Abstract

We report on the preservation of fluorescence and Raman gain in low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser written buried channel waveguides in neodymium-doped KGd(WO4)2. The propagation loss index, profile reconstruction, and calculation of the modal intensity distribution by the beam propagation method of the waveguide are presented. Microluminescence spectra of the waveguides show that the fluorescence properties of Nd3+ ions are not significantly affected by the waveguide formation processing, which indicates a fairly good potential for further laser actions in a compact device. Micro-Raman spectra are also performed to reveal the preservation of the characteristic 768 and 901cm1 Raman mode intensities in the guiding regions.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. V. de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, A. Benayas, J. R. V. de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Femtosecond-laser-written, stress-induced Nd:YVO4 waveguides preserving fluorescence and Raman gain,” Opt. Lett. 35, 916–918(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

Y. X. Kong, F. Chen, D. Jaque, Q. M. Lu, and H. J. Ma, “Optical channel waveguide in Nd/Ce codoped YAG laser crystal produced by carbon ion implantation,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4514–4518(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, V. G. Savitski, S. Calvez, D. Burns, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermal lens study in diode pumped N-g- and N-p-cut Nd:KGd(WO4)2 laser crystals,” Opt. Express 17, 23536–23543 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Rodenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. McMillen, K. P. Chen, and D. Jaque, “Microstructural imaging of high repetition rate ultrafast laser written LiTaO3waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, M. Heinrich, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, E. Suran, F. Louradour, A. Barthelemy, and S. Longhi, “Image reconstruction in segmented femtosecond laser-written waveguide arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. A 89, 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

S. L. Qu, J. R. Qiu, C. J. Zhao, X. W. Jiang, H. D. Zeng, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “Metal nanoparticle precipitation in periodic arrays in Au2O-doped glass by two interfered femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2046–2048 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathé, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Discrete diffraction in two-dimensional arrays of coupled waveguides in silica,” Opt. Lett. 29, 468–470 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Qu, C. J. Zhao, Q. Z. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “One-off writing of multimicrogratings on glass by two interfered femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2058–2060 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (4)

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, T. Toma, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “In situ observation of photoinduced refractive-index changes in filaments formed in glasses by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 19–21 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy,” Opt. Lett. 26, 93–95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Hukriede, D. Kip, and E. Kratzig, “Permanent narrow-band reflection holograms for infrared light recorded in LiNbO3:Ti:Cu channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 749–753 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Ramponi, M. Marangoni, and R. Osellame, “Dispersion of the ordinary refractive-index change in a proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2098–2100 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1997 (2)

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Mochalov, “Laser and nonlinear properties of the potassium gadolinium tungstate laser crystal KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+−(KGW:Nd),” Opt. Eng. 36, 1660–1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, “An improved procedure to calculate the refractive index profile from the measured near-field intensity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 423–428 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 143–147(1985).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, M. P.

Apostolopoulos, V.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathé, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barthelemy, A.

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, M. Heinrich, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, E. Suran, F. Louradour, A. Barthelemy, and S. Longhi, “Image reconstruction in segmented femtosecond laser-written waveguide arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Benayas, A.

W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, A. Benayas, J. R. V. de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Femtosecond-laser-written, stress-induced Nd:YVO4 waveguides preserving fluorescence and Raman gain,” Opt. Lett. 35, 916–918(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. V. de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brodeur, A.

Burghoff, J.

Burns, D.

Caccavale, F.

I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, “An improved procedure to calculate the refractive index profile from the measured near-field intensity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 423–428 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Calvez, S.

Cantelar, E.

A. Rodenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathé, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, A. Benayas, J. R. V. de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Femtosecond-laser-written, stress-induced Nd:YVO4 waveguides preserving fluorescence and Raman gain,” Opt. Lett. 35, 916–918(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. V. de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. X. Kong, F. Chen, D. Jaque, Q. M. Lu, and H. J. Ma, “Optical channel waveguide in Nd/Ce codoped YAG laser crystal produced by carbon ion implantation,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4514–4518(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. P.

B. McMillen, K. P. Chen, and D. Jaque, “Microstructural imaging of high repetition rate ultrafast laser written LiTaO3waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Colomb, T.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathé, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

de Aldana, J. R. V.

W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, A. Benayas, J. R. V. de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Femtosecond-laser-written, stress-induced Nd:YVO4 waveguides preserving fluorescence and Raman gain,” Opt. Lett. 35, 916–918(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. V. de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Depeursinge, C.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathé, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dreisow, F.

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, M. Heinrich, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, E. Suran, F. Louradour, A. Barthelemy, and S. Longhi, “Image reconstruction in segmented femtosecond laser-written waveguide arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, S. M.

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fardad, M. A.

Fu, G.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, J. F.

Heinrich, M.

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, M. Heinrich, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, E. Suran, F. Louradour, A. Barthelemy, and S. Longhi, “Image reconstruction in segmented femtosecond laser-written waveguide arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Helmy, A. S.

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, B.

B. Henderson and G. F. Imbusch, Optical Spectroscopy of Inorganic Solids (Oxford Science, 1989).

Herman, P. R.

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

S. L. Qu, J. R. Qiu, C. J. Zhao, X. W. Jiang, H. D. Zeng, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “Metal nanoparticle precipitation in periodic arrays in Au2O-doped glass by two interfered femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2046–2048 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Qu, C. J. Zhao, Q. Z. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “One-off writing of multimicrogratings on glass by two interfered femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2058–2060 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hnatovsky, C.

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hukriede, J.

J. Hukriede, D. Kip, and E. Kratzig, “Permanent narrow-band reflection holograms for infrared light recorded in LiNbO3:Ti:Cu channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 749–753 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Imbusch, G. F.

B. Henderson and G. F. Imbusch, Optical Spectroscopy of Inorganic Solids (Oxford Science, 1989).

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

Iyer, R.

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jacinto, C.

Jaque, D.

W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, A. Benayas, J. R. V. de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Femtosecond-laser-written, stress-induced Nd:YVO4 waveguides preserving fluorescence and Raman gain,” Opt. Lett. 35, 916–918(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. V. de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. X. Kong, F. Chen, D. Jaque, Q. M. Lu, and H. J. Ma, “Optical channel waveguide in Nd/Ce codoped YAG laser crystal produced by carbon ion implantation,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4514–4518(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rodenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. McMillen, K. P. Chen, and D. Jaque, “Microstructural imaging of high repetition rate ultrafast laser written LiTaO3waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, F.

A. Rodenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X. W.

S. L. Qu, J. R. Qiu, C. J. Zhao, X. W. Jiang, H. D. Zeng, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “Metal nanoparticle precipitation in periodic arrays in Au2O-doped glass by two interfered femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2046–2048 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kip, D.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Hukriede, D. Kip, and E. Kratzig, “Permanent narrow-band reflection holograms for infrared light recorded in LiNbO3:Ti:Cu channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 749–753 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kong, Y. X.

Kraemer, D.

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kratzig, E.

J. Hukriede, D. Kip, and E. Kratzig, “Permanent narrow-band reflection holograms for infrared light recorded in LiNbO3:Ti:Cu channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 749–753 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuleshov, N. V.

Lamela, J.

A. Rodenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathé, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laversenne, L.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathé, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

Lifante, G.

A. Rodenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Loiko, P. A.

Longhi, S.

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, M. Heinrich, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, E. Suran, F. Louradour, A. Barthelemy, and S. Longhi, “Image reconstruction in segmented femtosecond laser-written waveguide arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Louradour, F.

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, M. Heinrich, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, E. Suran, F. Louradour, A. Barthelemy, and S. Longhi, “Image reconstruction in segmented femtosecond laser-written waveguide arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Q. M.

Y. X. Kong, F. Chen, D. Jaque, Q. M. Lu, and H. J. Ma, “Optical channel waveguide in Nd/Ce codoped YAG laser crystal produced by carbon ion implantation,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4514–4518(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H. J.

Mansour, I.

I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, “An improved procedure to calculate the refractive index profile from the measured near-field intensity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 423–428 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Marangoni, M.

R. Ramponi, M. Marangoni, and R. Osellame, “Dispersion of the ordinary refractive-index change in a proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2098–2100 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

McMillen, B.

B. McMillen, K. P. Chen, and D. Jaque, “Microstructural imaging of high repetition rate ultrafast laser written LiTaO3waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Merchant, C. A.

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. J. D.

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mochalov, I. V.

I. V. Mochalov, “Laser and nonlinear properties of the potassium gadolinium tungstate laser crystal KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+−(KGW:Nd),” Opt. Eng. 36, 1660–1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

Nishii, J.

Nolte, S.

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, M. Heinrich, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, E. Suran, F. Louradour, A. Barthelemy, and S. Longhi, “Image reconstruction in segmented femtosecond laser-written waveguide arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. A 89, 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Discrete diffraction in two-dimensional arrays of coupled waveguides in silica,” Opt. Lett. 29, 468–470 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osellame, R.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathé, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Ramponi, M. Marangoni, and R. Osellame, “Dispersion of the ordinary refractive-index change in a proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2098–2100 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pavlyuk, A. A.

Pertsch, T.

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, M. Heinrich, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, E. Suran, F. Louradour, A. Barthelemy, and S. Longhi, “Image reconstruction in segmented femtosecond laser-written waveguide arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Discrete diffraction in two-dimensional arrays of coupled waveguides in silica,” Opt. Lett. 29, 468–470 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peschel, U.

Pollnau, M.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathé, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J. R.

S. L. Qu, C. J. Zhao, Q. Z. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “One-off writing of multimicrogratings on glass by two interfered femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2058–2060 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Qu, J. R. Qiu, C. J. Zhao, X. W. Jiang, H. D. Zeng, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “Metal nanoparticle precipitation in periodic arrays in Au2O-doped glass by two interfered femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2046–2048 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Qu, S. L.

S. L. Qu, C. J. Zhao, Q. Z. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “One-off writing of multimicrogratings on glass by two interfered femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2058–2060 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Qu, J. R. Qiu, C. J. Zhao, X. W. Jiang, H. D. Zeng, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “Metal nanoparticle precipitation in periodic arrays in Au2O-doped glass by two interfered femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2046–2048 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

R. Ramponi, M. Marangoni, and R. Osellame, “Dispersion of the ordinary refractive-index change in a proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2098–2100 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Regener, R.

R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 143–147(1985).
[CrossRef]

Rodenas, A.

A. Rodenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roso, L.

A. Rodenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ruter, C. E.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salathé, R. P.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathé, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sara, R.

Savitski, V. G.

Schaffer, C. B.

Silva, W. F.

Sohler, W.

R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 143–147(1985).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Suran, E.

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, M. Heinrich, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, E. Suran, F. Louradour, A. Barthelemy, and S. Longhi, “Image reconstruction in segmented femtosecond laser-written waveguide arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Szameit, A.

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, M. Heinrich, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, E. Suran, F. Louradour, A. Barthelemy, and S. Longhi, “Image reconstruction in segmented femtosecond laser-written waveguide arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tan, Y.

W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, A. Benayas, J. R. V. de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Femtosecond-laser-written, stress-induced Nd:YVO4 waveguides preserving fluorescence and Raman gain,” Opt. Lett. 35, 916–918(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. V. de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. S.

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Toma, T.

Torchia, G. A.

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. V. de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, A. Benayas, J. R. V. de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Femtosecond-laser-written, stress-induced Nd:YVO4 waveguides preserving fluorescence and Raman gain,” Opt. Lett. 35, 916–918(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rodenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Touam, T.

Townsend, P. D.

P. D. Townsend, “Development of ion implantation for optical applications,” Vacuum 51, 301–304 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, M. Heinrich, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, E. Suran, F. Louradour, A. Barthelemy, and S. Longhi, “Image reconstruction in segmented femtosecond laser-written waveguide arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. A 89, 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Discrete diffraction in two-dimensional arrays of coupled waveguides in silica,” Opt. Lett. 29, 468–470 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, K. M.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. L.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, W.

Will, M.

Yamada, K.

Yumashev, K. V.

Zeng, H. D.

S. L. Qu, J. R. Qiu, C. J. Zhao, X. W. Jiang, H. D. Zeng, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “Metal nanoparticle precipitation in periodic arrays in Au2O-doped glass by two interfered femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2046–2048 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C. J.

S. L. Qu, J. R. Qiu, C. J. Zhao, X. W. Jiang, H. D. Zeng, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “Metal nanoparticle precipitation in periodic arrays in Au2O-doped glass by two interfered femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2046–2048 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Qu, C. J. Zhao, Q. Z. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “One-off writing of multimicrogratings on glass by two interfered femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2058–2060 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Q. Z.

Zhu, C. S.

S. L. Qu, C. J. Zhao, Q. Z. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “One-off writing of multimicrogratings on glass by two interfered femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2058–2060 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Qu, J. R. Qiu, C. J. Zhao, X. W. Jiang, H. D. Zeng, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “Metal nanoparticle precipitation in periodic arrays in Au2O-doped glass by two interfered femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2046–2048 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zilkie, A. J.

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. A 89, 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 143–147(1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Hukriede, D. Kip, and E. Kratzig, “Permanent narrow-band reflection holograms for infrared light recorded in LiNbO3:Ti:Cu channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 749–753 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Rodenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

R. Ramponi, M. Marangoni, and R. Osellame, “Dispersion of the ordinary refractive-index change in a proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2098–2100 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Qu, J. R. Qiu, C. J. Zhao, X. W. Jiang, H. D. Zeng, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “Metal nanoparticle precipitation in periodic arrays in Au2O-doped glass by two interfered femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2046–2048 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Ruter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, M. Heinrich, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, E. Suran, F. Louradour, A. Barthelemy, and S. Longhi, “Image reconstruction in segmented femtosecond laser-written waveguide arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathé, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. McMillen, K. P. Chen, and D. Jaque, “Microstructural imaging of high repetition rate ultrafast laser written LiTaO3waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. V. de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

S. I. Najafi, T. Touam, R. Sara, M. P. Andrews, and M. A. Fardad, “Sol-gel glass waveguide and grating on silicon,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1640–1646 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, “An improved procedure to calculate the refractive index profile from the measured near-field intensity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 423–428 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

I. V. Mochalov, “Laser and nonlinear properties of the potassium gadolinium tungstate laser crystal KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+−(KGW:Nd),” Opt. Eng. 36, 1660–1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Vacuum (1)

P. D. Townsend, “Development of ion implantation for optical applications,” Vacuum 51, 301–304 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

RSoft Design Group, BeamPROP computer software (http://www.rsoftdesign.com).

B. Henderson and G. F. Imbusch, Optical Spectroscopy of Inorganic Solids (Oxford Science, 1989).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Microscopic photograph of the cross section of the Nd:KGW buried channel waveguide sample: A is the waveguide area, B is the filament induced by the femtosecond laser, and C is the unprocessed area (bulk) far away from the filament.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relative intensity of output light versus heating time obtained for buried channel waveguide in Nd:KGW formed by pulse energy is 1.4 μJ , while the separation is 10 μm and the scanning speed is 20 μm / s .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulation of the (a) buried waveguide quasi-TM mode profile, (b) refractive-index distribution, and (c) corresponding experimental result.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a)  F 3 / 2 4 F 9 / 2 4 microluminescence and (b) micro-Raman spectra obtained in the channel waveguide, laser-induced filament, and Nd:KGW bulk (at positions denoted by A, B, and C in Fig. 1, respectively) at room temperature.

Equations (1)

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α = 4.34 L × { Ln R Ln [ 1 ( 1 K 2 ) 0.5 K ] } ,

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