Abstract

This paper reports the simultaneous measurements of multiple flow parameters in a scramjet facility operating at a nominal Mach number of 2.5 using a sensing system based on tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). The TDLAS system measures velocity, temperature, and water vapor partial pressure at three different locations of the scramjet: the inlet, the combustion region near the flame stabilization cavity, and the exit of the combustor. These measurements enable the determination of the variation of the Mach number and the combustion mode in the scramjet engine, which are critical for evaluating the combustion efficiency and optimizing engine performance. The results obtained in this work clearly demonstrated the applicability of TDLAS sensors in harsh and high-speed environments. The TDLAS system, due to its unique virtues, is expected to play an important role in the development of scramjet engines.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

M. D. Lahr, R. W. Pitz, Z. W. Douglas, and C. D. Carter, “Hydroxyl-tagging-velocimetry measurements of a supersonic flow over a cavity,” J. Propul. Power 26, 790–797(2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

H. Gu, L. Chen, and X. Chang, “Experimental investigation on the cavity-based scramjet model,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 54, 2794–2799 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Micka and J. F. Driscoll, “Combustion characteristics of a dual-mode scramjet combustor with cavity flameholder,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 2397–2404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Lindstrom, K. R. Jackson, S. Williams, R. Givens, W. F. Bailey, C. J. Tam, and W. F. Terry, “Shock-train structure resolved with absorption spectroscopy Part 1: system design and validation,” AIAA J. 47, 2368–2378 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, T. Mathur, M. R. Gruber, and C. D. Carter, “Diode laser-based detection of combustor instabilities with application to a scramjet engine,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 831–838 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

W. Cai, D. J. Ewing, and L. Ma, “Application of simulated annealing for multispectral tomography,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 179, 250–255 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Measurement of nonuniform temperature distributions using line-of-sight absorption spectroscopy,” AIAA J. 45, 411–419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Mulhall, and H. S. Kindle, “A diode laser sensor for rapid, sensitive measurements of gas temperature and water vapour concentration at high temperatures and pressures,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 1195–1204(2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pan, Z. G. Wang, and W. D. Liu, “Introduction of scramjet combustion efficiencies measurement methods,” J. Exp. Fluid Mech. 21, 68–73 (2007) (in Chinese).

2006 (1)

X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, K. M. Hinckley, and M. A. Woodmansee, “Development of a tunable diode laser sensor for measurements of gas turbine exhaust temperature,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 469–478 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

A. D. Griffiths and A. F. P. Houwing, “Diode laser absorption spectroscopy of water vapor in a scramjet combustor,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6653–6659 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. T. C. Liu, G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, M. R. Gruber, C. D. Carter, T. Mathur, and R. K. Hanson, “Near-infrared diode laser absorption diagnostic for temperature and water vapor in a scramjet combustor,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6701–6711 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Mitani and T. Kouchi, “Flame structures and combustion efficiency computed for a Mach 6 scramjet engine,” Combust. Flame 142, 187–196 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. McDaniel, C. P. Goyne, E. B. Bryner, D. B. Le, C. T. Smith, and R. H. Krauss, “Dual-mode scramjet operation at a Mach 5 flight enthalpy in a clean air test facility,” AIP Conf. Proc. 762, 1277–1282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

T. Kanda, N. Chinzei, K. Kudo, and A. Murakami, “Dual-mode operations in a scramjet combustor,” J. Propul. Power 20, 760–763 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with 2f detection using multiplexed diode lasers for rapid temperature measurements in gaseous flows,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 503–511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Development of a sensor for temperature and water concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459–1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. A. Baurle and D. R. Eklund, “Analysis of dual-mode hydrocarbon scramjet operation at Mach 4–6.5,” J. Propul. Power 18, 990–1002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

2000 (2)

B. L. Upschulte, M. F. Miller, and M. G. Allen, “Diode laser sensor for gasdynamic measurements in a model scramjet combustor,” AIAA J. 38, 1246–1252 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. A. Silver and D. J. Kane, “Diode laser measurements of concentration and temperature in microgravity combustion,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 845–852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545–562 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Mohamed, B. Rosier, D. Henry, Y. Louvet, and P. L. Varghese, “Tunable diode laser measurements on nitric oxide in a hypersonic wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 34, 494–499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1956 (1)

E. R. G. Eckert, “Engineering relations for heat transfer and friction in high-velocity laminar and turbulent boundary layer flow over surfaces with constant pressure and temperature,” Trans. ASME 78, 1273–1284 (1956).

Allen, M. G.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Mulhall, and H. S. Kindle, “A diode laser sensor for rapid, sensitive measurements of gas temperature and water vapour concentration at high temperatures and pressures,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 1195–1204(2007).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Upschulte, M. F. Miller, and M. G. Allen, “Diode laser sensor for gasdynamic measurements in a model scramjet combustor,” AIAA J. 38, 1246–1252 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545–562 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arroyo, M. P.

Baer, D. S.

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, W. F.

C. D. Lindstrom, K. R. Jackson, S. Williams, R. Givens, W. F. Bailey, C. J. Tam, and W. F. Terry, “Shock-train structure resolved with absorption spectroscopy Part 1: system design and validation,” AIAA J. 47, 2368–2378 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, J. A.

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barhorst, T.

M. Brown and T. Barhorst, “Post-flight analysis of the diode laser based mass capture experiment onboard HIFiRE flight1,” in Proceedings of Seventeenth AIAA International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2011), AIAA 2011-2359.

Baurle, R. A.

R. A. Baurle and D. R. Eklund, “Analysis of dual-mode hydrocarbon scramjet operation at Mach 4–6.5,” J. Propul. Power 18, 990–1002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, M.

M. Brown and T. Barhorst, “Post-flight analysis of the diode laser based mass capture experiment onboard HIFiRE flight1,” in Proceedings of Seventeenth AIAA International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2011), AIAA 2011-2359.

Bryner, E. B.

J. C. McDaniel, C. P. Goyne, E. B. Bryner, D. B. Le, C. T. Smith, and R. H. Krauss, “Dual-mode scramjet operation at a Mach 5 flight enthalpy in a clean air test facility,” AIP Conf. Proc. 762, 1277–1282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Bryner, G. S. Diskin, C. P. Goyne, J. C. McDaniel, R. H. Krauss, and T. A. Slate, “Water vapor concentration measurement in high enthalpy flows using infrared absorption,” in Proceedings of Thirty-Ninth American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics/American Society of Mechanical Engineers/Society of Automotive Engineers/American Society for Engineering Education Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2003), AIAA 2003-4580.

Cai, W.

W. Cai, D. J. Ewing, and L. Ma, “Application of simulated annealing for multispectral tomography,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 179, 250–255 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Carter, C.

M. Gruber, C. Carter, and M. Ryan, “Laser-based measurements of OH, temperature and water vapor concentration in a Hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet,” in Proceedings of Forty-Fourth American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics/American Society of Mechanical Engineers/Society of Automotive Engineers/American Society for Engineering Education Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2008), AIAA 2008-5070.

Carter, C. D.

M. D. Lahr, R. W. Pitz, Z. W. Douglas, and C. D. Carter, “Hydroxyl-tagging-velocimetry measurements of a supersonic flow over a cavity,” J. Propul. Power 26, 790–797(2010).
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G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, T. Mathur, M. R. Gruber, and C. D. Carter, “Diode laser-based detection of combustor instabilities with application to a scramjet engine,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 831–838 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. T. C. Liu, G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, M. R. Gruber, C. D. Carter, T. Mathur, and R. K. Hanson, “Near-infrared diode laser absorption diagnostic for temperature and water vapor in a scramjet combustor,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6701–6711 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Champion, J. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, X.

H. Gu, L. Chen, and X. Chang, “Experimental investigation on the cavity-based scramjet model,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 54, 2794–2799 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Li, X. Yu, H. Gu, Z. Li, L. Chen, and X. Chang, “Measurement of flow parameters in a scramjet combustor based on near-infrared absorption,” Chin. J. Theor. Appl. Mech.43, 1–7 (2011) (in Chinese).

F. Li, X. Yu, H. Gu, Z. Li, L. Chen, and X. Chang, “Measurement of temperature, velocity and water vapor concentration in a scramjet combustor based on near-infrared diode laser absorption,” in Proceedings of Seventeenth AIAA International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2011), AIAA 2011-2214.

Chen, L.

H. Gu, L. Chen, and X. Chang, “Experimental investigation on the cavity-based scramjet model,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 54, 2794–2799 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Li, X. Yu, H. Gu, Z. Li, L. Chen, and X. Chang, “Measurement of flow parameters in a scramjet combustor based on near-infrared absorption,” Chin. J. Theor. Appl. Mech.43, 1–7 (2011) (in Chinese).

F. Li, X. Yu, H. Gu, Z. Li, L. Chen, and X. Chang, “Measurement of temperature, velocity and water vapor concentration in a scramjet combustor based on near-infrared diode laser absorption,” in Proceedings of Seventeenth AIAA International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2011), AIAA 2011-2214.

Chinzei, N.

T. Kanda, N. Chinzei, K. Kudo, and A. Murakami, “Dual-mode operations in a scramjet combustor,” J. Propul. Power 20, 760–763 (2004).
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Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Diskin, G. S.

E. B. Bryner, G. S. Diskin, C. P. Goyne, J. C. McDaniel, R. H. Krauss, and T. A. Slate, “Water vapor concentration measurement in high enthalpy flows using infrared absorption,” in Proceedings of Thirty-Ninth American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics/American Society of Mechanical Engineers/Society of Automotive Engineers/American Society for Engineering Education Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2003), AIAA 2003-4580.

Douglas, Z. W.

M. D. Lahr, R. W. Pitz, Z. W. Douglas, and C. D. Carter, “Hydroxyl-tagging-velocimetry measurements of a supersonic flow over a cavity,” J. Propul. Power 26, 790–797(2010).
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Eklund, D. R.

R. A. Baurle and D. R. Eklund, “Analysis of dual-mode hydrocarbon scramjet operation at Mach 4–6.5,” J. Propul. Power 18, 990–1002 (2002).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Givens, R.

C. D. Lindstrom, K. R. Jackson, S. Williams, R. Givens, W. F. Bailey, C. J. Tam, and W. F. Terry, “Shock-train structure resolved with absorption spectroscopy Part 1: system design and validation,” AIAA J. 47, 2368–2378 (2009).
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Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Goyne, C. P.

J. C. McDaniel, C. P. Goyne, E. B. Bryner, D. B. Le, C. T. Smith, and R. H. Krauss, “Dual-mode scramjet operation at a Mach 5 flight enthalpy in a clean air test facility,” AIP Conf. Proc. 762, 1277–1282 (2005).
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E. B. Bryner, G. S. Diskin, C. P. Goyne, J. C. McDaniel, R. H. Krauss, and T. A. Slate, “Water vapor concentration measurement in high enthalpy flows using infrared absorption,” in Proceedings of Thirty-Ninth American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics/American Society of Mechanical Engineers/Society of Automotive Engineers/American Society for Engineering Education Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2003), AIAA 2003-4580.

Greenberg, P. S.

Griffiths, A. D.

Gruber, M.

M. Gruber, C. Carter, and M. Ryan, “Laser-based measurements of OH, temperature and water vapor concentration in a Hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet,” in Proceedings of Forty-Fourth American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics/American Society of Mechanical Engineers/Society of Automotive Engineers/American Society for Engineering Education Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2008), AIAA 2008-5070.

Gruber, M. R.

G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, T. Mathur, M. R. Gruber, and C. D. Carter, “Diode laser-based detection of combustor instabilities with application to a scramjet engine,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 831–838 (2009).
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J. T. C. Liu, G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, M. R. Gruber, C. D. Carter, T. Mathur, and R. K. Hanson, “Near-infrared diode laser absorption diagnostic for temperature and water vapor in a scramjet combustor,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6701–6711 (2005).
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Gu, H.

H. Gu, L. Chen, and X. Chang, “Experimental investigation on the cavity-based scramjet model,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 54, 2794–2799 (2009).
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F. Li, X. Yu, H. Gu, Z. Li, L. Chen, and X. Chang, “Measurement of flow parameters in a scramjet combustor based on near-infrared absorption,” Chin. J. Theor. Appl. Mech.43, 1–7 (2011) (in Chinese).

F. Li, X. Yu, H. Gu, Z. Li, L. Chen, and X. Chang, “Measurement of temperature, velocity and water vapor concentration in a scramjet combustor based on near-infrared diode laser absorption,” in Proceedings of Seventeenth AIAA International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2011), AIAA 2011-2214.

Hanson, R. K.

G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, T. Mathur, M. R. Gruber, and C. D. Carter, “Diode laser-based detection of combustor instabilities with application to a scramjet engine,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 831–838 (2009).
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G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Mulhall, and H. S. Kindle, “A diode laser sensor for rapid, sensitive measurements of gas temperature and water vapour concentration at high temperatures and pressures,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 1195–1204(2007).
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X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Measurement of nonuniform temperature distributions using line-of-sight absorption spectroscopy,” AIAA J. 45, 411–419 (2007).
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X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, K. M. Hinckley, and M. A. Woodmansee, “Development of a tunable diode laser sensor for measurements of gas turbine exhaust temperature,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 469–478 (2006).
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J. T. C. Liu, G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, M. R. Gruber, C. D. Carter, T. Mathur, and R. K. Hanson, “Near-infrared diode laser absorption diagnostic for temperature and water vapor in a scramjet combustor,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6701–6711 (2005).
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J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with 2f detection using multiplexed diode lasers for rapid temperature measurements in gaseous flows,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 503–511 (2004).
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X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Development of a sensor for temperature and water concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459–1468 (2003).
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S. T. Sanders, J. Wang, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser absorption sensor for line-of-sight gas temperature distributions,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4404–4415 (2001).
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S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
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W. H. Heiser and D. T. Pratt, Hypersonic Airbreathing Propulsion, AIAA Education Series (AIAA, 1994).

Henry, D.

A. Mohamed, B. Rosier, D. Henry, Y. Louvet, and P. L. Varghese, “Tunable diode laser measurements on nitric oxide in a hypersonic wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 34, 494–499 (1996).
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Hinckley, K. M.

X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, K. M. Hinckley, and M. A. Woodmansee, “Development of a tunable diode laser sensor for measurements of gas turbine exhaust temperature,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 469–478 (2006).
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Houwing, A. F. P.

Jackson, K. R.

C. D. Lindstrom, K. R. Jackson, S. Williams, R. Givens, W. F. Bailey, C. J. Tam, and W. F. Terry, “Shock-train structure resolved with absorption spectroscopy Part 1: system design and validation,” AIAA J. 47, 2368–2378 (2009).
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Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Jeffries, J. B.

G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, T. Mathur, M. R. Gruber, and C. D. Carter, “Diode laser-based detection of combustor instabilities with application to a scramjet engine,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 831–838 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Mulhall, and H. S. Kindle, “A diode laser sensor for rapid, sensitive measurements of gas temperature and water vapour concentration at high temperatures and pressures,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 1195–1204(2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Measurement of nonuniform temperature distributions using line-of-sight absorption spectroscopy,” AIAA J. 45, 411–419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, K. M. Hinckley, and M. A. Woodmansee, “Development of a tunable diode laser sensor for measurements of gas turbine exhaust temperature,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 469–478 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. T. C. Liu, G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, M. R. Gruber, C. D. Carter, T. Mathur, and R. K. Hanson, “Near-infrared diode laser absorption diagnostic for temperature and water vapor in a scramjet combustor,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6701–6711 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with 2f detection using multiplexed diode lasers for rapid temperature measurements in gaseous flows,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 503–511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Development of a sensor for temperature and water concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459–1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Sanders, J. Wang, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser absorption sensor for line-of-sight gas temperature distributions,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4404–4415 (2001).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Li, H.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Mulhall, and H. S. Kindle, “A diode laser sensor for rapid, sensitive measurements of gas temperature and water vapour concentration at high temperatures and pressures,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 1195–1204(2007).
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Li, Z.

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F. Li, X. Yu, H. Gu, Z. Li, L. Chen, and X. Chang, “Measurement of flow parameters in a scramjet combustor based on near-infrared absorption,” Chin. J. Theor. Appl. Mech.43, 1–7 (2011) (in Chinese).

Lindstrom, C. D.

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Liu, X.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Mulhall, and H. S. Kindle, “A diode laser sensor for rapid, sensitive measurements of gas temperature and water vapour concentration at high temperatures and pressures,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 1195–1204(2007).
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X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, K. M. Hinckley, and M. A. Woodmansee, “Development of a tunable diode laser sensor for measurements of gas turbine exhaust temperature,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 469–478 (2006).
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Louvet, Y.

A. Mohamed, B. Rosier, D. Henry, Y. Louvet, and P. L. Varghese, “Tunable diode laser measurements on nitric oxide in a hypersonic wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 34, 494–499 (1996).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Mathur, T.

G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, T. Mathur, M. R. Gruber, and C. D. Carter, “Diode laser-based detection of combustor instabilities with application to a scramjet engine,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 831–838 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. T. C. Liu, G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, M. R. Gruber, C. D. Carter, T. Mathur, and R. K. Hanson, “Near-infrared diode laser absorption diagnostic for temperature and water vapor in a scramjet combustor,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6701–6711 (2005).
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McDaniel, J. C.

J. C. McDaniel, C. P. Goyne, E. B. Bryner, D. B. Le, C. T. Smith, and R. H. Krauss, “Dual-mode scramjet operation at a Mach 5 flight enthalpy in a clean air test facility,” AIP Conf. Proc. 762, 1277–1282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Bryner, G. S. Diskin, C. P. Goyne, J. C. McDaniel, R. H. Krauss, and T. A. Slate, “Water vapor concentration measurement in high enthalpy flows using infrared absorption,” in Proceedings of Thirty-Ninth American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics/American Society of Mechanical Engineers/Society of Automotive Engineers/American Society for Engineering Education Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2003), AIAA 2003-4580.

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Miller, M. F.

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T. Mitani and T. Kouchi, “Flame structures and combustion efficiency computed for a Mach 6 scramjet engine,” Combust. Flame 142, 187–196 (2005).
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Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Mohamed, A.

A. Mohamed, B. Rosier, D. Henry, Y. Louvet, and P. L. Varghese, “Tunable diode laser measurements on nitric oxide in a hypersonic wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 34, 494–499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mulhall, P. A.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Mulhall, and H. S. Kindle, “A diode laser sensor for rapid, sensitive measurements of gas temperature and water vapour concentration at high temperatures and pressures,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 1195–1204(2007).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, A.

T. Kanda, N. Chinzei, K. Kudo, and A. Murakami, “Dual-mode operations in a scramjet combustor,” J. Propul. Power 20, 760–763 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Y. Pan, Z. G. Wang, and W. D. Liu, “Introduction of scramjet combustion efficiencies measurement methods,” J. Exp. Fluid Mech. 21, 68–73 (2007) (in Chinese).

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Philippe, L. C.

Pitz, R. W.

M. D. Lahr, R. W. Pitz, Z. W. Douglas, and C. D. Carter, “Hydroxyl-tagging-velocimetry measurements of a supersonic flow over a cavity,” J. Propul. Power 26, 790–797(2010).
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Pratt, D. T.

W. H. Heiser and D. T. Pratt, Hypersonic Airbreathing Propulsion, AIAA Education Series (AIAA, 1994).

Predoi-Cross, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Rieker, G. B.

G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, T. Mathur, M. R. Gruber, and C. D. Carter, “Diode laser-based detection of combustor instabilities with application to a scramjet engine,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 831–838 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Mulhall, and H. S. Kindle, “A diode laser sensor for rapid, sensitive measurements of gas temperature and water vapour concentration at high temperatures and pressures,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 1195–1204(2007).
[CrossRef]

J. T. C. Liu, G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, M. R. Gruber, C. D. Carter, T. Mathur, and R. K. Hanson, “Near-infrared diode laser absorption diagnostic for temperature and water vapor in a scramjet combustor,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6701–6711 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rosier, B.

A. Mohamed, B. Rosier, D. Henry, Y. Louvet, and P. L. Varghese, “Tunable diode laser measurements on nitric oxide in a hypersonic wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 34, 494–499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rotger, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ryan, M.

M. Gruber, C. Carter, and M. Ryan, “Laser-based measurements of OH, temperature and water vapor concentration in a Hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet,” in Proceedings of Forty-Fourth American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics/American Society of Mechanical Engineers/Society of Automotive Engineers/American Society for Engineering Education Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2008), AIAA 2008-5070.

Sanders, S. T.

S. T. Sanders, J. Wang, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser absorption sensor for line-of-sight gas temperature distributions,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4404–4415 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Silver, J. A.

J. A. Silver and D. J. Kane, “Diode laser measurements of concentration and temperature in microgravity combustion,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 845–852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Silver, D. J. Kane, and P. S. Greenberg, “Quantitative species measurements in microgravity flames with near-IR diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2787–2801 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Šimecková, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Slate, T. A.

E. B. Bryner, G. S. Diskin, C. P. Goyne, J. C. McDaniel, R. H. Krauss, and T. A. Slate, “Water vapor concentration measurement in high enthalpy flows using infrared absorption,” in Proceedings of Thirty-Ninth American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics/American Society of Mechanical Engineers/Society of Automotive Engineers/American Society for Engineering Education Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2003), AIAA 2003-4580.

Smith, C. T.

J. C. McDaniel, C. P. Goyne, E. B. Bryner, D. B. Le, C. T. Smith, and R. H. Krauss, “Dual-mode scramjet operation at a Mach 5 flight enthalpy in a clean air test facility,” AIP Conf. Proc. 762, 1277–1282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tam, C. J.

C. D. Lindstrom, K. R. Jackson, S. Williams, R. Givens, W. F. Bailey, C. J. Tam, and W. F. Terry, “Shock-train structure resolved with absorption spectroscopy Part 1: system design and validation,” AIAA J. 47, 2368–2378 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tashkun, S. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Terry, W. F.

C. D. Lindstrom, K. R. Jackson, S. Williams, R. Givens, W. F. Bailey, C. J. Tam, and W. F. Terry, “Shock-train structure resolved with absorption spectroscopy Part 1: system design and validation,” AIAA J. 47, 2368–2378 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Upschulte, B. L.

B. L. Upschulte, M. F. Miller, and M. G. Allen, “Diode laser sensor for gasdynamic measurements in a model scramjet combustor,” AIAA J. 38, 1246–1252 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vandaele, A. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

VanderAuwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Varghese, P. L.

A. Mohamed, B. Rosier, D. Henry, Y. Louvet, and P. L. Varghese, “Tunable diode laser measurements on nitric oxide in a hypersonic wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 34, 494–499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wang, Z. G.

Y. Pan, Z. G. Wang, and W. D. Liu, “Introduction of scramjet combustion efficiencies measurement methods,” J. Exp. Fluid Mech. 21, 68–73 (2007) (in Chinese).

Wehe, S. D.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Mulhall, and H. S. Kindle, “A diode laser sensor for rapid, sensitive measurements of gas temperature and water vapour concentration at high temperatures and pressures,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 1195–1204(2007).
[CrossRef]

Williams, S.

C. D. Lindstrom, K. R. Jackson, S. Williams, R. Givens, W. F. Bailey, C. J. Tam, and W. F. Terry, “Shock-train structure resolved with absorption spectroscopy Part 1: system design and validation,” AIAA J. 47, 2368–2378 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Woodmansee, M. A.

X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, K. M. Hinckley, and M. A. Woodmansee, “Development of a tunable diode laser sensor for measurements of gas turbine exhaust temperature,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 469–478 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

F. Li, X. Yu, H. Gu, Z. Li, L. Chen, and X. Chang, “Measurement of temperature, velocity and water vapor concentration in a scramjet combustor based on near-infrared diode laser absorption,” in Proceedings of Seventeenth AIAA International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2011), AIAA 2011-2214.

F. Li, X. Yu, H. Gu, Z. Li, L. Chen, and X. Chang, “Measurement of flow parameters in a scramjet combustor based on near-infrared absorption,” Chin. J. Theor. Appl. Mech.43, 1–7 (2011) (in Chinese).

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Development of a sensor for temperature and water concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459–1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

AIAA J. (4)

A. Mohamed, B. Rosier, D. Henry, Y. Louvet, and P. L. Varghese, “Tunable diode laser measurements on nitric oxide in a hypersonic wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 34, 494–499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Upschulte, M. F. Miller, and M. G. Allen, “Diode laser sensor for gasdynamic measurements in a model scramjet combustor,” AIAA J. 38, 1246–1252 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Lindstrom, K. R. Jackson, S. Williams, R. Givens, W. F. Bailey, C. J. Tam, and W. F. Terry, “Shock-train structure resolved with absorption spectroscopy Part 1: system design and validation,” AIAA J. 47, 2368–2378 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Measurement of nonuniform temperature distributions using line-of-sight absorption spectroscopy,” AIAA J. 45, 411–419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

J. C. McDaniel, C. P. Goyne, E. B. Bryner, D. B. Le, C. T. Smith, and R. H. Krauss, “Dual-mode scramjet operation at a Mach 5 flight enthalpy in a clean air test facility,” AIP Conf. Proc. 762, 1277–1282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, K. M. Hinckley, and M. A. Woodmansee, “Development of a tunable diode laser sensor for measurements of gas turbine exhaust temperature,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 469–478 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with 2f detection using multiplexed diode lasers for rapid temperature measurements in gaseous flows,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 503–511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Sci. Bull. (1)

H. Gu, L. Chen, and X. Chang, “Experimental investigation on the cavity-based scramjet model,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 54, 2794–2799 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (1)

T. Mitani and T. Kouchi, “Flame structures and combustion efficiency computed for a Mach 6 scramjet engine,” Combust. Flame 142, 187–196 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

W. Cai, D. J. Ewing, and L. Ma, “Application of simulated annealing for multispectral tomography,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 179, 250–255 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Fluid Mech. (1)

Y. Pan, Z. G. Wang, and W. D. Liu, “Introduction of scramjet combustion efficiencies measurement methods,” J. Exp. Fluid Mech. 21, 68–73 (2007) (in Chinese).

J. Propul. Power (4)

M. D. Lahr, R. W. Pitz, Z. W. Douglas, and C. D. Carter, “Hydroxyl-tagging-velocimetry measurements of a supersonic flow over a cavity,” J. Propul. Power 26, 790–797(2010).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Curran, “Scramjet engines: the first forty years,” J. Propul. Power 17, 1138–1148 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Baurle and D. R. Eklund, “Analysis of dual-mode hydrocarbon scramjet operation at Mach 4–6.5,” J. Propul. Power 18, 990–1002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kanda, N. Chinzei, K. Kudo, and A. Murakami, “Dual-mode operations in a scramjet combustor,” J. Propul. Power 20, 760–763 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. VanderAuwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (4)

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Development of a sensor for temperature and water concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459–1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545–562 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Silver and D. J. Kane, “Diode laser measurements of concentration and temperature in microgravity combustion,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 845–852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Mulhall, and H. S. Kindle, “A diode laser sensor for rapid, sensitive measurements of gas temperature and water vapour concentration at high temperatures and pressures,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 1195–1204(2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Combust. Inst. (3)

G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, T. Mathur, M. R. Gruber, and C. D. Carter, “Diode laser-based detection of combustor instabilities with application to a scramjet engine,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 831–838 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Micka and J. F. Driscoll, “Combustion characteristics of a dual-mode scramjet combustor with cavity flameholder,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 2397–2404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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E. R. G. Eckert, “Engineering relations for heat transfer and friction in high-velocity laminar and turbulent boundary layer flow over surfaces with constant pressure and temperature,” Trans. ASME 78, 1273–1284 (1956).

Other (7)

F. Li, X. Yu, H. Gu, Z. Li, L. Chen, and X. Chang, “Measurement of flow parameters in a scramjet combustor based on near-infrared absorption,” Chin. J. Theor. Appl. Mech.43, 1–7 (2011) (in Chinese).

M. Brown and T. Barhorst, “Post-flight analysis of the diode laser based mass capture experiment onboard HIFiRE flight1,” in Proceedings of Seventeenth AIAA International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2011), AIAA 2011-2359.

F. Li, X. Yu, H. Gu, Z. Li, L. Chen, and X. Chang, “Measurement of temperature, velocity and water vapor concentration in a scramjet combustor based on near-infrared diode laser absorption,” in Proceedings of Seventeenth AIAA International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2011), AIAA 2011-2214.

W. H. Heiser and D. T. Pratt, Hypersonic Airbreathing Propulsion, AIAA Education Series (AIAA, 1994).

E. B. Bryner, G. S. Diskin, C. P. Goyne, J. C. McDaniel, R. H. Krauss, and T. A. Slate, “Water vapor concentration measurement in high enthalpy flows using infrared absorption,” in Proceedings of Thirty-Ninth American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics/American Society of Mechanical Engineers/Society of Automotive Engineers/American Society for Engineering Education Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2003), AIAA 2003-4580.

M. Gruber, C. Carter, and M. Ryan, “Laser-based measurements of OH, temperature and water vapor concentration in a Hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet,” in Proceedings of Forty-Fourth American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics/American Society of Mechanical Engineers/Society of Automotive Engineers/American Society for Engineering Education Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2008), AIAA 2008-5070.

R. K. Hanson and J. B. Jeffries, “Diode laser sensor for ground testing,” in Proceedings of Twenty-fifth Aerodynamic Measurement Technology and Ground Testing Conference(American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2006), AIAA 2006-3441.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of (a) the direct-connected scramjet test facility (side view, not scaled in the x direction), and (b) the laser beams’ collocation (top view).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical layout of the TDLAS system.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission signals obtained by the TDM scheme.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Illustration of fitting of the absorption features.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Results of multiple parameters at the inlet, measured at 4 kHz measurement and filtered to 1 kHz in this plot. (a) Temperature, (b) water partial pressure, and (c) velocity versus time at the inlet of the combustor.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Distribution of (a) static temperature, (b) partial pressure of water vapor, (c) velocity, and (d) Mach number along the vertical location near the cavity. Measured at 4 kHz bandwidth and filtered to 1 kHz in this plot.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Distribution of (a) static temperature, (b) partial pressure of water vapor, (c) velocity, and (d) Mach number along the vertical location at the combustor exit. Measured at 4 kHz bandwidth and filtered to 1 kHz in this plot.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Spectroscopic Line Parameters Used in the Current Study

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Table 2. Operation Parameters of the Scramjet Facility in this Study

Equations (7)

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ΔνDoppler=Vcν0cosθ,
ϕi·αC2H4+3(αO2+βH2O+χN2)ηc·2ϕiαCO2+(ηc·2ϕiα+3β)H2O+ϕiα(1ηc)C2H4+3(αηcϕiα)O2+3χN2,
1H0HPH2O(y)PdyP¯H2O,inletPinlet=2ηcϕiα+3βϕiα+3(α+β+χ)+CH2,
ηc=ΔQC/ΔQ(ηc=1),
ΔQC=[Δh+wH0HVe(y)2V22dy]+[hf,Thf,i+wf·V2Vi22]+q˙w,
Δh=wH0HTT(y)Cp(T)dTdy,
q˙w=0.0287peV(hawhw)RmT*Pr*25Rex*15,

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