Abstract

Volume gratings fabricated by interferometric exposure using composite materials composed of nematic liquid crystals (LC) and LC diacrylate monomers are discussed in the effects of diffraction properties on different grating formations, such as varying LC content ratios, film thicknesses, and the surface conditions composed of alignment layers and rubbing directions. Diffraction properties are experimentally investigated in the viewpoints of anisotropic diffraction and LC orientation. The polarization-azimuth dependence of diffraction efficiencies as functions of the incident polarization states shows the controllability of anisotropic diffractions based on the effects of different surface conditions.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2010 (4)

2008 (6)

2007 (4)

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, “Polarization dependent photoactuation in azobenzene LC polymers,” Proc SPIE 6654, 665403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ogiwara, H. Kakiuchida, M. Tazawa, and H. Ono, “Analysis of anisotropic diffraction gratings using holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 7341–7346(2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, A. Hatayama, A. Emoto, and N. Kawatsuki, “Migration induced reorientation and anisotropic grating formation in photoreactive polymer liquid crystals,” Opt. Mater. 30, 248–254 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-F. Shih and B.-W. Li, “Multimode grating using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals and novel electrodes,” Opt. Express . 15, 9707–9714 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

R. L. Sutherland, G. Cook, and D. R. Evans, “Determination of large nematic pre-tilt in liquid crystal cells with mechanically rubbed photorefractive Ce:SBN windows,” Opt. Express 14, 5365–5375 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Olenik, M. Fally, and M. A. Ellabban, “Temperature dependence of optical anisotropy of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 021707 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Flat polymeric microlens array,” Opt. Commun. 261, 296–299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Escuti, C. Oh, C. Sánchez, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Simplified spectropolarimetry using reactive mesogen polarization gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6302, 630207(2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Abbate, F. Vita, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, S. Slussarenko, O. Sakhno, and J. Stumpe, “New generation of holographic gratings based on polymer-LC composites: POLICRYPS and POLIPHEM,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 1–13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

N. Stich and H.-S. Kitzerowa, “Superposition of patterns in cross-linked liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 033519(2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Tong, G. Wang, A. Yavrian, T. Galstian, and Y. Zhao, “Dual-mode switching of diffraction gratings based on azobenzene-polymer stabilized liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17, 370–374(2005).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Cloutier, “Polarization holography: orthogonal plane-polarized beam configuration with circular vectorial photoinduced anisotropy,” J. Phys. D 38, 3371–3375 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (11)

H. Ono, A. Emoto, N. Kawatsuki, E. Uchda, and M. Kuwabara, “New fabrication method for anisotropic gratings formed in photocrosslinkable polymer liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. A. 79, 1725–1727 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Harbour, T. Galstian, R. S. Akopyan, and A. V. Galstyan, “Angular selectivity asymmetry of holograms recorded in near infrared sensitive liquid crystal photopolymerized materials,” Opt. Commun. 238, 261–267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Galstyan, R. S. Hakobyan, S. Harbour, and T. Galstian, “Thermal modulation of diffraction in near infrared sensitive holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 241, 23–28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization switch using thick holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal grating,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 810–815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, “Phenomenological model of anisotropic volume hologram formation in liquid-crystal-photopolymer mixtures,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 951–965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Drevenšek-Olenik, M. Jazbinšek, M. E. Sousa, A. K. Fontecchio, G. P. Crawford, and M. Èopiè, “Structural transitions in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E. 69, 051703 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Veltri, R. Caputo, C. Umetona, and A. V. Sukhov, “Model for the photoinduced formation of diffraction gratings in liquid-crystalline composite materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3492–3494 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Sakhno, S. Slussarenko, and J. Stumpe, “POLIPHEM: new type of nanoscale polymer-LC-switchable photonic devices,” Proc. SPIE 5521, 38–45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Caputo, L. D. Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, “Development of a new kind of switchable holographic grating made of liquid-crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1261–1263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. d’Alessandro, R. Asquini, C. Gizzi, R. Caputo, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, and A. V. Sukhov, “Electro-optic properties of switchable gratings made of polymer and nematic liquid-crystal slices,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1405–1407 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Caputo, A. Veltri, C. P. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, “Characterization of the diffraction efficiency of new holographic gratings with a nematic film-polymer-slice sequence structure,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1939–1947 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Determination of small anisotropy of holographic phase gratings,” Opt. Lett. 28, 725–727 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Liu, B. Zhang, Y. Jia, and K. S. Xu, “Improvement of the diffraction properties in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 218, 27–32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, A. Emoto, F. Takahashi, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Hasegawa, “Highly stable polarization gratings in photocross-linkable polymer liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1298–1303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (6)

2001 (2)

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, “Evolution of anisotropic reflection gratings formed in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1420–1422 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Kang, S. Sprunt, and L. C. Chien, “Switchable diffraction gratings based on inversion of the dielectric anisotropy in nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3782–3784(2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

S. W. Kang, S. Sprunt, and L. C. Chien, “Structure and morphology of polymer-stabilized cholesteric diffraction gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3516–3518 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Bowley and G. P. Crawford, “Diffusion kinetics of formation of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2235–2237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Butler and M. S. Malcuit, “Diffraction properties of highly birefringent liquid-crystal composite gratings,” Opt. Lett. 25, 420–422 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

F. Gori, “Measuring Stokes parameters by means of polarization grating,” Opt. Lett. 24, 584–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. D. Zeitner, B. Schnabel, E.-B. Kley, and F. Wyrowski, “Polarization multiplexing of diffractive elements with metal stripe grating pixels,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2177–2181 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Ogiwara, Y. Kuratomi, T. Karasawa, A. Takimoto, and S. Mizuguchi, “PS polarization converting device for LC projector using holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 30, 1124–1127(1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Kato, T. Hisaki, and M. Date, “Alignment-controlled holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal for reflective display devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 805–808 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

A. Y.-G. Fuh, T. C. Ko, M.-S. Tsai, and C.-Y. Huang, “Dynamical studies of gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 679–683 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Sanyal, P. Bandyopadhyay, and A. Ghosh, “Vector wave imagery using a birefringent lens,” Opt. Eng. 37, 592–599(1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Karasawa and Y. Taketomi, “Effects of materials system on the polarization behavior of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 6388–6392(1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1980 (2)

M. G. Moharam, T. K. Gaylord, and R. Magnusson, “Criteria for Bragg regime diffraction by phase gratings,” Opt. Commun. 32, 14–18 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Moharam, T. K. Gaylord, and R. Magnusson, “Criteria for Raman-Nath regime diffraction by phase gratings,” Opt. Commun. 32, 19–23 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

D. W. Berreman, “Solid surface shape and the alignment of an adjacent nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1683–1686 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Abbate, G.

M. V. Vasnetsov, S. S. Slussarenko Jr., J. Stumpe, O. Sakhno, S. S. Slussarenko, and G. Abbate, “Lasing by second-order Bragg diffraction in dye-doped POLIPHEM gratings,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 516, 159–166 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Abbate, F. Vita, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, S. Slussarenko, O. Sakhno, and J. Stumpe, “New generation of holographic gratings based on polymer-LC composites: POLICRYPS and POLIPHEM,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 1–13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adams, W. W.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Akopyan, R. S.

S. Harbour, T. Galstian, R. S. Akopyan, and A. V. Galstyan, “Angular selectivity asymmetry of holograms recorded in near infrared sensitive liquid crystal photopolymerized materials,” Opt. Commun. 238, 261–267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Asquini, R.

Bandyopadhyay, P.

S. Sanyal, P. Bandyopadhyay, and A. Ghosh, “Vector wave imagery using a birefringent lens,” Opt. Eng. 37, 592–599(1998).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, P. P.

Bastiaansen, C. W. M.

M. J. Escuti, C. Oh, C. Sánchez, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Simplified spectropolarimetry using reactive mesogen polarization gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6302, 630207(2006).
[CrossRef]

Basun, S. A.

Berreman, D. W.

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A. Ogiwara, M. Minato, S. Horiguchi, H. Ono, H. Imai, H. Kakiuchida, and K. Yoshimura, “Diffraction properties of anisotropic volume gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. . 47, 6688–6694 (2008).
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A. Ogiwara, M. Minato, S. Horiguchi, H. Ono, H. Imai, H. Kakiuchida, and K. Yoshimura, “Diffraction properties of anisotropic volume gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. . 47, 6688–6694 (2008).
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M. Jazbinsek, I. D. Olenik, M. Zgonik, A. K. Fontecchio, and G. P. Crawford, “Electro-optical properties of polymer dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 455–465 (2002).
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I. Drevenšek-Olenik, M. Jazbinšek, M. E. Sousa, A. K. Fontecchio, G. P. Crawford, and M. Èopiè, “Structural transitions in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E. 69, 051703 (2004).
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A. Ogiwara, H. Kakiuchida, K. Yoshimura, M. Tazawa, A. Emoto, and H. Ono, “Effects of thermal modulation on diffraction in liquid crystal composites gratings,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4633–4640 (2010).
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A. Ogiwara, M. Minato, S. Horiguchi, H. Ono, H. Imai, H. Kakiuchida, and K. Yoshimura, “Diffraction properties of anisotropic volume gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. . 47, 6688–6694 (2008).
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A. Ogiwara, S. Horiguchi, H. Kakiuchida, M. Tazawa, K. Yoshimura, and H. Ono, “Control of anisotropic diffraction in liquid-crystal composite volume gratings,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1521–1523 (2008).
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A. Ogiwara, H. Kakiuchida, M. Tazawa, and H. Ono, “Analysis of anisotropic diffraction gratings using holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 7341–7346(2007).
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S. W. Kang, S. Sprunt, and L. C. Chien, “Switchable diffraction gratings based on inversion of the dielectric anisotropy in nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3782–3784(2001).
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S. W. Kang, S. Sprunt, and L. C. Chien, “Structure and morphology of polymer-stabilized cholesteric diffraction gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3516–3518 (2000).
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A. Ogiwara, Y. Kuratomi, T. Karasawa, A. Takimoto, and S. Mizuguchi, “PS polarization converting device for LC projector using holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 30, 1124–1127(1999).
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H. Ono, N. R. B. Mohamad, T. Sasaki, N. Kawatsuki, and A. Ogiwara, “Rotation of director during holographic recording in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 35, 633–639(2008).
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H. Ono, A. Hatayama, A. Emoto, and N. Kawatsuki, “Migration induced reorientation and anisotropic grating formation in photoreactive polymer liquid crystals,” Opt. Mater. 30, 248–254 (2007).
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H. Ono, A. Emoto, N. Kawatsuki, E. Uchda, and M. Kuwabara, “New fabrication method for anisotropic gratings formed in photocrosslinkable polymer liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. A. 79, 1725–1727 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, A. Emoto, F. Takahashi, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Hasegawa, “Highly stable polarization gratings in photocross-linkable polymer liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1298–1303 (2003).
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A. Ogiwara, Y. Kuratomi, T. Karasawa, A. Takimoto, and S. Mizuguchi, “PS polarization converting device for LC projector using holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 30, 1124–1127(1999).
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H. Ono, A. Emoto, N. Kawatsuki, E. Uchda, and M. Kuwabara, “New fabrication method for anisotropic gratings formed in photocrosslinkable polymer liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. A. 79, 1725–1727 (2004).
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Y. J. Liu, B. Zhang, Y. Jia, and K. S. Xu, “Improvement of the diffraction properties in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 218, 27–32 (2003).
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Y. Lu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization switch using thick holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal grating,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 810–815 (2004).
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Mabuchi, T.

Magnusson, R.

M. G. Moharam, T. K. Gaylord, and R. Magnusson, “Criteria for Bragg regime diffraction by phase gratings,” Opt. Commun. 32, 14–18 (1980).
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M. G. Moharam, T. K. Gaylord, and R. Magnusson, “Criteria for Raman-Nath regime diffraction by phase gratings,” Opt. Commun. 32, 19–23 (1980).
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Marino, A.

G. Abbate, F. Vita, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, S. Slussarenko, O. Sakhno, and J. Stumpe, “New generation of holographic gratings based on polymer-LC composites: POLICRYPS and POLIPHEM,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 1–13 (2006).
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A. Ogiwara, M. Takeda, H. Matsuda, and O. Tanaka, “Evaluation of induced polarization dependence in photo-polymerization process of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, 2004), pp. 125–128.

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A. Ogiwara, M. Minato, S. Horiguchi, H. Ono, H. Imai, H. Kakiuchida, and K. Yoshimura, “Diffraction properties of anisotropic volume gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. . 47, 6688–6694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mizuguchi, S.

A. Ogiwara, Y. Kuratomi, T. Karasawa, A. Takimoto, and S. Mizuguchi, “PS polarization converting device for LC projector using holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 30, 1124–1127(1999).
[CrossRef]

Mohamad, N. R. B.

H. Ono, N. R. B. Mohamad, T. Sasaki, N. Kawatsuki, and A. Ogiwara, “Rotation of director during holographic recording in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 35, 633–639(2008).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

M. G. Moharam, T. K. Gaylord, and R. Magnusson, “Criteria for Raman-Nath regime diffraction by phase gratings,” Opt. Commun. 32, 19–23 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Moharam, T. K. Gaylord, and R. Magnusson, “Criteria for Bragg regime diffraction by phase gratings,” Opt. Commun. 32, 14–18 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L. V.

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, “Polarization dependent photoactuation in azobenzene LC polymers,” Proc SPIE 6654, 665403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, “Phenomenological model of anisotropic volume hologram formation in liquid-crystal-photopolymer mixtures,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 951–965 (2004).
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R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. Chandra, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, and S. A. Siwecki, “Polarization and switching properties of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal gratings. Π. Experimental investigations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 3004–3012 (2002).
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R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, “Evolution of anisotropic reflection gratings formed in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1420–1422 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ogiwara, A.

A. Ogiwara, H. Kakiuchida, K. Yoshimura, M. Tazawa, A. Emoto, and H. Ono, “Effects of thermal modulation on diffraction in liquid crystal composites gratings,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4633–4640 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ogiwara, M. Watanabe, T. Mabuchi, and F. Kobayashi, “Formation of holographic memory for defect tolerance in optically reconfigurable gate arrays,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4255–4261(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ogiwara and T. Hirokari, “Formation of anisotropic diffraction grating in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal by polarization modulation using spatial light modulator,” Appl. Opt. 47, 3015–3022 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ogiwara, M. Minato, S. Horiguchi, H. Ono, H. Imai, H. Kakiuchida, and K. Yoshimura, “Diffraction properties of anisotropic volume gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. . 47, 6688–6694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ogiwara, S. Horiguchi, H. Kakiuchida, M. Tazawa, K. Yoshimura, and H. Ono, “Control of anisotropic diffraction in liquid-crystal composite volume gratings,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1521–1523 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ono, N. R. B. Mohamad, T. Sasaki, N. Kawatsuki, and A. Ogiwara, “Rotation of director during holographic recording in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 35, 633–639(2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ogiwara, H. Kakiuchida, M. Tazawa, and H. Ono, “Analysis of anisotropic diffraction gratings using holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 7341–7346(2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ogiwara, Y. Kuratomi, T. Karasawa, A. Takimoto, and S. Mizuguchi, “PS polarization converting device for LC projector using holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 30, 1124–1127(1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Ogiwara and K. Kameda, “Holographic imaging device having polarization selectivity using polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” in Proceedings of the 12th International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, 2005), pp. 219–222.

A. Ogiwara, M. Takeda, H. Matsuda, and O. Tanaka, “Evaluation of induced polarization dependence in photo-polymerization process of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, 2004), pp. 125–128.

Oh, C.

M. J. Escuti, C. Oh, C. Sánchez, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Simplified spectropolarimetry using reactive mesogen polarization gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6302, 630207(2006).
[CrossRef]

Olenik, I. D.

I. D. Olenik, M. Fally, and M. A. Ellabban, “Temperature dependence of optical anisotropy of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 021707 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Jazbinsek, I. D. Olenik, M. Zgonik, A. K. Fontecchio, and G. P. Crawford, “Electro-optical properties of polymer dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 455–465 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ono, H.

A. Ogiwara, H. Kakiuchida, K. Yoshimura, M. Tazawa, A. Emoto, and H. Ono, “Effects of thermal modulation on diffraction in liquid crystal composites gratings,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4633–4640 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ono, N. R. B. Mohamad, T. Sasaki, N. Kawatsuki, and A. Ogiwara, “Rotation of director during holographic recording in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 35, 633–639(2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ogiwara, S. Horiguchi, H. Kakiuchida, M. Tazawa, K. Yoshimura, and H. Ono, “Control of anisotropic diffraction in liquid-crystal composite volume gratings,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1521–1523 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ogiwara, M. Minato, S. Horiguchi, H. Ono, H. Imai, H. Kakiuchida, and K. Yoshimura, “Diffraction properties of anisotropic volume gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. . 47, 6688–6694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, A. Hatayama, A. Emoto, and N. Kawatsuki, “Migration induced reorientation and anisotropic grating formation in photoreactive polymer liquid crystals,” Opt. Mater. 30, 248–254 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ogiwara, H. Kakiuchida, M. Tazawa, and H. Ono, “Analysis of anisotropic diffraction gratings using holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 7341–7346(2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, A. Emoto, N. Kawatsuki, E. Uchda, and M. Kuwabara, “New fabrication method for anisotropic gratings formed in photocrosslinkable polymer liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. A. 79, 1725–1727 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, A. Emoto, F. Takahashi, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Hasegawa, “Highly stable polarization gratings in photocross-linkable polymer liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1298–1303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H.

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Flat polymeric microlens array,” Opt. Commun. 261, 296–299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reshetnyak, V.

Reshetnyak, V. Y.

Rodriguez, M. A.

Sakhno, O.

M. V. Vasnetsov, S. S. Slussarenko Jr., J. Stumpe, O. Sakhno, S. S. Slussarenko, and G. Abbate, “Lasing by second-order Bragg diffraction in dye-doped POLIPHEM gratings,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 516, 159–166 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Abbate, F. Vita, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, S. Slussarenko, O. Sakhno, and J. Stumpe, “New generation of holographic gratings based on polymer-LC composites: POLICRYPS and POLIPHEM,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 1–13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Sakhno, S. Slussarenko, and J. Stumpe, “POLIPHEM: new type of nanoscale polymer-LC-switchable photonic devices,” Proc. SPIE 5521, 38–45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, M. A.

Sánchez, C.

M. J. Escuti, C. Oh, C. Sánchez, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Simplified spectropolarimetry using reactive mesogen polarization gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6302, 630207(2006).
[CrossRef]

Sanyal, S.

S. Sanyal, P. Bandyopadhyay, and A. Ghosh, “Vector wave imagery using a birefringent lens,” Opt. Eng. 37, 592–599(1998).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, T.

H. Ono, N. R. B. Mohamad, T. Sasaki, N. Kawatsuki, and A. Ogiwara, “Rotation of director during holographic recording in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 35, 633–639(2008).
[CrossRef]

Schnabel, B.

Serak, S.

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, “Polarization dependent photoactuation in azobenzene LC polymers,” Proc SPIE 6654, 665403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, C. K.

Shih, H.-F.

Simoni, F.

Sio, L. D.

Siwecki, S. A.

Slussarenko, S.

G. Abbate, F. Vita, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, S. Slussarenko, O. Sakhno, and J. Stumpe, “New generation of holographic gratings based on polymer-LC composites: POLICRYPS and POLIPHEM,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 1–13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Sakhno, S. Slussarenko, and J. Stumpe, “POLIPHEM: new type of nanoscale polymer-LC-switchable photonic devices,” Proc. SPIE 5521, 38–45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Slussarenko, S. S.

M. V. Vasnetsov, S. S. Slussarenko Jr., J. Stumpe, O. Sakhno, S. S. Slussarenko, and G. Abbate, “Lasing by second-order Bragg diffraction in dye-doped POLIPHEM gratings,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 516, 159–166 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Vasnetsov, S. S. Slussarenko Jr., J. Stumpe, O. Sakhno, S. S. Slussarenko, and G. Abbate, “Lasing by second-order Bragg diffraction in dye-doped POLIPHEM gratings,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 516, 159–166 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sousa, M. E.

I. Drevenšek-Olenik, M. Jazbinšek, M. E. Sousa, A. K. Fontecchio, G. P. Crawford, and M. Èopiè, “Structural transitions in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E. 69, 051703 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sprunt, S.

S. W. Kang, S. Sprunt, and L. C. Chien, “Switchable diffraction gratings based on inversion of the dielectric anisotropy in nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3782–3784(2001).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Kang, S. Sprunt, and L. C. Chien, “Structure and morphology of polymer-stabilized cholesteric diffraction gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3516–3518 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stich, N.

N. Stich and H.-S. Kitzerowa, “Superposition of patterns in cross-linked liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 033519(2005).
[CrossRef]

Stumpe, J.

M. V. Vasnetsov, S. S. Slussarenko Jr., J. Stumpe, O. Sakhno, S. S. Slussarenko, and G. Abbate, “Lasing by second-order Bragg diffraction in dye-doped POLIPHEM gratings,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 516, 159–166 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Abbate, F. Vita, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, S. Slussarenko, O. Sakhno, and J. Stumpe, “New generation of holographic gratings based on polymer-LC composites: POLICRYPS and POLIPHEM,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 1–13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Sakhno, S. Slussarenko, and J. Stumpe, “POLIPHEM: new type of nanoscale polymer-LC-switchable photonic devices,” Proc. SPIE 5521, 38–45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sukhov, A. V.

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, G. Cook, and D. R. Evans, “Determination of large nematic pre-tilt in liquid crystal cells with mechanically rubbed photorefractive Ce:SBN windows,” Opt. Express 14, 5365–5375 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, “Phenomenological model of anisotropic volume hologram formation in liquid-crystal-photopolymer mixtures,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 951–965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, “Polarization and switching properties of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal gratings. I. Theoretical model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2995–3003 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. Chandra, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, and S. A. Siwecki, “Polarization and switching properties of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal gratings. Π. Experimental investigations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 3004–3012 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, “Evolution of anisotropic reflection gratings formed in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1420–1422 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tabirian, N.

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, “Polarization dependent photoactuation in azobenzene LC polymers,” Proc SPIE 6654, 665403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, F.

H. Ono, A. Emoto, F. Takahashi, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Hasegawa, “Highly stable polarization gratings in photocross-linkable polymer liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1298–1303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, M.

A. Ogiwara, M. Takeda, H. Matsuda, and O. Tanaka, “Evaluation of induced polarization dependence in photo-polymerization process of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, 2004), pp. 125–128.

Taketomi, Y.

T. Karasawa and Y. Taketomi, “Effects of materials system on the polarization behavior of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 6388–6392(1997).
[CrossRef]

Takimoto, A.

A. Ogiwara, Y. Kuratomi, T. Karasawa, A. Takimoto, and S. Mizuguchi, “PS polarization converting device for LC projector using holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 30, 1124–1127(1999).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, O.

A. Ogiwara, M. Takeda, H. Matsuda, and O. Tanaka, “Evaluation of induced polarization dependence in photo-polymerization process of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, 2004), pp. 125–128.

Tazawa, M.

Tkachenko, V.

G. Abbate, F. Vita, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, S. Slussarenko, O. Sakhno, and J. Stumpe, “New generation of holographic gratings based on polymer-LC composites: POLICRYPS and POLIPHEM,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 1–13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V. P.

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, “Polarization dependent photoactuation in azobenzene LC polymers,” Proc SPIE 6654, 665403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, “Phenomenological model of anisotropic volume hologram formation in liquid-crystal-photopolymer mixtures,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 951–965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. Chandra, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, and S. A. Siwecki, “Polarization and switching properties of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal gratings. Π. Experimental investigations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 3004–3012 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, “Evolution of anisotropic reflection gratings formed in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1420–1422 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tong, X.

X. Tong, G. Wang, A. Yavrian, T. Galstian, and Y. Zhao, “Dual-mode switching of diffraction gratings based on azobenzene-polymer stabilized liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17, 370–374(2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M.-S.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, T. C. Ko, M.-S. Tsai, and C.-Y. Huang, “Dynamical studies of gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 679–683 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Uchda, E.

H. Ono, A. Emoto, N. Kawatsuki, E. Uchda, and M. Kuwabara, “New fabrication method for anisotropic gratings formed in photocrosslinkable polymer liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. A. 79, 1725–1727 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Umeton, C.

Umeton, C. P.

Umetona, C.

A. Veltri, R. Caputo, C. Umetona, and A. V. Sukhov, “Model for the photoinduced formation of diffraction gratings in liquid-crystalline composite materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3492–3494 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Urbach, H. P.

Urquhart, K.

Vaia, R. A.

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, “Polarization dependent photoactuation in azobenzene LC polymers,” Proc SPIE 6654, 665403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vasnetsov, M. V.

M. V. Vasnetsov, S. S. Slussarenko Jr., J. Stumpe, O. Sakhno, S. S. Slussarenko, and G. Abbate, “Lasing by second-order Bragg diffraction in dye-doped POLIPHEM gratings,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 516, 159–166 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Veltri, A.

Vita, F.

G. Abbate, F. Vita, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, S. Slussarenko, O. Sakhno, and J. Stumpe, “New generation of holographic gratings based on polymer-LC composites: POLICRYPS and POLIPHEM,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 1–13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wachters, A. J. H.

Wang, G.

X. Tong, G. Wang, A. Yavrian, T. Galstian, and Y. Zhao, “Dual-mode switching of diffraction gratings based on azobenzene-polymer stabilized liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17, 370–374(2005).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

White, T. J.

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, “Polarization dependent photoactuation in azobenzene LC polymers,” Proc SPIE 6654, 665403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

Y. Lu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization switch using thick holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal grating,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 810–815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Flat polymeric microlens array,” Opt. Commun. 261, 296–299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wyrowski, F.

Xu, K. S.

Y. J. Liu, B. Zhang, Y. Jia, and K. S. Xu, “Improvement of the diffraction properties in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 218, 27–32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M.

Yavrian, A.

X. Tong, G. Wang, A. Yavrian, T. Galstian, and Y. Zhao, “Dual-mode switching of diffraction gratings based on azobenzene-polymer stabilized liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17, 370–374(2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, K.

Yu, F.

Zeitner, U. D.

Zgonik, M.

M. Jazbinsek, I. D. Olenik, M. Zgonik, A. K. Fontecchio, and G. P. Crawford, “Electro-optical properties of polymer dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 455–465 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

Y. J. Liu, B. Zhang, Y. Jia, and K. S. Xu, “Improvement of the diffraction properties in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 218, 27–32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

X. Tong, G. Wang, A. Yavrian, T. Galstian, and Y. Zhao, “Dual-mode switching of diffraction gratings based on azobenzene-polymer stabilized liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17, 370–374(2005).
[CrossRef]

Ziolo, R. F.

Adv. Mater. (1)

X. Tong, G. Wang, A. Yavrian, T. Galstian, and Y. Zhao, “Dual-mode switching of diffraction gratings based on azobenzene-polymer stabilized liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17, 370–374(2005).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. A. (1)

H. Ono, A. Emoto, N. Kawatsuki, E. Uchda, and M. Kuwabara, “New fabrication method for anisotropic gratings formed in photocrosslinkable polymer liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. A. 79, 1725–1727 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

S. W. Kang, S. Sprunt, and L. C. Chien, “Structure and morphology of polymer-stabilized cholesteric diffraction gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3516–3518 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Kang, S. Sprunt, and L. C. Chien, “Switchable diffraction gratings based on inversion of the dielectric anisotropy in nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3782–3784(2001).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Bowley and G. P. Crawford, “Diffusion kinetics of formation of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2235–2237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, “Evolution of anisotropic reflection gratings formed in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1420–1422 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Veltri, R. Caputo, C. Umetona, and A. V. Sukhov, “Model for the photoinduced formation of diffraction gratings in liquid-crystalline composite materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3492–3494 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

Y. Lu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization switch using thick holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal grating,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 810–815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, “Phenomenological model of anisotropic volume hologram formation in liquid-crystal-photopolymer mixtures,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 951–965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Y.-G. Fuh, T. C. Ko, M.-S. Tsai, and C.-Y. Huang, “Dynamical studies of gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 679–683 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, A. Emoto, F. Takahashi, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Hasegawa, “Highly stable polarization gratings in photocross-linkable polymer liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1298–1303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Stich and H.-S. Kitzerowa, “Superposition of patterns in cross-linked liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 033519(2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

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S. G. Cloutier, “Polarization holography: orthogonal plane-polarized beam configuration with circular vectorial photoinduced anisotropy,” J. Phys. D 38, 3371–3375 (2005).
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K. Kato, T. Hisaki, and M. Date, “Alignment-controlled holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal for reflective display devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 805–808 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Karasawa and Y. Taketomi, “Effects of materials system on the polarization behavior of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 6388–6392(1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Ogiwara, M. Minato, S. Horiguchi, H. Ono, H. Imai, H. Kakiuchida, and K. Yoshimura, “Diffraction properties of anisotropic volume gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. . 47, 6688–6694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ogiwara, H. Kakiuchida, M. Tazawa, and H. Ono, “Analysis of anisotropic diffraction gratings using holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 7341–7346(2007).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

H. Ono, N. R. B. Mohamad, T. Sasaki, N. Kawatsuki, and A. Ogiwara, “Rotation of director during holographic recording in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 35, 633–639(2008).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (3)

M. V. Vasnetsov, S. S. Slussarenko Jr., J. Stumpe, O. Sakhno, S. S. Slussarenko, and G. Abbate, “Lasing by second-order Bragg diffraction in dye-doped POLIPHEM gratings,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 516, 159–166 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Jazbinsek, I. D. Olenik, M. Zgonik, A. K. Fontecchio, and G. P. Crawford, “Electro-optical properties of polymer dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 455–465 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Abbate, F. Vita, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, S. Slussarenko, O. Sakhno, and J. Stumpe, “New generation of holographic gratings based on polymer-LC composites: POLICRYPS and POLIPHEM,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 1–13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (6)

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Flat polymeric microlens array,” Opt. Commun. 261, 296–299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, B. Zhang, Y. Jia, and K. S. Xu, “Improvement of the diffraction properties in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 218, 27–32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Harbour, T. Galstian, R. S. Akopyan, and A. V. Galstyan, “Angular selectivity asymmetry of holograms recorded in near infrared sensitive liquid crystal photopolymerized materials,” Opt. Commun. 238, 261–267 (2004).
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A. V. Galstyan, R. S. Hakobyan, S. Harbour, and T. Galstian, “Thermal modulation of diffraction in near infrared sensitive holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 241, 23–28 (2004).
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M. G. Moharam, T. K. Gaylord, and R. Magnusson, “Criteria for Raman-Nath regime diffraction by phase gratings,” Opt. Commun. 32, 19–23 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. Sanyal, P. Bandyopadhyay, and A. Ghosh, “Vector wave imagery using a birefringent lens,” Opt. Eng. 37, 592–599(1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Opt. Mater. (1)

H. Ono, A. Hatayama, A. Emoto, and N. Kawatsuki, “Migration induced reorientation and anisotropic grating formation in photoreactive polymer liquid crystals,” Opt. Mater. 30, 248–254 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

I. D. Olenik, M. Fally, and M. A. Ellabban, “Temperature dependence of optical anisotropy of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 021707 (2006).
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M. E. Holmes and M. S. Malcuit, “Controlling the anisotropy of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal gratings,” Phys. Rev. E 65, 066603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E. (1)

I. Drevenšek-Olenik, M. Jazbinšek, M. E. Sousa, A. K. Fontecchio, G. P. Crawford, and M. Èopiè, “Structural transitions in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E. 69, 051703 (2004).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. W. Berreman, “Solid surface shape and the alignment of an adjacent nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1683–1686 (1972).
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Proc SPIE (1)

T. J. White, J. J. Koval, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. A. Vaia, S. Serak, V. Grozhik, N. Tabirian, and T. J. Bunning, “Polarization dependent photoactuation in azobenzene LC polymers,” Proc SPIE 6654, 665403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

M. J. Escuti, C. Oh, C. Sánchez, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Simplified spectropolarimetry using reactive mesogen polarization gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6302, 630207(2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Sakhno, S. Slussarenko, and J. Stumpe, “POLIPHEM: new type of nanoscale polymer-LC-switchable photonic devices,” Proc. SPIE 5521, 38–45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. (1)

A. Ogiwara, Y. Kuratomi, T. Karasawa, A. Takimoto, and S. Mizuguchi, “PS polarization converting device for LC projector using holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 30, 1124–1127(1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. Ogiwara, M. Takeda, H. Matsuda, and O. Tanaka, “Evaluation of induced polarization dependence in photo-polymerization process of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, 2004), pp. 125–128.

A. Ogiwara and K. Kameda, “Holographic imaging device having polarization selectivity using polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” in Proceedings of the 12th International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, 2005), pp. 219–222.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical setup for fabricating HPDLC gratings with a laser interferometer by using a temperature controller.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical setup for measuring the polarization dependence of diffraction efficiencies of HPDLC gratings with a green laser ( λ = 532 nm ) by using a rotary stage and an optical power meter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Film thickness dependence of diffraction efficiencies of HPDLC gratings fabricated by using an LC content of 25   wt. % with polyimide layers at a rubbing direction of 0 ° .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Polarization-azimuth dependences of the zeroth- (closed symbols) and first-order (open symbols) diffraction efficiencies of HPDLC gratings formed on the polyimide alignment layers at a rubbing direction of 0 ° with various LC contents, such as 10 (squares), 25 (triangles), and 45   wt. % (circles) with a film thickness of 10 μm as functions of the incident polarization state to clarify the effects of the LC content ratio on the anisotropic diffractions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effects of LC content on the diffraction efficiencies of HPDLC gratings with vertical alignment layers without rubbing for P and S polarizations as functions of the LC mixture ratios.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Polarization-azimuth dependence to clarify the effects of surface conditions on the first-order diffraction efficiencies in the HPDLC gratings fabricated by using a film thickness of 10 μm and an LC content of 25   wt. % with different surfaces conditions, such as polyimide layers at a rubbing direction of 0 ° (triangles), polyimide layers at a rubbing direction of 90 ° (squares), and vertical alignment layers without rubbing (circles).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fringe patterns observed by polarization microscopy of HPDLC gratings fabricated at different film thicknesses of (a)  5 μm , (b)  10 μm , and (c)  25 μm . Arrows at the top of the images represent the directions of the polarizer (P) and the analyzer (A). A1 to C1 were observed when the grating vectors in those gratings are placed at 0 ° with respect to the polarizer, whereas A2 to C2 were observed at a rotation angle of 45 ° .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Fringe patterns observed by polarization microscopy to clarify the effects of different alignment layers on the grating fabricated at different LC content ratios of (a)  10   wt. % , (b)  25   wt. % , and (c)  45   wt. % . A1 to C1 were observed at the gratings with polyimide layers at a rubbing direction of 0 ° , whereas A2 to C2 are observed at the gratings with vertical alignment layers without rubbing. The arrows near the center at the top of the images represent the directions of the polarizer (P) and the analyzer (A).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

SEM cross-sectional views of the HPDLC gratings fabricated at different LC contents of (a)  10   wt. % , (b)  25   wt. % , and (c)  45   wt. % , with the polyimide alignment layers at a rubbing direction of 0 ° .

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