Abstract

A novel instrument has been designed to measure the nighttime atmospheric water vapor column abundance by near-infrared absorption spectrophotometry of the Moon. The instrument provides a simple, effective, portable, and inexpensive means of rapidly measuring the water vapor content along the lunar line of sight. Moreover, the instrument is relatively insensitive to the atmospheric model used and, thus, serves to provide an independent calibration for other measures of precipitable water vapor from both ground- and space-based platforms.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  3. R. R. Phillips and D. A. Naylor, “Initial operations of an water vapour monitor (IRMA) at Gemini South, Las Campanas Observatories, and in the TMT site testing role,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62695K (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (1)

R. Querel, F. Kerber, G. L. Curto, J. Thomas-Osip, G. Prieto, A. Chacón, O. Cuevas, D. Pozo, J. Marín, D. Naylor, M. Curé, M. Sarazin, C. Guirao, and G. Avila, “Support for site testing of the European Extremely Large Telescope: precipitable water vapor over La Silla,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 773349 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

D. A. Naylor, R. R. Phillips, J. di Francesco, T. L. Bourke, R. R. Querel, and S. C. Jones, “IRMA as a potential phase correction instrument: results from the SMA test campaign,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. Waves 29, 1196–1204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Querel, D. A. Naylor, J. Thomas-Osip, G. Prieto, and A. McWilliam, “Comparison of precipitable water vapour measurements made with an optical echelle spectrograph and an infrared radiometer at Las Campanas Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 701457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

H. Shibai, “AKARI (ASTRO-F): flight performance and preliminary results,” Adv. Space Res. 40, 595–599 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

R. R. Phillips and D. A. Naylor, “Initial operations of an water vapour monitor (IRMA) at Gemini South, Las Campanas Observatories, and in the TMT site testing role,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62695K (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H. H. Kieffer and T. C. Stone, “The spectral irradiance of the moon,” Astron. J. 129, 2887–2901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. K. Vance, J. P. Taylor, T. J. Hewison, and J. Elms, “Comparison of in situ humidity data from aircraft, dropsonde, and radiosonde,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 921–932 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, “The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Rem. Sens. 20, 1681–1702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1976 (1)

Avila, G.

R. Querel, F. Kerber, G. L. Curto, J. Thomas-Osip, G. Prieto, A. Chacón, O. Cuevas, D. Pozo, J. Marín, D. Naylor, M. Curé, M. Sarazin, C. Guirao, and G. Avila, “Support for site testing of the European Extremely Large Telescope: precipitable water vapor over La Silla,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 773349 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bezy, J. L.

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, “The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Rem. Sens. 20, 1681–1702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bourke, T. L.

D. A. Naylor, R. R. Phillips, J. di Francesco, T. L. Bourke, R. R. Querel, and S. C. Jones, “IRMA as a potential phase correction instrument: results from the SMA test campaign,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. Waves 29, 1196–1204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bruzzi, S.

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, “The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Rem. Sens. 20, 1681–1702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chacón, A.

R. Querel, F. Kerber, G. L. Curto, J. Thomas-Osip, G. Prieto, A. Chacón, O. Cuevas, D. Pozo, J. Marín, D. Naylor, M. Curé, M. Sarazin, C. Guirao, and G. Avila, “Support for site testing of the European Extremely Large Telescope: precipitable water vapor over La Silla,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 773349 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, I. M.

I. M. Chapman,D. A. Naylor, B. Gom, and R. R. Querel are preparing a manuscript to be called “BTRAM: an interactive atmospheric radiative transfer model.”

Crone, G.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory—an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy,” arXiv:1005.5331v1 (2010).

Cuevas, O.

R. Querel, F. Kerber, G. L. Curto, J. Thomas-Osip, G. Prieto, A. Chacón, O. Cuevas, D. Pozo, J. Marín, D. Naylor, M. Curé, M. Sarazin, C. Guirao, and G. Avila, “Support for site testing of the European Extremely Large Telescope: precipitable water vapor over La Silla,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 773349 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Curé, M.

R. Querel, F. Kerber, G. L. Curto, J. Thomas-Osip, G. Prieto, A. Chacón, O. Cuevas, D. Pozo, J. Marín, D. Naylor, M. Curé, M. Sarazin, C. Guirao, and G. Avila, “Support for site testing of the European Extremely Large Telescope: precipitable water vapor over La Silla,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 773349 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Curto, G. L.

R. Querel, F. Kerber, G. L. Curto, J. Thomas-Osip, G. Prieto, A. Chacón, O. Cuevas, D. Pozo, J. Marín, D. Naylor, M. Curé, M. Sarazin, C. Guirao, and G. Avila, “Support for site testing of the European Extremely Large Telescope: precipitable water vapor over La Silla,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 773349 (2010).
[CrossRef]

di Francesco, J.

D. A. Naylor, R. R. Phillips, J. di Francesco, T. L. Bourke, R. R. Querel, and S. C. Jones, “IRMA as a potential phase correction instrument: results from the SMA test campaign,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. Waves 29, 1196–1204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, D.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory—an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy,” arXiv:1005.5331v1 (2010).

Elms, J.

A. K. Vance, J. P. Taylor, T. J. Hewison, and J. Elms, “Comparison of in situ humidity data from aircraft, dropsonde, and radiosonde,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 921–932 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gageur, U.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory—an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy,” arXiv:1005.5331v1 (2010).

Gom, B.

I. M. Chapman,D. A. Naylor, B. Gom, and R. R. Querel are preparing a manuscript to be called “BTRAM: an interactive atmospheric radiative transfer model.”

Goody, R. M.

R. M. Goody and J. C. G. Walker, Atmospheres, 1st ed.(Prentice-Hall, 1972).

Guirao, C.

R. Querel, F. Kerber, G. L. Curto, J. Thomas-Osip, G. Prieto, A. Chacón, O. Cuevas, D. Pozo, J. Marín, D. Naylor, M. Curé, M. Sarazin, C. Guirao, and G. Avila, “Support for site testing of the European Extremely Large Telescope: precipitable water vapor over La Silla,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 773349 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Heras, A. M.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory—an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy,” arXiv:1005.5331v1 (2010).

Hewison, T. J.

A. K. Vance, J. P. Taylor, T. J. Hewison, and J. Elms, “Comparison of in situ humidity data from aircraft, dropsonde, and radiosonde,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 921–932 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hills, R.

A. Stirling, R. Hills, J. Richer, and J. Pardo, “183 GHz water vapour radiometers for ALMA: estimation of phase errors under varying atmospheric conditions,” Atacama Large Millimeter Array Memo 496 (Atacama Large Millimeter Array, 2004).

Jewell, C.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory—an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy,” arXiv:1005.5331v1 (2010).

Jones, S. C.

D. A. Naylor, R. R. Phillips, J. di Francesco, T. L. Bourke, R. R. Querel, and S. C. Jones, “IRMA as a potential phase correction instrument: results from the SMA test campaign,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. Waves 29, 1196–1204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kerber, F.

R. Querel, F. Kerber, G. L. Curto, J. Thomas-Osip, G. Prieto, A. Chacón, O. Cuevas, D. Pozo, J. Marín, D. Naylor, M. Curé, M. Sarazin, C. Guirao, and G. Avila, “Support for site testing of the European Extremely Large Telescope: precipitable water vapor over La Silla,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 773349 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, H. H.

H. H. Kieffer and T. C. Stone, “The spectral irradiance of the moon,” Astron. J. 129, 2887–2901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marín, J.

R. Querel, F. Kerber, G. L. Curto, J. Thomas-Osip, G. Prieto, A. Chacón, O. Cuevas, D. Pozo, J. Marín, D. Naylor, M. Curé, M. Sarazin, C. Guirao, and G. Avila, “Support for site testing of the European Extremely Large Telescope: precipitable water vapor over La Silla,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 773349 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McKinnon, M.

M. McKinnon, “Measurement of atmospheric opacity due to water vapor at 225 GHz,” Atacama Large Millimeter Array Memo 40 (Atacama Large Millimeter Array, 1987).

McWilliam, A.

R. R. Querel, D. A. Naylor, J. Thomas-Osip, G. Prieto, and A. McWilliam, “Comparison of precipitable water vapour measurements made with an optical echelle spectrograph and an infrared radiometer at Las Campanas Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 701457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Metcalfe, L.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory—an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy,” arXiv:1005.5331v1 (2010).

Naylor, D.

R. Querel, F. Kerber, G. L. Curto, J. Thomas-Osip, G. Prieto, A. Chacón, O. Cuevas, D. Pozo, J. Marín, D. Naylor, M. Curé, M. Sarazin, C. Guirao, and G. Avila, “Support for site testing of the European Extremely Large Telescope: precipitable water vapor over La Silla,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 773349 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Naylor, D. A.

R. R. Querel, D. A. Naylor, J. Thomas-Osip, G. Prieto, and A. McWilliam, “Comparison of precipitable water vapour measurements made with an optical echelle spectrograph and an infrared radiometer at Las Campanas Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 701457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Naylor, R. R. Phillips, J. di Francesco, T. L. Bourke, R. R. Querel, and S. C. Jones, “IRMA as a potential phase correction instrument: results from the SMA test campaign,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. Waves 29, 1196–1204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Phillips and D. A. Naylor, “Initial operations of an water vapour monitor (IRMA) at Gemini South, Las Campanas Observatories, and in the TMT site testing role,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62695K (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Chapman,D. A. Naylor, B. Gom, and R. R. Querel are preparing a manuscript to be called “BTRAM: an interactive atmospheric radiative transfer model.”

Ott, S.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory—an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy,” arXiv:1005.5331v1 (2010).

Palmer, J. M.

Pardo, J.

A. Stirling, R. Hills, J. Richer, and J. Pardo, “183 GHz water vapour radiometers for ALMA: estimation of phase errors under varying atmospheric conditions,” Atacama Large Millimeter Array Memo 496 (Atacama Large Millimeter Array, 2004).

Passvogel, T.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory—an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy,” arXiv:1005.5331v1 (2010).

Phillips, R. R.

D. A. Naylor, R. R. Phillips, J. di Francesco, T. L. Bourke, R. R. Querel, and S. C. Jones, “IRMA as a potential phase correction instrument: results from the SMA test campaign,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. Waves 29, 1196–1204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Phillips and D. A. Naylor, “Initial operations of an water vapour monitor (IRMA) at Gemini South, Las Campanas Observatories, and in the TMT site testing role,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62695K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pilbratt, G. L.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory—an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy,” arXiv:1005.5331v1 (2010).

Pozo, D.

R. Querel, F. Kerber, G. L. Curto, J. Thomas-Osip, G. Prieto, A. Chacón, O. Cuevas, D. Pozo, J. Marín, D. Naylor, M. Curé, M. Sarazin, C. Guirao, and G. Avila, “Support for site testing of the European Extremely Large Telescope: precipitable water vapor over La Silla,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 773349 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Prieto, G.

R. Querel, F. Kerber, G. L. Curto, J. Thomas-Osip, G. Prieto, A. Chacón, O. Cuevas, D. Pozo, J. Marín, D. Naylor, M. Curé, M. Sarazin, C. Guirao, and G. Avila, “Support for site testing of the European Extremely Large Telescope: precipitable water vapor over La Silla,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 773349 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Querel, D. A. Naylor, J. Thomas-Osip, G. Prieto, and A. McWilliam, “Comparison of precipitable water vapour measurements made with an optical echelle spectrograph and an infrared radiometer at Las Campanas Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 701457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Querel, R.

R. Querel, F. Kerber, G. L. Curto, J. Thomas-Osip, G. Prieto, A. Chacón, O. Cuevas, D. Pozo, J. Marín, D. Naylor, M. Curé, M. Sarazin, C. Guirao, and G. Avila, “Support for site testing of the European Extremely Large Telescope: precipitable water vapor over La Silla,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 773349 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Querel, R. R.

D. A. Naylor, R. R. Phillips, J. di Francesco, T. L. Bourke, R. R. Querel, and S. C. Jones, “IRMA as a potential phase correction instrument: results from the SMA test campaign,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. Waves 29, 1196–1204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Querel, D. A. Naylor, J. Thomas-Osip, G. Prieto, and A. McWilliam, “Comparison of precipitable water vapour measurements made with an optical echelle spectrograph and an infrared radiometer at Las Campanas Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 701457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Chapman,D. A. Naylor, B. Gom, and R. R. Querel are preparing a manuscript to be called “BTRAM: an interactive atmospheric radiative transfer model.”

Rast, M.

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, “The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Rem. Sens. 20, 1681–1702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

Richer, J.

A. Stirling, R. Hills, J. Richer, and J. Pardo, “183 GHz water vapour radiometers for ALMA: estimation of phase errors under varying atmospheric conditions,” Atacama Large Millimeter Array Memo 496 (Atacama Large Millimeter Array, 2004).

Riedinger, J. R.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory—an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy,” arXiv:1005.5331v1 (2010).

Sarazin, M.

R. Querel, F. Kerber, G. L. Curto, J. Thomas-Osip, G. Prieto, A. Chacón, O. Cuevas, D. Pozo, J. Marín, D. Naylor, M. Curé, M. Sarazin, C. Guirao, and G. Avila, “Support for site testing of the European Extremely Large Telescope: precipitable water vapor over La Silla,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 773349 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory—an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy,” arXiv:1005.5331v1 (2010).

Shibai, H.

H. Shibai, “AKARI (ASTRO-F): flight performance and preliminary results,” Adv. Space Res. 40, 595–599 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. W.

Stier, M. T.

Stirling, A.

A. Stirling, R. Hills, J. Richer, and J. Pardo, “183 GHz water vapour radiometers for ALMA: estimation of phase errors under varying atmospheric conditions,” Atacama Large Millimeter Array Memo 496 (Atacama Large Millimeter Array, 2004).

Stone, T. C.

H. H. Kieffer and T. C. Stone, “The spectral irradiance of the moon,” Astron. J. 129, 2887–2901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. P.

A. K. Vance, J. P. Taylor, T. J. Hewison, and J. Elms, “Comparison of in situ humidity data from aircraft, dropsonde, and radiosonde,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 921–932 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thomas-Osip, J.

R. Querel, F. Kerber, G. L. Curto, J. Thomas-Osip, G. Prieto, A. Chacón, O. Cuevas, D. Pozo, J. Marín, D. Naylor, M. Curé, M. Sarazin, C. Guirao, and G. Avila, “Support for site testing of the European Extremely Large Telescope: precipitable water vapor over La Silla,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 773349 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Querel, D. A. Naylor, J. Thomas-Osip, G. Prieto, and A. McWilliam, “Comparison of precipitable water vapour measurements made with an optical echelle spectrograph and an infrared radiometer at Las Campanas Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 701457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thome, K. J.

Traub, W. A.

Vance, A. K.

A. K. Vance, J. P. Taylor, T. J. Hewison, and J. Elms, “Comparison of in situ humidity data from aircraft, dropsonde, and radiosonde,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 921–932 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Walker, J. C. G.

R. M. Goody and J. C. G. Walker, Atmospheres, 1st ed.(Prentice-Hall, 1972).

Adv. Space Res. (1)

H. Shibai, “AKARI (ASTRO-F): flight performance and preliminary results,” Adv. Space Res. 40, 595–599 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astron. J. (1)

H. H. Kieffer and T. C. Stone, “The spectral irradiance of the moon,” Astron. J. 129, 2887–2901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Milli. Waves (1)

D. A. Naylor, R. R. Phillips, J. di Francesco, T. L. Bourke, R. R. Querel, and S. C. Jones, “IRMA as a potential phase correction instrument: results from the SMA test campaign,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. Waves 29, 1196–1204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Rem. Sens. (1)

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, “The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Rem. Sens. 20, 1681–1702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

A. K. Vance, J. P. Taylor, T. J. Hewison, and J. Elms, “Comparison of in situ humidity data from aircraft, dropsonde, and radiosonde,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 921–932 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

R. R. Querel, D. A. Naylor, J. Thomas-Osip, G. Prieto, and A. McWilliam, “Comparison of precipitable water vapour measurements made with an optical echelle spectrograph and an infrared radiometer at Las Campanas Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 701457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Phillips and D. A. Naylor, “Initial operations of an water vapour monitor (IRMA) at Gemini South, Las Campanas Observatories, and in the TMT site testing role,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62695K (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Querel, F. Kerber, G. L. Curto, J. Thomas-Osip, G. Prieto, A. Chacón, O. Cuevas, D. Pozo, J. Marín, D. Naylor, M. Curé, M. Sarazin, C. Guirao, and G. Avila, “Support for site testing of the European Extremely Large Telescope: precipitable water vapor over La Silla,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 773349 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (14)

BTRAM website: http://www.blueskyspectroscopy.com/btram/.

I. M. Chapman,D. A. Naylor, B. Gom, and R. R. Querel are preparing a manuscript to be called “BTRAM: an interactive atmospheric radiative transfer model.”

M. McKinnon, “Measurement of atmospheric opacity due to water vapor at 225 GHz,” Atacama Large Millimeter Array Memo 40 (Atacama Large Millimeter Array, 1987).

A. Stirling, R. Hills, J. Richer, and J. Pardo, “183 GHz water vapour radiometers for ALMA: estimation of phase errors under varying atmospheric conditions,” Atacama Large Millimeter Array Memo 496 (Atacama Large Millimeter Array, 2004).

R. M. Goody and J. C. G. Walker, Atmospheres, 1st ed.(Prentice-Hall, 1972).

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory—an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy,” arXiv:1005.5331v1 (2010).

Omega Optical, Inc., http://www.omegafilters.com/.

FDS100 Silicon Photodiode, ThorLabs, Inc., http://www.thorlabs.com/.

LS-1 tungsten halogen light source, http://www.oceanoptics.com/.

FieldSpec 3 Hi-Res., ASD, Inc., http://www.asdi.com/.

USB4000-VIS-NIR miniature fiber optic spectrometer, http://www.oceanoptics.com/.

RTS-3ZC Integrating Sphere, ASD, Inc., http://www.asdi.com/.

Model 970 Pegasus R, Isothermal Technology Ltd., http://www.isotech.co.uk/.

Data Translation DT9822, http://www.datatranslation.com/.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Simulated atmospheric transmission spectrum above the La Silla Observatory, Chile, elevation 240 m . The simulated spectrum was calculated using the BTRAM software for a PWV of 1 mm . (b) Measured transmission profiles for the four filters used in the instrument. (c) Effective transmission through each of the four filtered spectral bands.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of the technique used to determine absorber abundance through a sequence of on- and off-band measurements. L A and L D are the observed radiance within bands A and D. These two measurements serve to establish the continuum radiance, L C . The ratio of the measured radiance, L C to L C , yields a band transmission that is used to derive the PWV.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical schematic of the lunar spectrophotometer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Interior photograph of the lunar spectrophotometer: the primary mirror, filter wheel, and stepper motor are visible.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Example of the time-series data stream from the lunar spectrophotometer. The individual filter bands are indicated (A through D); a reference notch in the filter wheel provides a fiducial (R).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Sixty seconds of signal from the detector when the tracking system was disabled.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Reflected solar irradiance. (b) Reflectivity of aluminum mirror. (c) Response of the silicon photodetector. (d) Effective system response (solid black curve) together with the integrated effects on the individual bands. The unmodified filter bands (dashed curves) are shown for comparison.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Lunar spectrophotometer mounted on a tripod (left). The Moon, as viewed through the open dome above the ESO 1 m telescope at La Silla Observatory, Chile (right).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison between the lunar spectro photometer derived PWV and contemporaneous radiosonde PWV values.

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