Abstract

In order to determine the performance of standoff sensors against agents, there is a need to develop methods to characterize the optical properties of biological warfare agents. The goal of this work is to develop a methodology that would allow the characterization of agent optical cross sections from the UV to the longwave IR. The present work demonstrates an optical measurement architecture based on lidar technology, allowing the measurement of backscatter and depolarization ratio from biological aerosols (either simulants or agents) released in a refereed, 1m3 chamber. Measured results on simulant materials are calibrated and compared to theoretical simulations of the cross sections.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. V. Hahn, D. Limsui, R. I. Joseph, K. Baldwin, N. T. Boggs, A. K. Carr, C. C. Carter, T. Han, and M. E. Thomas, “Shape characteristics of biological spores,” Proc. SPIE 6954, 69540W (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. C. Hill, A. C. Hill, and P. W. Barber, “Light scattering by size/shape distributions of soil particles and spheroids,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1025–1031 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. M. Siegrist, E. Thrush, M. Airola, A. K. Carr, D. M. Limsui, N. T. Boggs, M. E. Thomas, and C. C. Carter, “Water absorption in a refractive index model for bacterial spores,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040C (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. E. Thomas, M. B. Airola, C. C. Carter, and N. T. Boggs, “Extinction and backscatter cross sections of biological materials,” Proc. SPIE 6554, 65540Q (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, B. M. Morley, and E. Loew, “Polarization lidar at 1.54μm and observations of plumes from aerosol generators,” Opt. Eng. 46, 096201 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. M. Brown, E. P. Thrush, M. E. Thomas, K. M. Siegrist, K. Baldwin, J. Quizon, and C. C. Carter, “Chamber LIDAR measurements of aerosolized biological simulants,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040A (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. M. Brown, D. V. Hahn, M. E. Thomas, D. M. Brown, and J. Makowski, “Optical material characterization through BSDF measurement and analysis,” Proc. SPIE 7792, 779211 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Limsui, A. K. Carr, M. E. Thomas, N. T. Boggs, and R. I. Joseph, “Refractive index measurement of biological particles in the visible region,” Proc. SPIE 6954, 69540X (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).
  10. M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324(1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Penttila, E. Zubko, K. Lumme, K. Muinonen, M. Yurkin, B. Draine, J. Rahola, A. Hoekstra, and Y. Shkuratov, “Comparison between discrete dipole implementations and exact techniques,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 417–436 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Grimm Aerosol Technick GMBH & Co., “Grimm (1.108/1.109) spectrometer with nano-check (1.320),” retrieved 5 December 2010 from http://www.grimm-aerosol.com/.
  13. Bristol Industrial & Research Associates Ltd. “Aspect aerosol size and shape analyser,” retrieved 5 December 2010 from http://www.biral.com/particle-aerosol-analysers/size-shape-fluorescence/aspect-aerosol-size-shape-analyser.

2010 (1)

A. M. Brown, D. V. Hahn, M. E. Thomas, D. M. Brown, and J. Makowski, “Optical material characterization through BSDF measurement and analysis,” Proc. SPIE 7792, 779211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

D. M. Brown, E. P. Thrush, M. E. Thomas, K. M. Siegrist, K. Baldwin, J. Quizon, and C. C. Carter, “Chamber LIDAR measurements of aerosolized biological simulants,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040A (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Siegrist, E. Thrush, M. Airola, A. K. Carr, D. M. Limsui, N. T. Boggs, M. E. Thomas, and C. C. Carter, “Water absorption in a refractive index model for bacterial spores,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040C (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

D. V. Hahn, D. Limsui, R. I. Joseph, K. Baldwin, N. T. Boggs, A. K. Carr, C. C. Carter, T. Han, and M. E. Thomas, “Shape characteristics of biological spores,” Proc. SPIE 6954, 69540W (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Limsui, A. K. Carr, M. E. Thomas, N. T. Boggs, and R. I. Joseph, “Refractive index measurement of biological particles in the visible region,” Proc. SPIE 6954, 69540X (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

M. E. Thomas, M. B. Airola, C. C. Carter, and N. T. Boggs, “Extinction and backscatter cross sections of biological materials,” Proc. SPIE 6554, 65540Q (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, B. M. Morley, and E. Loew, “Polarization lidar at 1.54μm and observations of plumes from aerosol generators,” Opt. Eng. 46, 096201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Penttila, E. Zubko, K. Lumme, K. Muinonen, M. Yurkin, B. Draine, J. Rahola, A. Hoekstra, and Y. Shkuratov, “Comparison between discrete dipole implementations and exact techniques,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 417–436 (2007).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324(1998).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Airola, M.

K. M. Siegrist, E. Thrush, M. Airola, A. K. Carr, D. M. Limsui, N. T. Boggs, M. E. Thomas, and C. C. Carter, “Water absorption in a refractive index model for bacterial spores,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040C (2009).
[CrossRef]

Airola, M. B.

M. E. Thomas, M. B. Airola, C. C. Carter, and N. T. Boggs, “Extinction and backscatter cross sections of biological materials,” Proc. SPIE 6554, 65540Q (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, K.

D. M. Brown, E. P. Thrush, M. E. Thomas, K. M. Siegrist, K. Baldwin, J. Quizon, and C. C. Carter, “Chamber LIDAR measurements of aerosolized biological simulants,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040A (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Hahn, D. Limsui, R. I. Joseph, K. Baldwin, N. T. Boggs, A. K. Carr, C. C. Carter, T. Han, and M. E. Thomas, “Shape characteristics of biological spores,” Proc. SPIE 6954, 69540W (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barber, P. W.

Boggs, N. T.

K. M. Siegrist, E. Thrush, M. Airola, A. K. Carr, D. M. Limsui, N. T. Boggs, M. E. Thomas, and C. C. Carter, “Water absorption in a refractive index model for bacterial spores,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040C (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Hahn, D. Limsui, R. I. Joseph, K. Baldwin, N. T. Boggs, A. K. Carr, C. C. Carter, T. Han, and M. E. Thomas, “Shape characteristics of biological spores,” Proc. SPIE 6954, 69540W (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Limsui, A. K. Carr, M. E. Thomas, N. T. Boggs, and R. I. Joseph, “Refractive index measurement of biological particles in the visible region,” Proc. SPIE 6954, 69540X (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Thomas, M. B. Airola, C. C. Carter, and N. T. Boggs, “Extinction and backscatter cross sections of biological materials,” Proc. SPIE 6554, 65540Q (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Brown, A. M.

A. M. Brown, D. V. Hahn, M. E. Thomas, D. M. Brown, and J. Makowski, “Optical material characterization through BSDF measurement and analysis,” Proc. SPIE 7792, 779211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. M.

A. M. Brown, D. V. Hahn, M. E. Thomas, D. M. Brown, and J. Makowski, “Optical material characterization through BSDF measurement and analysis,” Proc. SPIE 7792, 779211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Brown, E. P. Thrush, M. E. Thomas, K. M. Siegrist, K. Baldwin, J. Quizon, and C. C. Carter, “Chamber LIDAR measurements of aerosolized biological simulants,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carr, A. K.

K. M. Siegrist, E. Thrush, M. Airola, A. K. Carr, D. M. Limsui, N. T. Boggs, M. E. Thomas, and C. C. Carter, “Water absorption in a refractive index model for bacterial spores,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040C (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Hahn, D. Limsui, R. I. Joseph, K. Baldwin, N. T. Boggs, A. K. Carr, C. C. Carter, T. Han, and M. E. Thomas, “Shape characteristics of biological spores,” Proc. SPIE 6954, 69540W (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Limsui, A. K. Carr, M. E. Thomas, N. T. Boggs, and R. I. Joseph, “Refractive index measurement of biological particles in the visible region,” Proc. SPIE 6954, 69540X (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carter, C. C.

K. M. Siegrist, E. Thrush, M. Airola, A. K. Carr, D. M. Limsui, N. T. Boggs, M. E. Thomas, and C. C. Carter, “Water absorption in a refractive index model for bacterial spores,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040C (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Brown, E. P. Thrush, M. E. Thomas, K. M. Siegrist, K. Baldwin, J. Quizon, and C. C. Carter, “Chamber LIDAR measurements of aerosolized biological simulants,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040A (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Hahn, D. Limsui, R. I. Joseph, K. Baldwin, N. T. Boggs, A. K. Carr, C. C. Carter, T. Han, and M. E. Thomas, “Shape characteristics of biological spores,” Proc. SPIE 6954, 69540W (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Thomas, M. B. Airola, C. C. Carter, and N. T. Boggs, “Extinction and backscatter cross sections of biological materials,” Proc. SPIE 6554, 65540Q (2007).
[CrossRef]

Draine, B.

A. Penttila, E. Zubko, K. Lumme, K. Muinonen, M. Yurkin, B. Draine, J. Rahola, A. Hoekstra, and Y. Shkuratov, “Comparison between discrete dipole implementations and exact techniques,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 417–436 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, D. V.

A. M. Brown, D. V. Hahn, M. E. Thomas, D. M. Brown, and J. Makowski, “Optical material characterization through BSDF measurement and analysis,” Proc. SPIE 7792, 779211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Hahn, D. Limsui, R. I. Joseph, K. Baldwin, N. T. Boggs, A. K. Carr, C. C. Carter, T. Han, and M. E. Thomas, “Shape characteristics of biological spores,” Proc. SPIE 6954, 69540W (2008).
[CrossRef]

Han, T.

D. V. Hahn, D. Limsui, R. I. Joseph, K. Baldwin, N. T. Boggs, A. K. Carr, C. C. Carter, T. Han, and M. E. Thomas, “Shape characteristics of biological spores,” Proc. SPIE 6954, 69540W (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hill, A. C.

Hill, S. C.

Hoekstra, A.

A. Penttila, E. Zubko, K. Lumme, K. Muinonen, M. Yurkin, B. Draine, J. Rahola, A. Hoekstra, and Y. Shkuratov, “Comparison between discrete dipole implementations and exact techniques,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 417–436 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Joseph, R. I.

D. Limsui, A. K. Carr, M. E. Thomas, N. T. Boggs, and R. I. Joseph, “Refractive index measurement of biological particles in the visible region,” Proc. SPIE 6954, 69540X (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Hahn, D. Limsui, R. I. Joseph, K. Baldwin, N. T. Boggs, A. K. Carr, C. C. Carter, T. Han, and M. E. Thomas, “Shape characteristics of biological spores,” Proc. SPIE 6954, 69540W (2008).
[CrossRef]

Limsui, D.

D. V. Hahn, D. Limsui, R. I. Joseph, K. Baldwin, N. T. Boggs, A. K. Carr, C. C. Carter, T. Han, and M. E. Thomas, “Shape characteristics of biological spores,” Proc. SPIE 6954, 69540W (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Limsui, A. K. Carr, M. E. Thomas, N. T. Boggs, and R. I. Joseph, “Refractive index measurement of biological particles in the visible region,” Proc. SPIE 6954, 69540X (2008).
[CrossRef]

Limsui, D. M.

K. M. Siegrist, E. Thrush, M. Airola, A. K. Carr, D. M. Limsui, N. T. Boggs, M. E. Thomas, and C. C. Carter, “Water absorption in a refractive index model for bacterial spores,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040C (2009).
[CrossRef]

Loew, E.

S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, B. M. Morley, and E. Loew, “Polarization lidar at 1.54μm and observations of plumes from aerosol generators,” Opt. Eng. 46, 096201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lumme, K.

A. Penttila, E. Zubko, K. Lumme, K. Muinonen, M. Yurkin, B. Draine, J. Rahola, A. Hoekstra, and Y. Shkuratov, “Comparison between discrete dipole implementations and exact techniques,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 417–436 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Makowski, J.

A. M. Brown, D. V. Hahn, M. E. Thomas, D. M. Brown, and J. Makowski, “Optical material characterization through BSDF measurement and analysis,” Proc. SPIE 7792, 779211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mayor, S. D.

S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, B. M. Morley, and E. Loew, “Polarization lidar at 1.54μm and observations of plumes from aerosol generators,” Opt. Eng. 46, 096201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324(1998).
[CrossRef]

Morley, B. M.

S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, B. M. Morley, and E. Loew, “Polarization lidar at 1.54μm and observations of plumes from aerosol generators,” Opt. Eng. 46, 096201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Muinonen, K.

A. Penttila, E. Zubko, K. Lumme, K. Muinonen, M. Yurkin, B. Draine, J. Rahola, A. Hoekstra, and Y. Shkuratov, “Comparison between discrete dipole implementations and exact techniques,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 417–436 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Penttila, A.

A. Penttila, E. Zubko, K. Lumme, K. Muinonen, M. Yurkin, B. Draine, J. Rahola, A. Hoekstra, and Y. Shkuratov, “Comparison between discrete dipole implementations and exact techniques,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 417–436 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Quizon, J.

D. M. Brown, E. P. Thrush, M. E. Thomas, K. M. Siegrist, K. Baldwin, J. Quizon, and C. C. Carter, “Chamber LIDAR measurements of aerosolized biological simulants,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rahola, J.

A. Penttila, E. Zubko, K. Lumme, K. Muinonen, M. Yurkin, B. Draine, J. Rahola, A. Hoekstra, and Y. Shkuratov, “Comparison between discrete dipole implementations and exact techniques,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 417–436 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shkuratov, Y.

A. Penttila, E. Zubko, K. Lumme, K. Muinonen, M. Yurkin, B. Draine, J. Rahola, A. Hoekstra, and Y. Shkuratov, “Comparison between discrete dipole implementations and exact techniques,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 417–436 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Siegrist, K. M.

D. M. Brown, E. P. Thrush, M. E. Thomas, K. M. Siegrist, K. Baldwin, J. Quizon, and C. C. Carter, “Chamber LIDAR measurements of aerosolized biological simulants,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040A (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Siegrist, E. Thrush, M. Airola, A. K. Carr, D. M. Limsui, N. T. Boggs, M. E. Thomas, and C. C. Carter, “Water absorption in a refractive index model for bacterial spores,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040C (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spuler, S. M.

S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, B. M. Morley, and E. Loew, “Polarization lidar at 1.54μm and observations of plumes from aerosol generators,” Opt. Eng. 46, 096201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, M. E.

A. M. Brown, D. V. Hahn, M. E. Thomas, D. M. Brown, and J. Makowski, “Optical material characterization through BSDF measurement and analysis,” Proc. SPIE 7792, 779211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Brown, E. P. Thrush, M. E. Thomas, K. M. Siegrist, K. Baldwin, J. Quizon, and C. C. Carter, “Chamber LIDAR measurements of aerosolized biological simulants,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040A (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Siegrist, E. Thrush, M. Airola, A. K. Carr, D. M. Limsui, N. T. Boggs, M. E. Thomas, and C. C. Carter, “Water absorption in a refractive index model for bacterial spores,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040C (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Hahn, D. Limsui, R. I. Joseph, K. Baldwin, N. T. Boggs, A. K. Carr, C. C. Carter, T. Han, and M. E. Thomas, “Shape characteristics of biological spores,” Proc. SPIE 6954, 69540W (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Limsui, A. K. Carr, M. E. Thomas, N. T. Boggs, and R. I. Joseph, “Refractive index measurement of biological particles in the visible region,” Proc. SPIE 6954, 69540X (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Thomas, M. B. Airola, C. C. Carter, and N. T. Boggs, “Extinction and backscatter cross sections of biological materials,” Proc. SPIE 6554, 65540Q (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thrush, E.

K. M. Siegrist, E. Thrush, M. Airola, A. K. Carr, D. M. Limsui, N. T. Boggs, M. E. Thomas, and C. C. Carter, “Water absorption in a refractive index model for bacterial spores,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040C (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thrush, E. P.

D. M. Brown, E. P. Thrush, M. E. Thomas, K. M. Siegrist, K. Baldwin, J. Quizon, and C. C. Carter, “Chamber LIDAR measurements of aerosolized biological simulants,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324(1998).
[CrossRef]

Yurkin, M.

A. Penttila, E. Zubko, K. Lumme, K. Muinonen, M. Yurkin, B. Draine, J. Rahola, A. Hoekstra, and Y. Shkuratov, “Comparison between discrete dipole implementations and exact techniques,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 417–436 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zubko, E.

A. Penttila, E. Zubko, K. Lumme, K. Muinonen, M. Yurkin, B. Draine, J. Rahola, A. Hoekstra, and Y. Shkuratov, “Comparison between discrete dipole implementations and exact techniques,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 417–436 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324(1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Penttila, E. Zubko, K. Lumme, K. Muinonen, M. Yurkin, B. Draine, J. Rahola, A. Hoekstra, and Y. Shkuratov, “Comparison between discrete dipole implementations and exact techniques,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 417–436 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. D. Mayor, S. M. Spuler, B. M. Morley, and E. Loew, “Polarization lidar at 1.54μm and observations of plumes from aerosol generators,” Opt. Eng. 46, 096201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (6)

D. M. Brown, E. P. Thrush, M. E. Thomas, K. M. Siegrist, K. Baldwin, J. Quizon, and C. C. Carter, “Chamber LIDAR measurements of aerosolized biological simulants,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040A (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Brown, D. V. Hahn, M. E. Thomas, D. M. Brown, and J. Makowski, “Optical material characterization through BSDF measurement and analysis,” Proc. SPIE 7792, 779211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Limsui, A. K. Carr, M. E. Thomas, N. T. Boggs, and R. I. Joseph, “Refractive index measurement of biological particles in the visible region,” Proc. SPIE 6954, 69540X (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Siegrist, E. Thrush, M. Airola, A. K. Carr, D. M. Limsui, N. T. Boggs, M. E. Thomas, and C. C. Carter, “Water absorption in a refractive index model for bacterial spores,” Proc. SPIE 7304, 73040C (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Thomas, M. B. Airola, C. C. Carter, and N. T. Boggs, “Extinction and backscatter cross sections of biological materials,” Proc. SPIE 6554, 65540Q (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Hahn, D. Limsui, R. I. Joseph, K. Baldwin, N. T. Boggs, A. K. Carr, C. C. Carter, T. Han, and M. E. Thomas, “Shape characteristics of biological spores,” Proc. SPIE 6954, 69540W (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Grimm Aerosol Technick GMBH & Co., “Grimm (1.108/1.109) spectrometer with nano-check (1.320),” retrieved 5 December 2010 from http://www.grimm-aerosol.com/.

Bristol Industrial & Research Associates Ltd. “Aspect aerosol size and shape analyser,” retrieved 5 December 2010 from http://www.biral.com/particle-aerosol-analysers/size-shape-fluorescence/aspect-aerosol-size-shape-analyser.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulation comparison for chamber lidar operating in a) a coaxial configuration using a different diameter of center-block obstructions versus b) the biaxial case at short range. No field stop is included in these simulations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Zemax spot size analysis of the chamber lidar receiver for a target volume located at a range of 1.25 m . Simulation results describe the bounds of the target volume with a 2 mm diameter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical layout of the subnanosecond chamber lidar system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) Chamber lidar measurement setup for backscatter cross-section and linear depolarization ratio. b) Sample lidar return profile.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Equipment setup used to disperse the aerosolized BG within the test chamber.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured (solid curve) and simulated (dashed curve) BRDF of the Spectralon target for an incidence angle of 15 ° .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

a) APS size distributions for wet (solid curves) and dry (dashed curves) materials. These curves are used for theoretical cross-section calculations [4]. Note the significant differences in average particle size when comparing the wet and dry cases. b) Chamber lidar measurements of wet German BG and OV backscatter cross section (points) compared to the theoretical simulation (solid curves).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Aerosol signal and depolarization during a) wet and b) dry BG releases in the chamber. Aerosol signal and depolarization during c) wet and d) dry ovalbumin (OV) releases in the chamber.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

a) Calculated BG cross section using the polystyrene latex (PSL) bead calibration method and b) chamber lidar signal and calculated normalized depolarization of wet BG and PSL beads during release.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α cld , 1 [ sr 1 ] = σ 1 ( λ i , t j ) ρ Rsp ( t j ) D Cld = 1 T Atm ( λ i , τ l , R Cld ) [ S Cld , 1 ( λ i , t j ) E ( λ i , t j ) ] R Cld 2 A Tel 1 F Inst , 1 ( λ i , τ l ) ,
α trg , 1 [ sr 1 ] = 1 T Atm ( λ i , τ l , R Cld ) [ S trg , 1 ( λ i , t j ) E ( λ i , t j ) ] R Cld 2 A Tel 1 F Inst , 1 ( λ i , τ l ) .
σ 1 ( λ i , t j ) = α trg , 1 S Cld , 1 ( λ i , t j ) S trg , 1 ( λ i , τ l ) ρ Rsp ( t j ) D Cld ,
σ 2 ( λ i , t j ) = α trg , 2 S Cld , 2 ( λ i , t j ) S trg , 2 ( λ i , τ l ) ρ Rsp ( t j ) D Cld ,
σ eff ( λ i , t j ) = σ 1 ( λ i , t j ) + σ 2 ( λ i , t j ) ,
σ eff ( λ i , t j ) = ( α trg , 1 S Cld , 1 ( λ i , t j ) S trg , 1 ( λ i , τ l ) ρ Rsp ( t j ) D Cld + α trg , 2 S Cld , 2 ( λ i , t j ) S trg , 2 ( λ i , τ l ) ρ Rsp ( t j ) D Cld ) .

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