Abstract

We propose ground-layer adaptive optics (GLAO) to improve the seeing on the 42m European Extremely Large Telescope. Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensors (WFSs) with laser guide stars (LGSs) will experience significant spot elongation due to off-axis observation. This spot elongation influences the design of the laser launch location, laser power, WFS detector, and centroiding algorithm for LGS GLAO on an extremely large telescope. We show, using end-to-end numerical simulations, that with a noise-weighted matrix-vector-multiply reconstructor, the performance in terms of 50% ensquared energy (EE) of the side and central launch of the lasers is equivalent, the matched filter and weighted center of gravity centroiding algorithms are the most promising, and approximately 10×10 undersampled pixels are optimal. Significant improvement in the 50% EE can be observed with a few tens of photons/subaperture/frame, and no significant gain is seen by adding more than 200 photons/subaperture/frame. The LGS GLAO is not particularly sensitive to the sodium profile present in the mesosphere nor to a short-timescale (less than 100s) evolution of the sodium profile. The performance of LGS GLAO is, however, sensitive to the atmospheric turbulence profile.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010 (4)

2009 (2)

T. Pfrommer, P. Hickson, and C.-Y. She, “A large-aperture sodium fluorescence lidar with very high resolution for mesopause dynamics and adaptive optics studies,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L15831 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Lardière, R. Conan, C. Bradley, K. Jackson, and P. Hampton, “Radial thresholding to mitigate laser guide star aberrations on centre-of-gravity-based Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensors,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 398, 1461–1467 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

R. Hölzlohner, D. Bonnacini Calia, and W. Hackenberg“Physical optics modeling and optimization of laser guide star propagation,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, É. Thiébaut, and C. Béchet, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront reconstruction with elongated sodium laser guide stars: improvements with priors and noise correlations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151N (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Nelson and G. H. Sanders, “The status of the Thirty Meter Telescope project,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121A (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Johns, “Progress on the GMT,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121B(2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Lombardi, “Combining turbulence profiles from MASS and SLODAR: a study of the evolution of the seeing at Paranal,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701221 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (6)

D. A. Andersen, J. Stoesz, S. Morris, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Crampton, T. Butterley, B. Ellerbroek, L. Jolissaint, N. M. Milton, R. Myers, K. Szeto, A. Tokovinin, J.-P. Véran, and R. Wilson, “Performance modeling of a wide-field ground-layer adaptive optics system,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1574–1590(2006).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles and B. Ellerbroek, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensing with elongated sodium laser beacons: centroiding versus matched filtering,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6568–6576 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski Jr., D. M. Summers, and P. L. Wizinowich, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 310–318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 323–336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Korkiakoski, M. Le Louarn, and C. Vérinaud, “Simulations of ground-layer adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62725A (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

M. Le Louarn, C. Verinaud, V. Korkiakoski, and E. Fedrigo, “Parallel simulation tools for AO on ELTS,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 705–712 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Tokovinin, “Seeing improvement with ground-layer adaptive optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 941–951(2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Le Louarn and N. Hubin, “Wide-field adaptive optics for deep-field spectroscopy in the visible,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 349, 1009–1018 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

1985 (1)

R. Foy and A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29–L31(1985).

Andersen, D. A.

D. A. Andersen, J. Stoesz, S. Morris, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Crampton, T. Butterley, B. Ellerbroek, L. Jolissaint, N. M. Milton, R. Myers, K. Szeto, A. Tokovinin, J.-P. Véran, and R. Wilson, “Performance modeling of a wide-field ground-layer adaptive optics system,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1574–1590(2006).
[CrossRef]

Argall, P. S.

Arsenault, R.

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J.-P. Véran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes,” in Scientific Requirements for Extremely Large Telescopes: Proceedings of the IAU Symposium No. 232 , P.Whitelock, M.Dennefeld, and B.Leibundgut, eds. (International Astronomical Union, 2005), pp. 60–85.

Baade, D.

M. Downing, J. Kolb, D. Baade, O. Iwert, N. Hubin, J. Reyes, P. Feautrier, j. L. Gach, P. Balard, C. Guillaume, E. Stadler, and Y. Magnard, “AO wavefront sensing detector developments at ESO,” Proc. SPIE 7742, 774204(2010).
[CrossRef]

Balard, P.

M. Downing, J. Kolb, D. Baade, O. Iwert, N. Hubin, J. Reyes, P. Feautrier, j. L. Gach, P. Balard, C. Guillaume, E. Stadler, and Y. Magnard, “AO wavefront sensing detector developments at ESO,” Proc. SPIE 7742, 774204(2010).
[CrossRef]

Béchet, C.

Bouchez, A. H.

R. M. Clare, M. A. van Dam, and A. H. Bouchez, “Modeling low order aberrations in laser guide star adaptive optics systems,” Opt. Express 15, 4711–4725 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski Jr., D. M. Summers, and P. L. Wizinowich, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 310–318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, C.

O. Lardière, R. Conan, R. Clare, C. Bradley, and N. Hubin, “Performance comparison of centroiding algorithms for laser guide star wavefront sensing with Extremely Large Telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 49, G78–G94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Lardière, R. Conan, C. Bradley, K. Jackson, and P. Hampton, “Radial thresholding to mitigate laser guide star aberrations on centre-of-gravity-based Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensors,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 398, 1461–1467 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. G.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Butterley, T.

D. A. Andersen, J. Stoesz, S. Morris, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Crampton, T. Butterley, B. Ellerbroek, L. Jolissaint, N. M. Milton, R. Myers, K. Szeto, A. Tokovinin, J.-P. Véran, and R. Wilson, “Performance modeling of a wide-field ground-layer adaptive optics system,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1574–1590(2006).
[CrossRef]

Calia, D. Bonnacini

R. Hölzlohner, D. Bonnacini Calia, and W. Hackenberg“Physical optics modeling and optimization of laser guide star propagation,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, R. D.

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski Jr., D. M. Summers, and P. L. Wizinowich, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 310–318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chin, J. C. Y.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski Jr., D. M. Summers, and P. L. Wizinowich, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 310–318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Clare, R.

Clare, R. M.

C. Béchet, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, É. Thiébaut, M. Le Louarn, and R. M. Clare “Optimal reconstruction for closed-loop ground layer adaptive optics with elongated spots,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, A1–A8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Clare, M. Le Louarn, and C. Béchet, “Optimal noise-weighted reconstruction with elongated Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor images for laser tomography adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 49, G27–G36 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Clare, M. A. van Dam, and A. H. Bouchez, “Modeling low order aberrations in laser guide star adaptive optics systems,” Opt. Express 15, 4711–4725 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J.-P. Véran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes,” in Scientific Requirements for Extremely Large Telescopes: Proceedings of the IAU Symposium No. 232 , P.Whitelock, M.Dennefeld, and B.Leibundgut, eds. (International Astronomical Union, 2005), pp. 60–85.

Conan, R.

O. Lardière, R. Conan, R. Clare, C. Bradley, and N. Hubin, “Performance comparison of centroiding algorithms for laser guide star wavefront sensing with Extremely Large Telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 49, G78–G94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Lardière, R. Conan, C. Bradley, K. Jackson, and P. Hampton, “Radial thresholding to mitigate laser guide star aberrations on centre-of-gravity-based Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensors,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 398, 1461–1467 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Contos, A. R.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Crampton, D.

D. A. Andersen, J. Stoesz, S. Morris, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Crampton, T. Butterley, B. Ellerbroek, L. Jolissaint, N. M. Milton, R. Myers, K. Szeto, A. Tokovinin, J.-P. Véran, and R. Wilson, “Performance modeling of a wide-field ground-layer adaptive optics system,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1574–1590(2006).
[CrossRef]

Danforth, P. M.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dekany, R.

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J.-P. Véran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes,” in Scientific Requirements for Extremely Large Telescopes: Proceedings of the IAU Symposium No. 232 , P.Whitelock, M.Dennefeld, and B.Leibundgut, eds. (International Astronomical Union, 2005), pp. 60–85.

Downing, M.

M. Downing, J. Kolb, D. Baade, O. Iwert, N. Hubin, J. Reyes, P. Feautrier, j. L. Gach, P. Balard, C. Guillaume, E. Stadler, and Y. Magnard, “AO wavefront sensing detector developments at ESO,” Proc. SPIE 7742, 774204(2010).
[CrossRef]

Ellerbroek, B.

L. Gilles and B. Ellerbroek, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensing with elongated sodium laser beacons: centroiding versus matched filtering,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6568–6576 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Andersen, J. Stoesz, S. Morris, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Crampton, T. Butterley, B. Ellerbroek, L. Jolissaint, N. M. Milton, R. Myers, K. Szeto, A. Tokovinin, J.-P. Véran, and R. Wilson, “Performance modeling of a wide-field ground-layer adaptive optics system,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1574–1590(2006).
[CrossRef]

Ellerbroek, B. L.

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J.-P. Véran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes,” in Scientific Requirements for Extremely Large Telescopes: Proceedings of the IAU Symposium No. 232 , P.Whitelock, M.Dennefeld, and B.Leibundgut, eds. (International Astronomical Union, 2005), pp. 60–85.

Feautrier, P.

M. Downing, J. Kolb, D. Baade, O. Iwert, N. Hubin, J. Reyes, P. Feautrier, j. L. Gach, P. Balard, C. Guillaume, E. Stadler, and Y. Magnard, “AO wavefront sensing detector developments at ESO,” Proc. SPIE 7742, 774204(2010).
[CrossRef]

Fedrigo, E.

M. Le Louarn, C. Verinaud, V. Korkiakoski, and E. Fedrigo, “Parallel simulation tools for AO on ELTS,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 705–712 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Foy, R.

R. Foy and A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29–L31(1985).

Fusco, T.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 323–336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gach, j. L.

M. Downing, J. Kolb, D. Baade, O. Iwert, N. Hubin, J. Reyes, P. Feautrier, j. L. Gach, P. Balard, C. Guillaume, E. Stadler, and Y. Magnard, “AO wavefront sensing detector developments at ESO,” Proc. SPIE 7742, 774204(2010).
[CrossRef]

Gendron, E.

D. Gratadour, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, and F. Rigaut, “Fratricide effect on ELTs,” in Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), p. 04005.

Gilles, L.

L. Gilles and B. Ellerbroek, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensing with elongated sodium laser beacons: centroiding versus matched filtering,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6568–6576 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J.-P. Véran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes,” in Scientific Requirements for Extremely Large Telescopes: Proceedings of the IAU Symposium No. 232 , P.Whitelock, M.Dennefeld, and B.Leibundgut, eds. (International Astronomical Union, 2005), pp. 60–85.

Gratadour, D.

D. Gratadour, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, and F. Rigaut, “Fratricide effect on ELTs,” in Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), p. 04005.

Guillaume, C.

M. Downing, J. Kolb, D. Baade, O. Iwert, N. Hubin, J. Reyes, P. Feautrier, j. L. Gach, P. Balard, C. Guillaume, E. Stadler, and Y. Magnard, “AO wavefront sensing detector developments at ESO,” Proc. SPIE 7742, 774204(2010).
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Hackenberg, W.

R. Hölzlohner, D. Bonnacini Calia, and W. Hackenberg“Physical optics modeling and optimization of laser guide star propagation,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hampton, P.

O. Lardière, R. Conan, C. Bradley, K. Jackson, and P. Hampton, “Radial thresholding to mitigate laser guide star aberrations on centre-of-gravity-based Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensors,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 398, 1461–1467 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, J. W.

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes(Oxford University, 1998).

Hartman, S. K.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski Jr., D. M. Summers, and P. L. Wizinowich, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 310–318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Herriot, G.

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J.-P. Véran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes,” in Scientific Requirements for Extremely Large Telescopes: Proceedings of the IAU Symposium No. 232 , P.Whitelock, M.Dennefeld, and B.Leibundgut, eds. (International Astronomical Union, 2005), pp. 60–85.

Hickson, P.

T. Pfrommer, P. Hickson, and C.-Y. She, “A large-aperture sodium fluorescence lidar with very high resolution for mesopause dynamics and adaptive optics studies,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L15831 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hölzlohner, R.

R. Hölzlohner, D. Bonnacini Calia, and W. Hackenberg“Physical optics modeling and optimization of laser guide star propagation,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hubin, N.

M. Downing, J. Kolb, D. Baade, O. Iwert, N. Hubin, J. Reyes, P. Feautrier, j. L. Gach, P. Balard, C. Guillaume, E. Stadler, and Y. Magnard, “AO wavefront sensing detector developments at ESO,” Proc. SPIE 7742, 774204(2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Lardière, R. Conan, R. Clare, C. Bradley, and N. Hubin, “Performance comparison of centroiding algorithms for laser guide star wavefront sensing with Extremely Large Telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 49, G78–G94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Le Louarn and N. Hubin, “Wide-field adaptive optics for deep-field spectroscopy in the visible,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 349, 1009–1018 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J.-P. Véran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes,” in Scientific Requirements for Extremely Large Telescopes: Proceedings of the IAU Symposium No. 232 , P.Whitelock, M.Dennefeld, and B.Leibundgut, eds. (International Astronomical Union, 2005), pp. 60–85.

Iwert, O.

M. Downing, J. Kolb, D. Baade, O. Iwert, N. Hubin, J. Reyes, P. Feautrier, j. L. Gach, P. Balard, C. Guillaume, E. Stadler, and Y. Magnard, “AO wavefront sensing detector developments at ESO,” Proc. SPIE 7742, 774204(2010).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, K.

O. Lardière, R. Conan, C. Bradley, K. Jackson, and P. Hampton, “Radial thresholding to mitigate laser guide star aberrations on centre-of-gravity-based Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensors,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 398, 1461–1467 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, E. M.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski Jr., D. M. Summers, and P. L. Wizinowich, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 310–318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johns, M.

M. Johns, “Progress on the GMT,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121B(2008).
[CrossRef]

Jolissaint, L.

D. A. Andersen, J. Stoesz, S. Morris, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Crampton, T. Butterley, B. Ellerbroek, L. Jolissaint, N. M. Milton, R. Myers, K. Szeto, A. Tokovinin, J.-P. Véran, and R. Wilson, “Performance modeling of a wide-field ground-layer adaptive optics system,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1574–1590(2006).
[CrossRef]

Kasper, M.

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J.-P. Véran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes,” in Scientific Requirements for Extremely Large Telescopes: Proceedings of the IAU Symposium No. 232 , P.Whitelock, M.Dennefeld, and B.Leibundgut, eds. (International Astronomical Union, 2005), pp. 60–85.

Kissler-Patig, M.

M. Kissler-Patig, “Overall science goals and top level AO requirements for E-ELT,” in Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large TelescopesY.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset (EDP Sciences, 2009), 01001.

Kolb, J.

M. Downing, J. Kolb, D. Baade, O. Iwert, N. Hubin, J. Reyes, P. Feautrier, j. L. Gach, P. Balard, C. Guillaume, E. Stadler, and Y. Magnard, “AO wavefront sensing detector developments at ESO,” Proc. SPIE 7742, 774204(2010).
[CrossRef]

Korkiakoski, V.

M. Le Louarn, C. Verinaud, V. Korkiakoski, and E. Fedrigo, “Parallel simulation tools for AO on ELTS,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 705–712 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Korkiakoski, V. A.

V. A. Korkiakoski, M. Le Louarn, and C. Vérinaud, “Simulations of ground-layer adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62725A (2006).
[CrossRef]

Labeyrie, A.

R. Foy and A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29–L31(1985).

Lafon, R.

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski Jr., D. M. Summers, and P. L. Wizinowich, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 310–318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lafon, R. E.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lardière, O.

O. Lardière, R. Conan, R. Clare, C. Bradley, and N. Hubin, “Performance comparison of centroiding algorithms for laser guide star wavefront sensing with Extremely Large Telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 49, G78–G94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Lardière, R. Conan, C. Bradley, K. Jackson, and P. Hampton, “Radial thresholding to mitigate laser guide star aberrations on centre-of-gravity-based Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensors,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 398, 1461–1467 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Le Louarn, M.

R. M. Clare, M. Le Louarn, and C. Béchet, “Optimal noise-weighted reconstruction with elongated Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor images for laser tomography adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 49, G27–G36 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Béchet, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, É. Thiébaut, M. Le Louarn, and R. M. Clare “Optimal reconstruction for closed-loop ground layer adaptive optics with elongated spots,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, A1–A8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Korkiakoski, M. Le Louarn, and C. Vérinaud, “Simulations of ground-layer adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62725A (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Le Louarn, C. Verinaud, V. Korkiakoski, and E. Fedrigo, “Parallel simulation tools for AO on ELTS,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 705–712 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Le Louarn and N. Hubin, “Wide-field adaptive optics for deep-field spectroscopy in the visible,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 349, 1009–1018 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J.-P. Véran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes,” in Scientific Requirements for Extremely Large Telescopes: Proceedings of the IAU Symposium No. 232 , P.Whitelock, M.Dennefeld, and B.Leibundgut, eds. (International Astronomical Union, 2005), pp. 60–85.

Le Mignant, D.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski Jr., D. M. Summers, and P. L. Wizinowich, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 310–318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, H.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lloyd-Hart, M.

D. A. Andersen, J. Stoesz, S. Morris, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Crampton, T. Butterley, B. Ellerbroek, L. Jolissaint, N. M. Milton, R. Myers, K. Szeto, A. Tokovinin, J.-P. Véran, and R. Wilson, “Performance modeling of a wide-field ground-layer adaptive optics system,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1574–1590(2006).
[CrossRef]

Lombardi, G.

G. Lombardi, “Combining turbulence profiles from MASS and SLODAR: a study of the evolution of the seeing at Paranal,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701221 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Magnard, Y.

M. Downing, J. Kolb, D. Baade, O. Iwert, N. Hubin, J. Reyes, P. Feautrier, j. L. Gach, P. Balard, C. Guillaume, E. Stadler, and Y. Magnard, “AO wavefront sensing detector developments at ESO,” Proc. SPIE 7742, 774204(2010).
[CrossRef]

Marchetti, E.

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J.-P. Véran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes,” in Scientific Requirements for Extremely Large Telescopes: Proceedings of the IAU Symposium No. 232 , P.Whitelock, M.Dennefeld, and B.Leibundgut, eds. (International Astronomical Union, 2005), pp. 60–85.

Michau, V.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 323–336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Milton, N. M.

D. A. Andersen, J. Stoesz, S. Morris, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Crampton, T. Butterley, B. Ellerbroek, L. Jolissaint, N. M. Milton, R. Myers, K. Szeto, A. Tokovinin, J.-P. Véran, and R. Wilson, “Performance modeling of a wide-field ground-layer adaptive optics system,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1574–1590(2006).
[CrossRef]

Morris, S.

D. A. Andersen, J. Stoesz, S. Morris, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Crampton, T. Butterley, B. Ellerbroek, L. Jolissaint, N. M. Milton, R. Myers, K. Szeto, A. Tokovinin, J.-P. Véran, and R. Wilson, “Performance modeling of a wide-field ground-layer adaptive optics system,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1574–1590(2006).
[CrossRef]

Mwangi, M. M.

Myers, R.

D. A. Andersen, J. Stoesz, S. Morris, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Crampton, T. Butterley, B. Ellerbroek, L. Jolissaint, N. M. Milton, R. Myers, K. Szeto, A. Tokovinin, J.-P. Véran, and R. Wilson, “Performance modeling of a wide-field ground-layer adaptive optics system,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1574–1590(2006).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J.

J. Nelson and G. H. Sanders, “The status of the Thirty Meter Telescope project,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nicolle, M.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 323–336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oberti, S.

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J.-P. Véran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes,” in Scientific Requirements for Extremely Large Telescopes: Proceedings of the IAU Symposium No. 232 , P.Whitelock, M.Dennefeld, and B.Leibundgut, eds. (International Astronomical Union, 2005), pp. 60–85.

Pennington, D. M.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pfrommer, T.

T. Pfrommer, P. Hickson, and C.-Y. She, “A large-aperture sodium fluorescence lidar with very high resolution for mesopause dynamics and adaptive optics studies,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L15831 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poyneer, L. A.

Reyes, J.

M. Downing, J. Kolb, D. Baade, O. Iwert, N. Hubin, J. Reyes, P. Feautrier, j. L. Gach, P. Balard, C. Guillaume, E. Stadler, and Y. Magnard, “AO wavefront sensing detector developments at ESO,” Proc. SPIE 7742, 774204(2010).
[CrossRef]

Rigaut, F.

D. Gratadour, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, and F. Rigaut, “Fratricide effect on ELTs,” in Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), p. 04005.

Rousset, G.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 323–336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Gratadour, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, and F. Rigaut, “Fratricide effect on ELTs,” in Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), p. 04005.

Sanders, G. H.

J. Nelson and G. H. Sanders, “The status of the Thirty Meter Telescope project,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121A (2008).
[CrossRef]

She, C.-Y.

T. Pfrommer, P. Hickson, and C.-Y. She, “A large-aperture sodium fluorescence lidar with very high resolution for mesopause dynamics and adaptive optics studies,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L15831 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sica, R. J.

Stadler, E.

M. Downing, J. Kolb, D. Baade, O. Iwert, N. Hubin, J. Reyes, P. Feautrier, j. L. Gach, P. Balard, C. Guillaume, E. Stadler, and Y. Magnard, “AO wavefront sensing detector developments at ESO,” Proc. SPIE 7742, 774204(2010).
[CrossRef]

Stoesz, J.

D. A. Andersen, J. Stoesz, S. Morris, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Crampton, T. Butterley, B. Ellerbroek, L. Jolissaint, N. M. Milton, R. Myers, K. Szeto, A. Tokovinin, J.-P. Véran, and R. Wilson, “Performance modeling of a wide-field ground-layer adaptive optics system,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1574–1590(2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J.-P. Véran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes,” in Scientific Requirements for Extremely Large Telescopes: Proceedings of the IAU Symposium No. 232 , P.Whitelock, M.Dennefeld, and B.Leibundgut, eds. (International Astronomical Union, 2005), pp. 60–85.

Stomski, P. J.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski Jr., D. M. Summers, and P. L. Wizinowich, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 310–318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Summers, D. M.

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski Jr., D. M. Summers, and P. L. Wizinowich, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 310–318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Szeto, K.

D. A. Andersen, J. Stoesz, S. Morris, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Crampton, T. Butterley, B. Ellerbroek, L. Jolissaint, N. M. Milton, R. Myers, K. Szeto, A. Tokovinin, J.-P. Véran, and R. Wilson, “Performance modeling of a wide-field ground-layer adaptive optics system,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1574–1590(2006).
[CrossRef]

Tallon, M.

C. Béchet, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, É. Thiébaut, M. Le Louarn, and R. M. Clare “Optimal reconstruction for closed-loop ground layer adaptive optics with elongated spots,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, A1–A8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, É. Thiébaut, and C. Béchet, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront reconstruction with elongated sodium laser guide stars: improvements with priors and noise correlations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151N (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tallon-Bosc, I.

C. Béchet, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, É. Thiébaut, M. Le Louarn, and R. M. Clare “Optimal reconstruction for closed-loop ground layer adaptive optics with elongated spots,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, A1–A8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, É. Thiébaut, and C. Béchet, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront reconstruction with elongated sodium laser guide stars: improvements with priors and noise correlations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151N (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thiébaut, É.

C. Béchet, M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, É. Thiébaut, M. Le Louarn, and R. M. Clare “Optimal reconstruction for closed-loop ground layer adaptive optics with elongated spots,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, A1–A8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, É. Thiébaut, and C. Béchet, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront reconstruction with elongated sodium laser guide stars: improvements with priors and noise correlations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151N (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, S.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 323–336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tokovinin, A.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 323–336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Andersen, J. Stoesz, S. Morris, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Crampton, T. Butterley, B. Ellerbroek, L. Jolissaint, N. M. Milton, R. Myers, K. Szeto, A. Tokovinin, J.-P. Véran, and R. Wilson, “Performance modeling of a wide-field ground-layer adaptive optics system,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1574–1590(2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Tokovinin, “Seeing improvement with ground-layer adaptive optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 941–951(2004).
[CrossRef]

van Dam, M. A.

R. M. Clare, M. A. van Dam, and A. H. Bouchez, “Modeling low order aberrations in laser guide star adaptive optics systems,” Opt. Express 15, 4711–4725 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski Jr., D. M. Summers, and P. L. Wizinowich, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 310–318 (2006).
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Vassiliev, O. N.

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N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J.-P. Véran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes,” in Scientific Requirements for Extremely Large Telescopes: Proceedings of the IAU Symposium No. 232 , P.Whitelock, M.Dennefeld, and B.Leibundgut, eds. (International Astronomical Union, 2005), pp. 60–85.

Verinaud, C.

M. Le Louarn, C. Verinaud, V. Korkiakoski, and E. Fedrigo, “Parallel simulation tools for AO on ELTS,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 705–712 (2004).
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Vérinaud, C.

V. A. Korkiakoski, M. Le Louarn, and C. Vérinaud, “Simulations of ground-layer adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62725A (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J.-P. Véran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes,” in Scientific Requirements for Extremely Large Telescopes: Proceedings of the IAU Symposium No. 232 , P.Whitelock, M.Dennefeld, and B.Leibundgut, eds. (International Astronomical Union, 2005), pp. 60–85.

Wilson, R.

D. A. Andersen, J. Stoesz, S. Morris, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Crampton, T. Butterley, B. Ellerbroek, L. Jolissaint, N. M. Milton, R. Myers, K. Szeto, A. Tokovinin, J.-P. Véran, and R. Wilson, “Performance modeling of a wide-field ground-layer adaptive optics system,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1574–1590(2006).
[CrossRef]

Wizinowich, P. L.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski Jr., D. M. Summers, and P. L. Wizinowich, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 310–318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

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Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

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S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 323–336 (2006).
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O. Lardière, R. Conan, C. Bradley, K. Jackson, and P. Hampton, “Radial thresholding to mitigate laser guide star aberrations on centre-of-gravity-based Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensors,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 398, 1461–1467 (2009).
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M. Le Louarn and N. Hubin, “Wide-field adaptive optics for deep-field spectroscopy in the visible,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 349, 1009–1018 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (8)

M. Le Louarn, C. Verinaud, V. Korkiakoski, and E. Fedrigo, “Parallel simulation tools for AO on ELTS,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 705–712 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Nelson and G. H. Sanders, “The status of the Thirty Meter Telescope project,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121A (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Johns, “Progress on the GMT,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121B(2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, É. Thiébaut, and C. Béchet, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront reconstruction with elongated sodium laser guide stars: improvements with priors and noise correlations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151N (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Korkiakoski, M. Le Louarn, and C. Vérinaud, “Simulations of ground-layer adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62725A (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Hölzlohner, D. Bonnacini Calia, and W. Hackenberg“Physical optics modeling and optimization of laser guide star propagation,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Downing, J. Kolb, D. Baade, O. Iwert, N. Hubin, J. Reyes, P. Feautrier, j. L. Gach, P. Balard, C. Guillaume, E. Stadler, and Y. Magnard, “AO wavefront sensing detector developments at ESO,” Proc. SPIE 7742, 774204(2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Lombardi, “Combining turbulence profiles from MASS and SLODAR: a study of the evolution of the seeing at Paranal,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701221 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (4)

A. Tokovinin, “Seeing improvement with ground-layer adaptive optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 941–951(2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski Jr., D. M. Summers, and P. L. Wizinowich, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 310–318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Andersen, J. Stoesz, S. Morris, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Crampton, T. Butterley, B. Ellerbroek, L. Jolissaint, N. M. Milton, R. Myers, K. Szeto, A. Tokovinin, J.-P. Véran, and R. Wilson, “Performance modeling of a wide-field ground-layer adaptive optics system,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1574–1590(2006).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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M. Kissler-Patig, “Overall science goals and top level AO requirements for E-ELT,” in Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large TelescopesY.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset (EDP Sciences, 2009), 01001.

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes(Oxford University, 1998).

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D. Gratadour, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, and F. Rigaut, “Fratricide effect on ELTs,” in Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), p. 04005.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Example spot elongation patterns for the 42 m EELT for (a) central launch of four lasers from behind the central obscuration and (b) side launch of four lasers from different positions around the edge of the primary mirror. There are only 11 × 11 subapertures here as an illustration. The crosses denote the four laser launch locations in each case.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized sodium profiles: (a) UWO lidar mean profile, (b) Gaussian of 11.4 km FWHM, (c) UBCt1000, and (d) UBCt2000.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

50% EE in the K band versus the radial position of the PSF star in the field without correction (circles) and with correction with 500 photons/subaperture/frame for side launch (crosses).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

50% EE in the K band on axis versus the number of detected photons/subaperture/frame with noise-optimal weighting for the central (dashed curve) and side (solid curve) launch. The solid horizontal line is the 50% EE in the K band on axis of the uncorrected atmosphere.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

50% EE in the K band on axis versus the temporal sampling frequency (Hz) of the LGS WFS for a constant photon flux of 50 k photons/subaperture/second (solid curve), 100 k photons/subaperture/second (dashed curve), and 1 M photons/subaperture/second (dashed–dotted curve). The solid horizontal line is the 50% EE in the K band on axis of the uncorrected atmosphere.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

50% EE in the K band on axis versus the number of detected photons/subaperture/frame for σ r = 1 1, 2, 3, and 4 electrons of read noise/pixel/frame. The solid horizontal line is the 50% EE in the K band on axis of the uncorrected atmosphere.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

50% EE in the K band on axis versus the number of detected photons/subaperture/frame for the COG (dotted curve), WCOG (dashed curve), MF (solid curve), and CORR (dashed–dotted curve) WFS algorithms. The solid horizontal line is the 50% EE in the K band on axis of the uncorrected atmosphere.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Gain in 50% EE in the K band on axis versus the number of detected photons/subaperture/frame for different combinations of detector pixels and pixel scales.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

50% EE in the K band on axis versus the number of detected photons/subaperture/frame for the QC (dashed curve) and the 10 × 10 pixel detector with MF (solid curve). The solid horizontal line is the 50% EE in the K band on axis of the uncorrected atmosphere.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

50% EE in the K band on axis versus the number of detected photons/subaperture/frame for the good (dashed curve), median (solid curve), and bad (dashed–dotted curve) atmospheric profiles. The horizontal lines are the 50% EE in the K band on axis for the uncorrected atmosphere for the good (dashed curve), median (solid curve), and bad (dashed–dotted curve) atmospheric profiles.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

50% EE in the K band on axis versus the number of detected photons/subaperture/frame for the four different sodium profiles. The solid horizontal line is the 50% EE in the K band on axis of the uncorrected atmosphere.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

50% EE in the K band versus the number of detected photons/subaperture/frame for different levels of staleness of the MF (in seconds). The solid horizontal line is the 50% EE in the K band on axis of the uncorrected atmosphere.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 GLAO System Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2 Good, Median, and Bad Atmospheric Profiles Used in This Paper

Equations (19)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

β = cos ( ζ ) b t h 2 ,
I t ( x , y ) = { I ( x , y ) T I ( x , y ) T > 0 0 otherwise .
d x = Σ x I t ( x , y ) Σ I t ( x , y ) ,
d x = g x I 11 + I 12 I 21 I 22 I 11 + I 12 + I 21 + I 22 ,
g x = π 2 θ x ,
d x = g Σ x R ( x , y ) I ( x , y ) Σ R ( x , y ) I ( x , y ) ,
d x , ref = g Σ x R ( x , y ) R ( x , y ) Σ R ( x , y ) R ( x , y ) ,
C ( x , y ) = F 1 { [ F { R ( x , y ) } ] * F { I ( x , y ) } } ,
( d x , d y ) = ( Q T M 1 Q ) 1 Q T M 1 ( I ( x , y ) R ( x , y ) ) ,
M = diag { R ( x , y ) + σ r 2 } ,
Q = ( Q x Q y ) = ( R ( x , y ) x 0 R ( x , y ) y 0 ) .
R ( x , y ; x 0 , y 0 ) = F 1 { F { R ( x , y ) } exp ( j 2 π ( u x 0 + v y 0 ) ) } ,
R x 0 | ( x 0 , y 0 ) = ( 0 , 0 ) = F 1 { j 2 π u F { R ( x , y ) } } .
d k = S k w + n k ,
w ^ = G d ,
G = ( S T N 1 S + W 1 ) 1 S T N 1 ,
a j = a j 1 + γ G d j ,
N = ( N 1 0 N k 0 N L ) ,
[ N k ] 1 = 1 σ n 2 θ 2 θ 2 + α 2 ( β x 2 + β y 2 ) ( 1 + α 2 β y 2 / θ 2 α 2 β x β y / θ 2 α 2 β x β y / θ 2 1 + α 2 β x 2 / θ 2 ) ,

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