Abstract

Temperature and nonlinearity effects are two important factors that limit the use of photodiode array spectrometers. Usually the spectrometer is calibrated at a known temperature against a reference source of a particular spectral radiance, and then it is used at different temperatures to measure sources of different spectral radiances. These factors are expected to be problematic for nontemperature-stabilized instruments used for in-the-field experiments, where the radiant power of the site changes continuously with the sun tilt. This paper describes the effect of ambient temperature on a nontemperature-stabilized linear photodiode array spectrometer over the temperature range from 5°C to 40°C. The nonlinearity effects on both signal amplification and different levels of radiant power have also been studied and are presented in this paper.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, “Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs,” Metrologia 40, S81–S84(2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, E. R. Woolliams, R. Winkler, H. M. Pegrum, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Use of eutectic fixed points to characterize a spectrometer for earth observations,” Int. J. Thermophys. 28, 2041–2048 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. S. Vogt, R. G. Tull, and P. Kelton, “Self-scanned photodiode array: high performance operation in high dispersion astronomical spectrophotometry,” Appl. Opt. 17, 574–592 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Shen, T. J. Cardwell, and R. W. Cattrall, “The application of a chemical sensor array detector in ion chromatography for the determination of Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ in water samples,” Analyst 123, 2181–2184 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, G. Bonanno, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Cali´, A. Micciche´, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).
  6. E. Milton, M. Schaepman, K. Anderson, M. Kneubühler, and N. P. Fox, “Progress in field spectroscopy,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S92–S109 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. J. Starks, E. A. Walter-Shea, F. R. Schiebe, and B. L. Markham, “Temperature senstivity characterization of a silicon diode array spectrometer,” Remote Sens. Environ. 51, 385–389 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, W. S. Hartree, E. R. Woolliams, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Monochromator-based stray light correction method for diode array based spectrometers,” submitted to Appl. Opt. (2010).
  9. Z. Yuqin, S. W. Brown, C. B. Johnson, K. R. Lykke, and Y. Ohno, “A simple spectral stray light correction method for array spectroradiometers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1111–1119(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. G. R. Salim, “Reference spectrometry for calibration of optical earth observation satellites,” Ph.D. thesis (City University London, 2010).
  11. T. Kübarsepp, A. Haapalinna, P. Kärhä, and E. Ikonen, “Nonlinearity measurements of silicon photodetectors,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2716–2722 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. P. Boivin, “Automated absolute and relative spectral linearity measurements on photovoltaic detectors,” Metrologia 30, 355–360 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Tabbert and A. O. Goushcha, “Linearity of the photocurrent response with light intensity for silicon PIN photodiode array,” in IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1060–1063.
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. D. Mielenz and K. L. Eckerle, “Spectrophotometer linearity testing using the double-aperture method,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2294–2303 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

E. Milton, M. Schaepman, K. Anderson, M. Kneubühler, and N. P. Fox, “Progress in field spectroscopy,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S92–S109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, E. R. Woolliams, R. Winkler, H. M. Pegrum, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Use of eutectic fixed points to characterize a spectrometer for earth observations,” Int. J. Thermophys. 28, 2041–2048 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, G. Bonanno, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Cali´, A. Micciche´, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Z. Yuqin, S. W. Brown, C. B. Johnson, K. R. Lykke, and Y. Ohno, “A simple spectral stray light correction method for array spectroradiometers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1111–1119(2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, “Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs,” Metrologia 40, S81–S84(2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

T. Kübarsepp, A. Haapalinna, P. Kärhä, and E. Ikonen, “Nonlinearity measurements of silicon photodetectors,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2716–2722 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen, T. J. Cardwell, and R. W. Cattrall, “The application of a chemical sensor array detector in ion chromatography for the determination of Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ in water samples,” Analyst 123, 2181–2184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

P. J. Starks, E. A. Walter-Shea, F. R. Schiebe, and B. L. Markham, “Temperature senstivity characterization of a silicon diode array spectrometer,” Remote Sens. Environ. 51, 385–389 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

L. P. Boivin, “Automated absolute and relative spectral linearity measurements on photovoltaic detectors,” Metrologia 30, 355–360 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1972 (1)

Anderson, K.

E. Milton, M. Schaepman, K. Anderson, M. Kneubühler, and N. P. Fox, “Progress in field spectroscopy,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S92–S109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Belluso, M.

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, G. Bonanno, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Cali´, A. Micciche´, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Billotta, S.

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, G. Bonanno, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Cali´, A. Micciche´, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Boivin, L. P.

L. P. Boivin, “Automated absolute and relative spectral linearity measurements on photovoltaic detectors,” Metrologia 30, 355–360 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bonanno, G.

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, G. Bonanno, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Cali´, A. Micciche´, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Brown, S. W.

Z. Yuqin, S. W. Brown, C. B. Johnson, K. R. Lykke, and Y. Ohno, “A simple spectral stray light correction method for array spectroradiometers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1111–1119(2006).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, “Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs,” Metrologia 40, S81–S84(2003).
[CrossRef]

Cali´, A.

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, G. Bonanno, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Cali´, A. Micciche´, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Cardwell, T. J.

H. Shen, T. J. Cardwell, and R. W. Cattrall, “The application of a chemical sensor array detector in ion chromatography for the determination of Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ in water samples,” Analyst 123, 2181–2184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cattrall, R. W.

H. Shen, T. J. Cardwell, and R. W. Cattrall, “The application of a chemical sensor array detector in ion chromatography for the determination of Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ in water samples,” Analyst 123, 2181–2184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, “Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs,” Metrologia 40, S81–S84(2003).
[CrossRef]

Eckerle, K. L.

Fallica, P. G.

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, G. Bonanno, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Cali´, A. Micciche´, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Feinholz, M. E.

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, “Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs,” Metrologia 40, S81–S84(2003).
[CrossRef]

Flora, S. J.

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, “Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs,” Metrologia 40, S81–S84(2003).
[CrossRef]

Fox, N. P.

E. Milton, M. Schaepman, K. Anderson, M. Kneubühler, and N. P. Fox, “Progress in field spectroscopy,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S92–S109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, E. R. Woolliams, R. Winkler, H. M. Pegrum, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Use of eutectic fixed points to characterize a spectrometer for earth observations,” Int. J. Thermophys. 28, 2041–2048 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, W. S. Hartree, E. R. Woolliams, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Monochromator-based stray light correction method for diode array based spectrometers,” submitted to Appl. Opt. (2010).

Goushcha, A. O.

B. Tabbert and A. O. Goushcha, “Linearity of the photocurrent response with light intensity for silicon PIN photodiode array,” in IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1060–1063.
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K. T. V.

S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, E. R. Woolliams, R. Winkler, H. M. Pegrum, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Use of eutectic fixed points to characterize a spectrometer for earth observations,” Int. J. Thermophys. 28, 2041–2048 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, W. S. Hartree, E. R. Woolliams, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Monochromator-based stray light correction method for diode array based spectrometers,” submitted to Appl. Opt. (2010).

Haapalinna, A.

Hartree, W. S.

S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, W. S. Hartree, E. R. Woolliams, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Monochromator-based stray light correction method for diode array based spectrometers,” submitted to Appl. Opt. (2010).

Ikonen, E.

Johnson, B. C.

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, “Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs,” Metrologia 40, S81–S84(2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, C. B.

Kärhä, P.

Kelton, P.

Kneubühler, M.

E. Milton, M. Schaepman, K. Anderson, M. Kneubühler, and N. P. Fox, “Progress in field spectroscopy,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S92–S109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kübarsepp, T.

Lombardo, S.

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, G. Bonanno, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Cali´, A. Micciche´, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Lykke, K. R.

Z. Yuqin, S. W. Brown, C. B. Johnson, K. R. Lykke, and Y. Ohno, “A simple spectral stray light correction method for array spectroradiometers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1111–1119(2006).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, “Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs,” Metrologia 40, S81–S84(2003).
[CrossRef]

Markham, B. L.

P. J. Starks, E. A. Walter-Shea, F. R. Schiebe, and B. L. Markham, “Temperature senstivity characterization of a silicon diode array spectrometer,” Remote Sens. Environ. 51, 385–389 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mazzillo, M. C.

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, G. Bonanno, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Cali´, A. Micciche´, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Micciche´, A.

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, G. Bonanno, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Cali´, A. Micciche´, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Mielenz, K. D.

Milton, E.

E. Milton, M. Schaepman, K. Anderson, M. Kneubühler, and N. P. Fox, “Progress in field spectroscopy,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S92–S109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morabito, A.

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, G. Bonanno, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Cali´, A. Micciche´, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Ohno, Y.

Pegrum, H. M.

S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, E. R. Woolliams, R. Winkler, H. M. Pegrum, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Use of eutectic fixed points to characterize a spectrometer for earth observations,” Int. J. Thermophys. 28, 2041–2048 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Salim, S. G. R.

S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, E. R. Woolliams, R. Winkler, H. M. Pegrum, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Use of eutectic fixed points to characterize a spectrometer for earth observations,” Int. J. Thermophys. 28, 2041–2048 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. G. R. Salim, “Reference spectrometry for calibration of optical earth observation satellites,” Ph.D. thesis (City University London, 2010).

S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, W. S. Hartree, E. R. Woolliams, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Monochromator-based stray light correction method for diode array based spectrometers,” submitted to Appl. Opt. (2010).

Sanfilippo, D.

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, G. Bonanno, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Cali´, A. Micciche´, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Schaepman, M.

E. Milton, M. Schaepman, K. Anderson, M. Kneubühler, and N. P. Fox, “Progress in field spectroscopy,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S92–S109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schiebe, F. R.

P. J. Starks, E. A. Walter-Shea, F. R. Schiebe, and B. L. Markham, “Temperature senstivity characterization of a silicon diode array spectrometer,” Remote Sens. Environ. 51, 385–389 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sciacca, E.

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, G. Bonanno, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Cali´, A. Micciche´, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Scuderi, S.

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, G. Bonanno, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Cali´, A. Micciche´, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Shen, H.

H. Shen, T. J. Cardwell, and R. W. Cattrall, “The application of a chemical sensor array detector in ion chromatography for the determination of Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ in water samples,” Analyst 123, 2181–2184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Starks, P. J.

P. J. Starks, E. A. Walter-Shea, F. R. Schiebe, and B. L. Markham, “Temperature senstivity characterization of a silicon diode array spectrometer,” Remote Sens. Environ. 51, 385–389 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sun, T.

S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, E. R. Woolliams, R. Winkler, H. M. Pegrum, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Use of eutectic fixed points to characterize a spectrometer for earth observations,” Int. J. Thermophys. 28, 2041–2048 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, W. S. Hartree, E. R. Woolliams, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Monochromator-based stray light correction method for diode array based spectrometers,” submitted to Appl. Opt. (2010).

Tabbert, B.

B. Tabbert and A. O. Goushcha, “Linearity of the photocurrent response with light intensity for silicon PIN photodiode array,” in IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1060–1063.
[CrossRef]

Timpanaro, M. C.

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, G. Bonanno, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Cali´, A. Micciche´, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Tull, R. G.

Vogt, S. S.

Walter-Shea, E. A.

P. J. Starks, E. A. Walter-Shea, F. R. Schiebe, and B. L. Markham, “Temperature senstivity characterization of a silicon diode array spectrometer,” Remote Sens. Environ. 51, 385–389 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Winkler, R.

S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, E. R. Woolliams, R. Winkler, H. M. Pegrum, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Use of eutectic fixed points to characterize a spectrometer for earth observations,” Int. J. Thermophys. 28, 2041–2048 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Woolliams, E. R.

S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, E. R. Woolliams, R. Winkler, H. M. Pegrum, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Use of eutectic fixed points to characterize a spectrometer for earth observations,” Int. J. Thermophys. 28, 2041–2048 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, W. S. Hartree, E. R. Woolliams, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Monochromator-based stray light correction method for diode array based spectrometers,” submitted to Appl. Opt. (2010).

Yarbrough, M. A.

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, “Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs,” Metrologia 40, S81–S84(2003).
[CrossRef]

Yuqin, Z.

Analyst (1)

H. Shen, T. J. Cardwell, and R. W. Cattrall, “The application of a chemical sensor array detector in ion chromatography for the determination of Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ in water samples,” Analyst 123, 2181–2184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Int. J. Thermophys. (1)

S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, E. R. Woolliams, R. Winkler, H. M. Pegrum, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Use of eutectic fixed points to characterize a spectrometer for earth observations,” Int. J. Thermophys. 28, 2041–2048 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. (1)

M. Belluso, M. C. Mazzillo, G. Bonanno, S. Billotta, S. Scuderi, A. Cali´, A. Micciche´, M. C. Timpanaro, D. Sanfilippo, P. G. Fallica, E. Sciacca, S. Lombardo, and A. Morabito, “SPAD array detectors for astrophysical applications,” Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 9, 430–432 (2006).

Metrologia (2)

L. P. Boivin, “Automated absolute and relative spectral linearity measurements on photovoltaic detectors,” Metrologia 30, 355–360 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, “Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs,” Metrologia 40, S81–S84(2003).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (2)

E. Milton, M. Schaepman, K. Anderson, M. Kneubühler, and N. P. Fox, “Progress in field spectroscopy,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, S92–S109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Starks, E. A. Walter-Shea, F. R. Schiebe, and B. L. Markham, “Temperature senstivity characterization of a silicon diode array spectrometer,” Remote Sens. Environ. 51, 385–389 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

S. G. R. Salim, N. P. Fox, W. S. Hartree, E. R. Woolliams, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Monochromator-based stray light correction method for diode array based spectrometers,” submitted to Appl. Opt. (2010).

B. Tabbert and A. O. Goushcha, “Linearity of the photocurrent response with light intensity for silicon PIN photodiode array,” in IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1060–1063.
[CrossRef]

S. G. R. Salim, “Reference spectrometry for calibration of optical earth observation satellites,” Ph.D. thesis (City University London, 2010).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System used to measure the ambient temperature effects on the spectrometer response.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Percentage change in the spectrometer response at different temperatures, relative to its response at 20 °C .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Difference between measured and calculated spectrometer responses at the same temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Nonlinearity of the spectrometer gain settings as a function of wavelength. Results are normalized at 10 ms

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

System used to measure the nonlinearity of responses of the photodiode array spectrometer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectrometer signals at three different input radiant levels.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Linearity behavior of the photodiode array spectrometer at different radiant power levels.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Difference between measured and calculated linearity.

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