Abstract

Nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence (NO PLIF) imaging at repetition rates as high as 1MHz is demonstrated in the NASA Langley 31 in. Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel. Approximately 200 time- correlated image sequences of between 10 and 20 individual frames were obtained over eight days of wind tunnel testing spanning two entries in March and September of 2009. The image sequences presented were obtained from the boundary layer of a 20° flat plate model, in which transition was induced using a variety of different shaped protuberances, including a cylinder and a triangle. The high-speed image sequences captured a variety of laminar and transitional flow phenomena, ranging from mostly laminar flow, typically at a lower Reynolds number and/or in the near wall region of the model, to highly transitional flow in which the temporal evolution and progression of characteristic streak instabilities and/or corkscrew-shaped vortices could be clearly identified.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2009

N. Jiang, M. Webster, and W. R. Lempert, “Advances in generation of high-repetition-rate burst mode laser output,” Appl. Opt. 48, B23–B31 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Miller, M. Slipchenko, T. R. Meyer, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, and J. R. Gord, “Ultrahigh-frame-rate OH fluorescence imaging in turbulent flames using a burst-mode optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1309–1311 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Danehy, J. A. Inman, G. Brauckmann, D. W. Alderfer, S. B. Jones, and D. Patry, “Visualization of a capsule entry vehicle reaction-control system thruster,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 46, 93–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Inman, P. M. Danehy, D. W. Alderfer, G. M. Buck, and A. McCrea, “Planar fluorescence imaging and three-dimensional reconstructions of capsule reaction-control-system jets,” AIAA J. 47, 803–812 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Srinivasan, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, “Molecular tagging using vibrationally excited nitric oxide in an underexpanded jet flowfield,” AIAA J. 47, 2597–2604 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

P. M. Danehy, D. W. Alderfer, J. A. Inman, K. T. Berger, G. M. Buck, and R. J. Schwartz, “Fluorescence imaging and streakline visualization of hypersonic flow over rapid prototype wind-tunnel models,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. G. J. Aerosp. Eng. 222, 637–651 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, G. L. Switzer, T. R. Meyer, and J. R. Gord, “A narrow-linewidth MHz-repetition-rate optical parametric oscillator for high-speed flow and combustion diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 47, 64–71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

C. Kittler and A. Dreizler, “Cinematographic imaging of hydroxyl radicals in turbulent flames by planar laser-induced fluorescence up to 5kHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 163–166 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. D. Smith and V. Sick, “Crank-angle resolved imaging of biacetyl laser-induced fluorescence in an optical internal combustion engine,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 579–584 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Lee, D. W. Lee, and H. J. Kong, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering by a multi-mode pump with a large number of longitudinal modes,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 46, 443–447, (2005).

2004

2000

P. Wu, W. R. Lempert, and R. B. Miles, “MHz pulse-burst laser system and visualization of shock-wave boundary-layer interaction in a Mach 2.5 wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 38, 672–679 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, and M. Alden, “High repletion rate planar laser induced fluorescence of OH in a non-premixed flame,” Appl. Phys. B. 68, 757–760 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Orlemann, C. Schulz, and J. Wolfrom, “NO-flow tagging by photodissociation of NO2. A new approach for measuring small-scale flow structures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 15–20(1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

1993

1990

R. W. Boyd and K. Rzaewski, “Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5514–5521 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

G. Kychakoff, K. Knapp, R. D. Howe, and R. K. Hanson, “Flow visualization in combustion gases using nitric oxide fluorescence,” AIAA J. 22, 153–154 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982

1979

J. Auyeung, D. Fekete, D. Pepper, and A. Yariv, “A theoretical and experimental investigation of the modes of optical resonators with phase-conjugate mirrors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 1180–1188, (1979).
[CrossRef]

Alden, M.

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, and M. Alden, “High repletion rate planar laser induced fluorescence of OH in a non-premixed flame,” Appl. Phys. B. 68, 757–760 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alderfer, D. W.

P. M. Danehy, J. A. Inman, G. Brauckmann, D. W. Alderfer, S. B. Jones, and D. Patry, “Visualization of a capsule entry vehicle reaction-control system thruster,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 46, 93–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Inman, P. M. Danehy, D. W. Alderfer, G. M. Buck, and A. McCrea, “Planar fluorescence imaging and three-dimensional reconstructions of capsule reaction-control-system jets,” AIAA J. 47, 803–812 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Danehy, D. W. Alderfer, J. A. Inman, K. T. Berger, G. M. Buck, and R. J. Schwartz, “Fluorescence imaging and streakline visualization of hypersonic flow over rapid prototype wind-tunnel models,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. G. J. Aerosp. Eng. 222, 637–651 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Danehy, A. P. Garcia, S. Borg, A. A. Dyakonov, S. A. Berry, J. A. Wilkes Inman, and D. W. Alderfer, “Fluorescence visualization of hypersonic flow past triangular and rectangular boundary-layer trips,” AIAA-2007-0536 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2007).

Anderson, B. P.

B. P. Anderson, C. H. Campbell, L. A. Saucedo, and G. R. Kinder, “BLT flight experiment overview and in situ measurements,” AIAA-2010-0240 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

Auyeung, J.

J. Auyeung, D. Fekete, D. Pepper, and A. Yariv, “A theoretical and experimental investigation of the modes of optical resonators with phase-conjugate mirrors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 1180–1188, (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bathel, B.

P. M. Danehy, C. Ivey, J. A. Inman, B. Bathel, S. B. Jones, N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. Lempert, J. Miller, and T. Meyer, “High-speed PLIF imaging of hypersonic transition over discrete cylindrical roughness,” AIAA-2010-0703 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

Bathel, B. F.

P. M. Danehy, C. B. Ivey, B. F. Bathel, J. A. Inman, S. B. Jones, A. N. Watkins, K. Z. Goodman, B. D. Leighty, W. K. Lipford, N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. Lempert, J. Miller, and T. Meyer, “Orbiter BLT flight experiment wind tunnel simulations: Nearfield flowfield imaging and surface thermography,” AIAA-2010-1571 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

Berger, K. T.

P. M. Danehy, D. W. Alderfer, J. A. Inman, K. T. Berger, G. M. Buck, and R. J. Schwartz, “Fluorescence imaging and streakline visualization of hypersonic flow over rapid prototype wind-tunnel models,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. G. J. Aerosp. Eng. 222, 637–651 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berry, S. A.

C. H. Campbell, M. T. Garske, J. Kinder, and S. A. Berry, “Orbiter entry boundary layer flight testing,” AIAA-2008-0635 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2008).

P. M. Danehy, A. P. Garcia, S. Borg, A. A. Dyakonov, S. A. Berry, J. A. Wilkes Inman, and D. W. Alderfer, “Fluorescence visualization of hypersonic flow past triangular and rectangular boundary-layer trips,” AIAA-2007-0536 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2007).

Borg, S.

P. M. Danehy, A. P. Garcia, S. Borg, A. A. Dyakonov, S. A. Berry, J. A. Wilkes Inman, and D. W. Alderfer, “Fluorescence visualization of hypersonic flow past triangular and rectangular boundary-layer trips,” AIAA-2007-0536 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2007).

Bowersox, R. D. W.

A. H. Srinivasan, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, “Molecular tagging using vibrationally excited nitric oxide in an underexpanded jet flowfield,” AIAA J. 47, 2597–2604 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd and K. Rzaewski, “Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5514–5521 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brauckmann, G.

P. M. Danehy, J. A. Inman, G. Brauckmann, D. W. Alderfer, S. B. Jones, and D. Patry, “Visualization of a capsule entry vehicle reaction-control system thruster,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 46, 93–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Buck, G. M.

J. A. Inman, P. M. Danehy, D. W. Alderfer, G. M. Buck, and A. McCrea, “Planar fluorescence imaging and three-dimensional reconstructions of capsule reaction-control-system jets,” AIAA J. 47, 803–812 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Danehy, D. W. Alderfer, J. A. Inman, K. T. Berger, G. M. Buck, and R. J. Schwartz, “Fluorescence imaging and streakline visualization of hypersonic flow over rapid prototype wind-tunnel models,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. G. J. Aerosp. Eng. 222, 637–651 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, C. H.

B. P. Anderson, C. H. Campbell, L. A. Saucedo, and G. R. Kinder, “BLT flight experiment overview and in situ measurements,” AIAA-2010-0240 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

C. H. Campbell, M. T. Garske, J. Kinder, and S. A. Berry, “Orbiter entry boundary layer flight testing,” AIAA-2008-0635 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2008).

Crosley, D. R.

Danehy, P. M.

P. M. Danehy, J. A. Inman, G. Brauckmann, D. W. Alderfer, S. B. Jones, and D. Patry, “Visualization of a capsule entry vehicle reaction-control system thruster,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 46, 93–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Inman, P. M. Danehy, D. W. Alderfer, G. M. Buck, and A. McCrea, “Planar fluorescence imaging and three-dimensional reconstructions of capsule reaction-control-system jets,” AIAA J. 47, 803–812 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Danehy, D. W. Alderfer, J. A. Inman, K. T. Berger, G. M. Buck, and R. J. Schwartz, “Fluorescence imaging and streakline visualization of hypersonic flow over rapid prototype wind-tunnel models,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. G. J. Aerosp. Eng. 222, 637–651 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Danehy, A. P. Garcia, S. Borg, A. A. Dyakonov, S. A. Berry, J. A. Wilkes Inman, and D. W. Alderfer, “Fluorescence visualization of hypersonic flow past triangular and rectangular boundary-layer trips,” AIAA-2007-0536 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2007).

P. M. Danehy, C. B. Ivey, B. F. Bathel, J. A. Inman, S. B. Jones, A. N. Watkins, K. Z. Goodman, B. D. Leighty, W. K. Lipford, N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. Lempert, J. Miller, and T. Meyer, “Orbiter BLT flight experiment wind tunnel simulations: Nearfield flowfield imaging and surface thermography,” AIAA-2010-1571 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

P. M. Danehy, C. Ivey, J. A. Inman, B. Bathel, S. B. Jones, N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. Lempert, J. Miller, and T. Meyer, “High-speed PLIF imaging of hypersonic transition over discrete cylindrical roughness,” AIAA-2010-0703 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. R. Lempert, J. D. Miller, T. R. Meyer, and P. M. Danehy, “MHz-rate NO PLIF imaging in a Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel,” AIAA-2010-1407 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

Dergachev, A. Y.

A. Y. Dergachev, B. Pati, and P. F. Moulton, “Efficient third-harmonic generation with a Ti:sapphire laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 1999).

Dreizler, A.

C. Kittler and A. Dreizler, “Cinematographic imaging of hydroxyl radicals in turbulent flames by planar laser-induced fluorescence up to 5kHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 163–166 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dyakonov, A. A.

P. M. Danehy, A. P. Garcia, S. Borg, A. A. Dyakonov, S. A. Berry, J. A. Wilkes Inman, and D. W. Alderfer, “Fluorescence visualization of hypersonic flow past triangular and rectangular boundary-layer trips,” AIAA-2007-0536 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2007).

Dyer, M. J.

Fekete, D.

J. Auyeung, D. Fekete, D. Pepper, and A. Yariv, “A theoretical and experimental investigation of the modes of optical resonators with phase-conjugate mirrors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 1180–1188, (1979).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, A. P.

P. M. Danehy, A. P. Garcia, S. Borg, A. A. Dyakonov, S. A. Berry, J. A. Wilkes Inman, and D. W. Alderfer, “Fluorescence visualization of hypersonic flow past triangular and rectangular boundary-layer trips,” AIAA-2007-0536 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2007).

Garske, M. T.

C. H. Campbell, M. T. Garske, J. Kinder, and S. A. Berry, “Orbiter entry boundary layer flight testing,” AIAA-2008-0635 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2008).

Goodman, K. Z.

P. M. Danehy, C. B. Ivey, B. F. Bathel, J. A. Inman, S. B. Jones, A. N. Watkins, K. Z. Goodman, B. D. Leighty, W. K. Lipford, N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. Lempert, J. Miller, and T. Meyer, “Orbiter BLT flight experiment wind tunnel simulations: Nearfield flowfield imaging and surface thermography,” AIAA-2010-1571 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

Gord, J. R.

Hanson, R. K.

B. K. McMillan, J. L. Palmer, and R. K. Hanson, “Temporally resolved, two-line fluorescence imaging of NO temperature in a transverse jet in a supersonic cross flow,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7532–7545 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Kychakoff, K. Knapp, R. D. Howe, and R. K. Hanson, “Flow visualization in combustion gases using nitric oxide fluorescence,” AIAA J. 22, 153–154 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Howe, R. D.

G. Kychakoff, K. Knapp, R. D. Howe, and R. K. Hanson, “Flow visualization in combustion gases using nitric oxide fluorescence,” AIAA J. 22, 153–154 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hult, J.

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, and M. Alden, “High repletion rate planar laser induced fluorescence of OH in a non-premixed flame,” Appl. Phys. B. 68, 757–760 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Inman, J. A.

P. M. Danehy, J. A. Inman, G. Brauckmann, D. W. Alderfer, S. B. Jones, and D. Patry, “Visualization of a capsule entry vehicle reaction-control system thruster,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 46, 93–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Inman, P. M. Danehy, D. W. Alderfer, G. M. Buck, and A. McCrea, “Planar fluorescence imaging and three-dimensional reconstructions of capsule reaction-control-system jets,” AIAA J. 47, 803–812 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Danehy, D. W. Alderfer, J. A. Inman, K. T. Berger, G. M. Buck, and R. J. Schwartz, “Fluorescence imaging and streakline visualization of hypersonic flow over rapid prototype wind-tunnel models,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. G. J. Aerosp. Eng. 222, 637–651 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Danehy, C. Ivey, J. A. Inman, B. Bathel, S. B. Jones, N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. Lempert, J. Miller, and T. Meyer, “High-speed PLIF imaging of hypersonic transition over discrete cylindrical roughness,” AIAA-2010-0703 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

P. M. Danehy, C. B. Ivey, B. F. Bathel, J. A. Inman, S. B. Jones, A. N. Watkins, K. Z. Goodman, B. D. Leighty, W. K. Lipford, N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. Lempert, J. Miller, and T. Meyer, “Orbiter BLT flight experiment wind tunnel simulations: Nearfield flowfield imaging and surface thermography,” AIAA-2010-1571 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

Inman, J. A. Wilkes

P. M. Danehy, A. P. Garcia, S. Borg, A. A. Dyakonov, S. A. Berry, J. A. Wilkes Inman, and D. W. Alderfer, “Fluorescence visualization of hypersonic flow past triangular and rectangular boundary-layer trips,” AIAA-2007-0536 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2007).

Ivey, C.

P. M. Danehy, C. Ivey, J. A. Inman, B. Bathel, S. B. Jones, N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. Lempert, J. Miller, and T. Meyer, “High-speed PLIF imaging of hypersonic transition over discrete cylindrical roughness,” AIAA-2010-0703 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

Ivey, C. B.

P. M. Danehy, C. B. Ivey, B. F. Bathel, J. A. Inman, S. B. Jones, A. N. Watkins, K. Z. Goodman, B. D. Leighty, W. K. Lipford, N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. Lempert, J. Miller, and T. Meyer, “Orbiter BLT flight experiment wind tunnel simulations: Nearfield flowfield imaging and surface thermography,” AIAA-2010-1571 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

Jiang, N.

J. D. Miller, M. Slipchenko, T. R. Meyer, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, and J. R. Gord, “Ultrahigh-frame-rate OH fluorescence imaging in turbulent flames using a burst-mode optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1309–1311 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jiang, M. Webster, and W. R. Lempert, “Advances in generation of high-repetition-rate burst mode laser output,” Appl. Opt. 48, B23–B31 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, G. L. Switzer, T. R. Meyer, and J. R. Gord, “A narrow-linewidth MHz-repetition-rate optical parametric oscillator for high-speed flow and combustion diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 47, 64–71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Thurow, N. Jiang, M. Samimy, and W. Lempert, “Narrow-linewidth megahertz-rate pulse-burst laser for high-speed flow diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5064–5073 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Danehy, C. B. Ivey, B. F. Bathel, J. A. Inman, S. B. Jones, A. N. Watkins, K. Z. Goodman, B. D. Leighty, W. K. Lipford, N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. Lempert, J. Miller, and T. Meyer, “Orbiter BLT flight experiment wind tunnel simulations: Nearfield flowfield imaging and surface thermography,” AIAA-2010-1571 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

P. M. Danehy, C. Ivey, J. A. Inman, B. Bathel, S. B. Jones, N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. Lempert, J. Miller, and T. Meyer, “High-speed PLIF imaging of hypersonic transition over discrete cylindrical roughness,” AIAA-2010-0703 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. R. Lempert, J. D. Miller, T. R. Meyer, and P. M. Danehy, “MHz-rate NO PLIF imaging in a Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel,” AIAA-2010-1407 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

Jones, S. B.

P. M. Danehy, J. A. Inman, G. Brauckmann, D. W. Alderfer, S. B. Jones, and D. Patry, “Visualization of a capsule entry vehicle reaction-control system thruster,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 46, 93–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Danehy, C. Ivey, J. A. Inman, B. Bathel, S. B. Jones, N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. Lempert, J. Miller, and T. Meyer, “High-speed PLIF imaging of hypersonic transition over discrete cylindrical roughness,” AIAA-2010-0703 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

P. M. Danehy, C. B. Ivey, B. F. Bathel, J. A. Inman, S. B. Jones, A. N. Watkins, K. Z. Goodman, B. D. Leighty, W. K. Lipford, N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. Lempert, J. Miller, and T. Meyer, “Orbiter BLT flight experiment wind tunnel simulations: Nearfield flowfield imaging and surface thermography,” AIAA-2010-1571 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

Kaminski, C. F.

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, and M. Alden, “High repletion rate planar laser induced fluorescence of OH in a non-premixed flame,” Appl. Phys. B. 68, 757–760 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kinder, G. R.

B. P. Anderson, C. H. Campbell, L. A. Saucedo, and G. R. Kinder, “BLT flight experiment overview and in situ measurements,” AIAA-2010-0240 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

Kinder, J.

C. H. Campbell, M. T. Garske, J. Kinder, and S. A. Berry, “Orbiter entry boundary layer flight testing,” AIAA-2008-0635 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2008).

Kittler, C.

C. Kittler and A. Dreizler, “Cinematographic imaging of hydroxyl radicals in turbulent flames by planar laser-induced fluorescence up to 5kHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 163–166 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Knapp, K.

G. Kychakoff, K. Knapp, R. D. Howe, and R. K. Hanson, “Flow visualization in combustion gases using nitric oxide fluorescence,” AIAA J. 22, 153–154 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kong, H. J.

S. K. Lee, D. W. Lee, and H. J. Kong, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering by a multi-mode pump with a large number of longitudinal modes,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 46, 443–447, (2005).

Kung, A. H.

Kychakoff, G.

G. Kychakoff, K. Knapp, R. D. Howe, and R. K. Hanson, “Flow visualization in combustion gases using nitric oxide fluorescence,” AIAA J. 22, 153–154 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. W.

S. K. Lee, D. W. Lee, and H. J. Kong, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering by a multi-mode pump with a large number of longitudinal modes,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 46, 443–447, (2005).

Lee, S. K.

S. K. Lee, D. W. Lee, and H. J. Kong, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering by a multi-mode pump with a large number of longitudinal modes,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 46, 443–447, (2005).

Leighty, B. D.

P. M. Danehy, C. B. Ivey, B. F. Bathel, J. A. Inman, S. B. Jones, A. N. Watkins, K. Z. Goodman, B. D. Leighty, W. K. Lipford, N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. Lempert, J. Miller, and T. Meyer, “Orbiter BLT flight experiment wind tunnel simulations: Nearfield flowfield imaging and surface thermography,” AIAA-2010-1571 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

Lempert, W.

B. Thurow, N. Jiang, M. Samimy, and W. Lempert, “Narrow-linewidth megahertz-rate pulse-burst laser for high-speed flow diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5064–5073 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Danehy, C. B. Ivey, B. F. Bathel, J. A. Inman, S. B. Jones, A. N. Watkins, K. Z. Goodman, B. D. Leighty, W. K. Lipford, N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. Lempert, J. Miller, and T. Meyer, “Orbiter BLT flight experiment wind tunnel simulations: Nearfield flowfield imaging and surface thermography,” AIAA-2010-1571 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

P. M. Danehy, C. Ivey, J. A. Inman, B. Bathel, S. B. Jones, N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. Lempert, J. Miller, and T. Meyer, “High-speed PLIF imaging of hypersonic transition over discrete cylindrical roughness,” AIAA-2010-0703 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

Lempert, W. R.

Liechty, D. S.

D. S. Liechty, “Aerothermodynamic testing of protuberances and penetrations on the NASA crew exploration vehicle heat shield,” AIAA-2008-1240 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2008).

Lipford, W. K.

P. M. Danehy, C. B. Ivey, B. F. Bathel, J. A. Inman, S. B. Jones, A. N. Watkins, K. Z. Goodman, B. D. Leighty, W. K. Lipford, N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. Lempert, J. Miller, and T. Meyer, “Orbiter BLT flight experiment wind tunnel simulations: Nearfield flowfield imaging and surface thermography,” AIAA-2010-1571 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

McCrea, A.

J. A. Inman, P. M. Danehy, D. W. Alderfer, G. M. Buck, and A. McCrea, “Planar fluorescence imaging and three-dimensional reconstructions of capsule reaction-control-system jets,” AIAA J. 47, 803–812 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McMillan, B. K.

Meyer, T.

P. M. Danehy, C. Ivey, J. A. Inman, B. Bathel, S. B. Jones, N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. Lempert, J. Miller, and T. Meyer, “High-speed PLIF imaging of hypersonic transition over discrete cylindrical roughness,” AIAA-2010-0703 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

P. M. Danehy, C. B. Ivey, B. F. Bathel, J. A. Inman, S. B. Jones, A. N. Watkins, K. Z. Goodman, B. D. Leighty, W. K. Lipford, N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. Lempert, J. Miller, and T. Meyer, “Orbiter BLT flight experiment wind tunnel simulations: Nearfield flowfield imaging and surface thermography,” AIAA-2010-1571 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

Meyer, T. R.

Micol, J. R.

J. R. Micol, “Langley aerothermodynamic facilities complex: enhancements and testing capabilities,” AIAA-1998-0147 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1998).

Miles, R. B.

P. Wu, W. R. Lempert, and R. B. Miles, “MHz pulse-burst laser system and visualization of shock-wave boundary-layer interaction in a Mach 2.5 wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 38, 672–679 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J.

P. M. Danehy, C. Ivey, J. A. Inman, B. Bathel, S. B. Jones, N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. Lempert, J. Miller, and T. Meyer, “High-speed PLIF imaging of hypersonic transition over discrete cylindrical roughness,” AIAA-2010-0703 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

P. M. Danehy, C. B. Ivey, B. F. Bathel, J. A. Inman, S. B. Jones, A. N. Watkins, K. Z. Goodman, B. D. Leighty, W. K. Lipford, N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. Lempert, J. Miller, and T. Meyer, “Orbiter BLT flight experiment wind tunnel simulations: Nearfield flowfield imaging and surface thermography,” AIAA-2010-1571 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

Miller, J. D.

J. D. Miller, M. Slipchenko, T. R. Meyer, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, and J. R. Gord, “Ultrahigh-frame-rate OH fluorescence imaging in turbulent flames using a burst-mode optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1309–1311 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. R. Lempert, J. D. Miller, T. R. Meyer, and P. M. Danehy, “MHz-rate NO PLIF imaging in a Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel,” AIAA-2010-1407 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

Moulton, P. F.

A. Y. Dergachev, B. Pati, and P. F. Moulton, “Efficient third-harmonic generation with a Ti:sapphire laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 1999).

Ni, C. K.

North, S. W.

A. H. Srinivasan, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, “Molecular tagging using vibrationally excited nitric oxide in an underexpanded jet flowfield,” AIAA J. 47, 2597–2604 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Orlemann, C.

C. Orlemann, C. Schulz, and J. Wolfrom, “NO-flow tagging by photodissociation of NO2. A new approach for measuring small-scale flow structures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 15–20(1999).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, J. L.

Pati, B.

A. Y. Dergachev, B. Pati, and P. F. Moulton, “Efficient third-harmonic generation with a Ti:sapphire laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 1999).

Patry, D.

P. M. Danehy, J. A. Inman, G. Brauckmann, D. W. Alderfer, S. B. Jones, and D. Patry, “Visualization of a capsule entry vehicle reaction-control system thruster,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 46, 93–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, D.

J. Auyeung, D. Fekete, D. Pepper, and A. Yariv, “A theoretical and experimental investigation of the modes of optical resonators with phase-conjugate mirrors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 1180–1188, (1979).
[CrossRef]

Rzaewski, K.

R. W. Boyd and K. Rzaewski, “Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5514–5521 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samimy, M.

Saucedo, L. A.

B. P. Anderson, C. H. Campbell, L. A. Saucedo, and G. R. Kinder, “BLT flight experiment overview and in situ measurements,” AIAA-2010-0240 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

Schulz, C.

C. Orlemann, C. Schulz, and J. Wolfrom, “NO-flow tagging by photodissociation of NO2. A new approach for measuring small-scale flow structures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 15–20(1999).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, R. J.

P. M. Danehy, D. W. Alderfer, J. A. Inman, K. T. Berger, G. M. Buck, and R. J. Schwartz, “Fluorescence imaging and streakline visualization of hypersonic flow over rapid prototype wind-tunnel models,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. G. J. Aerosp. Eng. 222, 637–651 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sick, V.

J. D. Smith and V. Sick, “Crank-angle resolved imaging of biacetyl laser-induced fluorescence in an optical internal combustion engine,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 579–584 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Slipchenko, M.

Smith, J. D.

J. D. Smith and V. Sick, “Crank-angle resolved imaging of biacetyl laser-induced fluorescence in an optical internal combustion engine,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 579–584 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, A. H.

A. H. Srinivasan, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, “Molecular tagging using vibrationally excited nitric oxide in an underexpanded jet flowfield,” AIAA J. 47, 2597–2604 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Switzer, G. L.

Thurow, B.

Watkins, A. N.

P. M. Danehy, C. B. Ivey, B. F. Bathel, J. A. Inman, S. B. Jones, A. N. Watkins, K. Z. Goodman, B. D. Leighty, W. K. Lipford, N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. Lempert, J. Miller, and T. Meyer, “Orbiter BLT flight experiment wind tunnel simulations: Nearfield flowfield imaging and surface thermography,” AIAA-2010-1571 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

Webster, M.

N. Jiang, M. Webster, and W. R. Lempert, “Advances in generation of high-repetition-rate burst mode laser output,” Appl. Opt. 48, B23–B31 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Danehy, C. B. Ivey, B. F. Bathel, J. A. Inman, S. B. Jones, A. N. Watkins, K. Z. Goodman, B. D. Leighty, W. K. Lipford, N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. Lempert, J. Miller, and T. Meyer, “Orbiter BLT flight experiment wind tunnel simulations: Nearfield flowfield imaging and surface thermography,” AIAA-2010-1571 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

P. M. Danehy, C. Ivey, J. A. Inman, B. Bathel, S. B. Jones, N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. Lempert, J. Miller, and T. Meyer, “High-speed PLIF imaging of hypersonic transition over discrete cylindrical roughness,” AIAA-2010-0703 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. R. Lempert, J. D. Miller, T. R. Meyer, and P. M. Danehy, “MHz-rate NO PLIF imaging in a Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel,” AIAA-2010-1407 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

Wolfrom, J.

C. Orlemann, C. Schulz, and J. Wolfrom, “NO-flow tagging by photodissociation of NO2. A new approach for measuring small-scale flow structures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 15–20(1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, P.

P. Wu, W. R. Lempert, and R. B. Miles, “MHz pulse-burst laser system and visualization of shock-wave boundary-layer interaction in a Mach 2.5 wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 38, 672–679 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

J. Auyeung, D. Fekete, D. Pepper, and A. Yariv, “A theoretical and experimental investigation of the modes of optical resonators with phase-conjugate mirrors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 1180–1188, (1979).
[CrossRef]

AIAA J.

G. Kychakoff, K. Knapp, R. D. Howe, and R. K. Hanson, “Flow visualization in combustion gases using nitric oxide fluorescence,” AIAA J. 22, 153–154 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. Wu, W. R. Lempert, and R. B. Miles, “MHz pulse-burst laser system and visualization of shock-wave boundary-layer interaction in a Mach 2.5 wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 38, 672–679 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Inman, P. M. Danehy, D. W. Alderfer, G. M. Buck, and A. McCrea, “Planar fluorescence imaging and three-dimensional reconstructions of capsule reaction-control-system jets,” AIAA J. 47, 803–812 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Srinivasan, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, “Molecular tagging using vibrationally excited nitric oxide in an underexpanded jet flowfield,” AIAA J. 47, 2597–2604 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

J. D. Smith and V. Sick, “Crank-angle resolved imaging of biacetyl laser-induced fluorescence in an optical internal combustion engine,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 579–584 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Kittler and A. Dreizler, “Cinematographic imaging of hydroxyl radicals in turbulent flames by planar laser-induced fluorescence up to 5kHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 163–166 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B.

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, and M. Alden, “High repletion rate planar laser induced fluorescence of OH in a non-premixed flame,” Appl. Phys. B. 68, 757–760 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

C. Orlemann, C. Schulz, and J. Wolfrom, “NO-flow tagging by photodissociation of NO2. A new approach for measuring small-scale flow structures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 15–20(1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. Auyeung, D. Fekete, D. Pepper, and A. Yariv, “A theoretical and experimental investigation of the modes of optical resonators with phase-conjugate mirrors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 1180–1188, (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Korean Phys. Soc.

S. K. Lee, D. W. Lee, and H. J. Kong, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering by a multi-mode pump with a large number of longitudinal modes,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 46, 443–447, (2005).

J. Spacecr. Rockets

P. M. Danehy, J. A. Inman, G. Brauckmann, D. W. Alderfer, S. B. Jones, and D. Patry, “Visualization of a capsule entry vehicle reaction-control system thruster,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 46, 93–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

R. W. Boyd and K. Rzaewski, “Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5514–5521 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. G. J. Aerosp. Eng.

P. M. Danehy, D. W. Alderfer, J. A. Inman, K. T. Berger, G. M. Buck, and R. J. Schwartz, “Fluorescence imaging and streakline visualization of hypersonic flow over rapid prototype wind-tunnel models,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. G. J. Aerosp. Eng. 222, 637–651 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Y. Dergachev, B. Pati, and P. F. Moulton, “Efficient third-harmonic generation with a Ti:sapphire laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 1999).

P. M. Danehy, A. P. Garcia, S. Borg, A. A. Dyakonov, S. A. Berry, J. A. Wilkes Inman, and D. W. Alderfer, “Fluorescence visualization of hypersonic flow past triangular and rectangular boundary-layer trips,” AIAA-2007-0536 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2007).

C. H. Campbell, M. T. Garske, J. Kinder, and S. A. Berry, “Orbiter entry boundary layer flight testing,” AIAA-2008-0635 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2008).

B. P. Anderson, C. H. Campbell, L. A. Saucedo, and G. R. Kinder, “BLT flight experiment overview and in situ measurements,” AIAA-2010-0240 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

P. M. Danehy, C. B. Ivey, B. F. Bathel, J. A. Inman, S. B. Jones, A. N. Watkins, K. Z. Goodman, B. D. Leighty, W. K. Lipford, N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. Lempert, J. Miller, and T. Meyer, “Orbiter BLT flight experiment wind tunnel simulations: Nearfield flowfield imaging and surface thermography,” AIAA-2010-1571 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

P. M. Danehy, C. Ivey, J. A. Inman, B. Bathel, S. B. Jones, N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. Lempert, J. Miller, and T. Meyer, “High-speed PLIF imaging of hypersonic transition over discrete cylindrical roughness,” AIAA-2010-0703 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. R. Lempert, J. D. Miller, T. R. Meyer, and P. M. Danehy, “MHz-rate NO PLIF imaging in a Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel,” AIAA-2010-1407 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010).

D. S. Liechty, “Aerothermodynamic testing of protuberances and penetrations on the NASA crew exploration vehicle heat shield,” AIAA-2008-1240 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2008).

J. R. Micol, “Langley aerothermodynamic facilities complex: enhancements and testing capabilities,” AIAA-1998-0147 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1998).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of pulse burst Nd:YAG laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental PCM reflectivity for CS 2 and FC-75 as a function of input pulse energy at 500 kHz . Reflectivity measured after third amplifier in amplification chain—see Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

1 MHz pulse burst laser output traces (a) 1064 nm , (b) 355 nm , (c) 622 nm , and (d) 226 nm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photograph of NASA Langley 31 in. Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel nozzle and test section.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

ViDI (Virtual Diagnostics Interface) rendering of the flat plate model tested, showing the 2 mm tall by 4 mm wide cylindrical trip at the center and the slot on the model cente rline that was used to seed NO. Flow is from left to right, and the top surface of the model is oriented at a 20 ° angle with respect to the oncoming flow.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Left) Three-dimensional rendering of pulse burst (and 10 Hz ) imaging systems installed in the NASA Langley 31 in. Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel. (Right) Close-up view of model and framing and 10 Hz ICCD cameras, and sheet profiling optics.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

1 MHz NO PLIF images of flow over a 2 mm tall, 4 mm diameter cylindrical trip. Laser sheet, from top to bottom, is located ~0.7 mm above the 20 ° flat plate model surface. Flow direction is from left to right.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

1 MHz NO PLIF images of flow over a 2 mm tall by 4 mm diameter cylindrical trip. The laser sheet is ~1.7 mm above the 20 ° flat plate surface.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

500 kHz image sequences obtained from triangular trip oriented 45 ° with respect to the principal flow axis on a 20 ° flat plate model. The image sequence was obtained close to the model surface (~0.9 mm).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Same as Fig. 9, except that image was obtained 1.9 mm above the model surface.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

500 kHz images sequences obtained from a 2 mm tall by 4 mm wide cylinder on a 20 ° flat plate model with a sheet located ~1 mm above the surface. Re = 1.7 million / m .

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

500 kHz images sequences obtained under identical conditions to Fig. 11, except Re is increased to 2.4 million / m .

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

500 kHz images sequences obtained under identical conditions to Figs. 11, 12, except Re is increased to 6.2 million / m .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Run Summary, Showing Test Conditions and Corresponding Figures

Metrics