66 (2005).

Ebeling, K. J.

M. Miller, M. Grabherr, R. King, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, “Improved output performance of high-power VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 210–216(2001).
[CrossRef]

Falko, R.

Ghosh, C. L.

J. F. Seurin, G. Y. Xu, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, C. L. Ghosh, and L. A. D’Asaro, “Progress in high-power high-efficiency VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, C.

Grabherr, M.

M. Grabherr, M. Miller, R. Jäger, D. Wiedenmann, and R. King, “Commercial VCSELs reach 0.1 W cw output power,” Proc. SPIE 5364, 174–182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Miller, M. Grabherr, R. King, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, “Improved output performance of high-power VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 210–216(2001).
[CrossRef]

Guy, V.

Hugo, T.

Iga, K.

K. Iga, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser: its conception and evolution,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1–10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Iordache, G.

J. Wu, G. Iordache, H. D. Summers, and J. S. Roberts, “Optical characteristics of VCSEL pumped microchip lasers,” Opt. Commun. 196, 251–256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jager, R.

M. Miller, M. Grabherr, R. King, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, “Improved output performance of high-power VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 210–216(2001).
[CrossRef]

Jäger, R.

M. Grabherr, M. Miller, R. Jäger, D. Wiedenmann, and R. King, “Commercial VCSELs reach 0.1 W cw output power,” Proc. SPIE 5364, 174–182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khalfin, V.

J. F. Seurin, G. Y. Xu, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, C. L. Ghosh, and L. A. D’Asaro, “Progress in high-power high-efficiency VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kilcoyne, S. P.

K. L. Lear, S. P. Kilcoyne, and S. A. Chalmers, “High power conversion efficiencies and scaling issues for multimode vertical-cavity top-surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 778–781 (1994).
[CrossRef]

King, R.

M. Grabherr, M. Miller, R. Jäger, D. Wiedenmann, and R. King, “Commercial VCSELs reach 0.1 W cw output power,” Proc. SPIE 5364, 174–182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Miller, M. Grabherr, R. King, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, “Improved output performance of high-power VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 210–216(2001).
[CrossRef]

Lear, K. L.

K. L. Lear, S. P. Kilcoyne, and S. A. Chalmers, “High power conversion efficiencies and scaling issues for multimode vertical-cavity top-surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 778–781 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. Q.

H. Q. Li, J. Zhang, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, Y. Q. Ning, C. L. Yan, L. Qin, Y. Liu, L. J. Wang, and J. L. Cao, “Optimal designs for high-power vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Acta Phys. Sin. 53, 2986–2990 (2004).

Liu, G. Y.

Liu, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Ning, L. Qin, Y. Wang, J. J. Cui, G. Y. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. F. Wang, Y. F. Sun, Y. Liu, and L. J. Wang, “High-power vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with an optimized p-contact diameter,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3793–3797 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Q. Li, J. Zhang, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, Y. Q. Ning, C. L. Yan, L. Qin, Y. Liu, L. J. Wang, and J. L. Cao, “Optimal designs for high-power vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Acta Phys. Sin. 53, 2986–2990 (2004).

Mac’Kowiak, P.

W. Nakwask and P. Mac’Kowiak, “Transverse-mode selectivity in possible nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 1037–1054 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Michalzik, R.

M. Miller, M. Grabherr, R. King, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, “Improved output performance of high-power VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 210–216(2001).
[CrossRef]

Miglo, A.

J. F. Seurin, G. Y. Xu, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, C. L. Ghosh, and L. A. D’Asaro, “Progress in high-power high-efficiency VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miller, M.

M. Grabherr, M. Miller, R. Jäger, D. Wiedenmann, and R. King, “Commercial VCSELs reach 0.1 W cw output power,” Proc. SPIE 5364, 174–182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Miller, M. Grabherr, R. King, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, “Improved output performance of high-power VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 210–216(2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakwask, W.

W. Nakwask and P. Mac’Kowiak, “Transverse-mode selectivity in possible nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 1037–1054 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ning, Y. Q.

Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Ning, L. Qin, Y. Wang, J. J. Cui, G. Y. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. F. Wang, Y. F. Sun, Y. Liu, and L. J. Wang, “High-power vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with an optimized p-contact diameter,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3793–3797 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Q. Li, J. Zhang, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, Y. Q. Ning, C. L. Yan, L. Qin, Y. Liu, L. J. Wang, and J. L. Cao, “Optimal designs for high-power vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Acta Phys. Sin. 53, 2986–2990 (2004).

Pradhan, P.

J. F. Seurin, G. Y. Xu, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, C. L. Ghosh, and L. A. D’Asaro, “Progress in high-power high-efficiency VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qin, L.

Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Ning, L. Qin, Y. Wang, J. J. Cui, G. Y. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. F. Wang, Y. F. Sun, Y. Liu, and L. J. Wang, “High-power vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with an optimized p-contact diameter,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3793–3797 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Q. Li, J. Zhang, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, Y. Q. Ning, C. L. Yan, L. Qin, Y. Liu, L. J. Wang, and J. L. Cao, “Optimal designs for high-power vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Acta Phys. Sin. 53, 2986–2990 (2004).

Roberts, J. S.

J. Wu, G. Iordache, H. D. Summers, and J. S. Roberts, “Optical characteristics of VCSEL pumped microchip lasers,” Opt. Commun. 196, 251–256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Seurin, J. F.

J. F. Seurin, G. Y. Xu, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, C. L. Ghosh, and L. A. D’Asaro, “Progress in high-power high-efficiency VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seurin, J.-F.

L. A. D’Asaro, J.-F. Seurin, and J. D. Wynn, “High-power, high-efficiency VCSELs pursue the goal,” Photon. Spectra 39, 64–66 (2005).

Summers, H. D.

J. Wu, G. Iordache, H. D. Summers, and J. S. Roberts, “Optical characteristics of VCSEL pumped microchip lasers,” Opt. Commun. 196, 251–256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y. F.

Uli, L.

Wang, L. J.

Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Ning, L. Qin, Y. Wang, J. J. Cui, G. Y. Liu, X. Zhang, Z. F. Wang, Y. F. Sun, Y. Liu, and L. J. Wang, “High-power vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with an optimized p-contact diameter,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3793–3797 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Q. Li, J. Zhang, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, Y. Q. Ning, C. L. Yan, L. Qin, Y. Liu, L. J. Wang, and J. L. Cao, “Optimal designs for high-power vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Acta Phys. Sin. 53, 2986–2990 (2004).

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z. F.

Wiedenmann, D.

M. Grabherr, M. Miller, R. Jäger, D. Wiedenmann, and R. King, “Commercial VCSELs reach 0.1 W cw output power,” Proc. SPIE 5364, 174–182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, G. Iordache, H. D. Summers, and J. S. Roberts, “Optical characteristics of VCSEL pumped microchip lasers,” Opt. Commun. 196, 251–256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wynn, J. D.

J. F. Seurin, G. Y. Xu, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, C. L. Ghosh, and L. A. D’Asaro, “Progress in high-power high-efficiency VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. A. D’Asaro, J.-F. Seurin, and J. D. Wynn, “High-power, high-efficiency VCSELs pursue the goal,” Photon. Spectra 39, 64–66 (2005).

Xu, G. Y.

J. F. Seurin, G. Y. Xu, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, C. L. Ghosh, and L. A. D’Asaro, “Progress in high-power high-efficiency VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z. Y.

H. Q. Li, J. Zhang, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, Y. Q. Ning, C. L. Yan, L. Qin, Y. Liu, L. J. Wang, and J. L. Cao, “Optimal designs for high-power vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Acta Phys. Sin. 53, 2986–2990 (2004).

Yan, C. L.

H. Q. Li, J. Zhang, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, Y. Q. Ning, C. L. Yan, L. Qin, Y. Liu, L. J. Wang, and J. L. Cao, “Optimal designs for high-power vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Acta Phys. Sin. 53, 2986–2990 (2004).

Youri, M.

Zhang, J.

H. Q. Li, J. Zhang, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, Y. Q. Ning, C. L. Yan, L. Qin, Y. Liu, L. J. Wang, and J. L. Cao, “Optimal designs for high-power vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Acta Phys. Sin. 53, 2986–2990 (2004).

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y.

Acta Phys. Sin.

H. Q. Li, J. Zhang, D. F. Cui, Z. Y. Xu, Y. Q. Ning, C. L. Yan, L. Qin, Y. Liu, L. J. Wang, and J. L. Cao, “Optimal designs for high-power vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Acta Phys. Sin. 53, 2986–2990 (2004).

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. Miller, M. Grabherr, R. King, R. Jager, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, “Improved output performance of high-power VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 210–216(2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

K. L. Lear, S. P. Kilcoyne, and S. A. Chalmers, “High power conversion efficiencies and scaling issues for multimode vertical-cavity top-surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 778–781 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

K. Iga, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser: its conception and evolution,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1–10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

J. Wu, G. Iordache, H. D. Summers, and J. S. Roberts, “Optical characteristics of VCSEL pumped microchip lasers,” Opt. Commun. 196, 251–256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron.

W. Nakwask and P. Mac’Kowiak, “Transverse-mode selectivity in possible nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 1037–1054 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Photon. Spectra

L. A. D’Asaro, J.-F. Seurin, and J. D. Wynn, “High-power, high-efficiency VCSELs pursue the goal,” Photon. Spectra 39, 64–66 (2005).

Proc. SPIE

M. Grabherr, M. Miller, R. Jäger, D. Wiedenmann, and R. King, “Commercial VCSELs reach 0.1 W cw output power,” Proc. SPIE 5364, 174–182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seurin, G. Y. Xu, V. Khalfin, A. Miglo, J. D. Wynn, P. Pradhan, C. L. Ghosh, and L. A. D’Asaro, “Progress in high-power high-efficiency VCSEL arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7229, 722903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a DRC VCSEL.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of a DRC VCSEL.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

L-I-V characteristics of the DRC VCSEL under cw operation. A maximum wall-plug efficiency of 17.4% is achieved.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectrum of the DRC device.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Near-field pattern of the DRC VCSEL. The brighter color indicates higher intensity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Far-field pattern of the DRC VCSEL.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured far-field patterns for various driving currents.

Equations (2)

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η max = η d V ν V 0 ( 1 2 1 + 1 + α ) ,
α = V 0 / ( I th R d ) ,

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