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[CrossRef]

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nat. Mater. 8, 721–725 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Stieler, A. Barsic, G. Tuttle, M. Li, and K. M. Ho, “Effects of defect permittivity on resonant frequency and mode shape in the three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103109 (2009).

[CrossRef]

K. Ishizaki, M. Okano, and S. Noda, “Numerical investigation of emission in finite-sized three-dimensional photonic crystals with structural fluctuations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1157–1161 (2009).

[CrossRef]

S. A. Rinne, F. Garcia-Santamaria, and P. V. Braun, “Embedded cavities and waveguides in three-dimensional silicon photonic crystals,” Nat. Photon. 2, 52–56 (2008).

[CrossRef]

J. F. Chen, R. T. Hong, and J. Y. Yang, “Analysis of planar defect structures in three-dimensional layer-by-layer photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 063111 (2008).

[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, “Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171107 (2006).

[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Y. Lin and P. R. Herman, “Effect of structural variation on the photonic band gap in woodpile photonic crystal with body-centered-cubic symmetry,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063104(2005).

[CrossRef]

C. Sell, C. Christensen, J. Muehlmeier, G. Tuttle, Z. Y. Li, and K. M. Ho, “Waveguide networks in three-dimensional layer-by-layer photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4605–4607(2004).

[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

M. Iida, M. Tani, K. Sakai, M. Watanabe, H. Kitahara, T. Tohme, and M. W. Takeda, “Planar defect modes excited at the band edge of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 73, 2355–2357 (2004).

[CrossRef]

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429, 538–542 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Aoki, H. T. Miyazaki, H. Hirayama, K. Inoshita, T. Baba, K. Sakoda, N. Shinya, and Y. Aoyagi, “Microassembly of semiconductor three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 2, 117–121 (2003).

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]
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K. Aoki, H. T. Miyazaki, H. Hirayama, K. Inoshita, T. Baba, K. Sakoda, N. Shinya, and Y. Aoyagi, “Microassembly of semiconductor three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 2, 117–121 (2003).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Aoki, H. T. Miyazaki, H. Hirayama, K. Inoshita, T. Baba, K. Sakoda, N. Shinya, and Y. Aoyagi, “Microassembly of semiconductor three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 2, 117–121 (2003).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Stieler, A. Barsic, G. Tuttle, M. Li, and K. M. Ho, “Effects of defect permittivity on resonant frequency and mode shape in the three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103109 (2009).

[CrossRef]

J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185–200(1994).

[CrossRef]

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702(2010).

[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Commun. 89, 413–416 (1994).

[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

V. Ramanan, E. Nelson, A. Brzezinski, P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, “Three dimensional silicon-air photonic crystals with controlled defects using interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 173304 (2008).

[CrossRef]

S. A. Rinne, F. Garcia-Santamaria, and P. V. Braun, “Embedded cavities and waveguides in three-dimensional silicon photonic crystals,” Nat. Photon. 2, 52–56 (2008).

[CrossRef]

P. V. Braun, S. A. Rinne, and F. Garcí-Santamaría, “Introducing defects in 3D photonic crystals: state of the art,” Adv. Mater. 18, 2665–2678 (2006).

[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Donor and acceptor modes in photonic band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3380–3383(1991).

[CrossRef]
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V. Ramanan, E. Nelson, A. Brzezinski, P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, “Three dimensional silicon-air photonic crystals with controlled defects using interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 173304 (2008).

[CrossRef]

M. Kanskar, P. Paddon, V. Pacradouni, R. Morin, A. Busch, J. F. Young, S. R. Johnson, J. MacKenzie, and T. Tiedje, “Observation of leaky slab modes in an air-bridged semiconductor waveguide with a two-dimensional photonic lattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1438–1440 (1997).

[CrossRef]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Commun. 89, 413–416 (1994).

[CrossRef]

J. F. Chen, R. T. Hong, and J. Y. Yang, “Analysis of planar defect structures in three-dimensional layer-by-layer photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 063111 (2008).

[CrossRef]

K. Ohlinger, F. Torres, Y. Lin, K. Lozano, D. Xu, and K. P. Chen, “Photonic crystals with defect structures fabricated through a combination of holographic lithography and two-photon lithography,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 073113 (2010).

[CrossRef]

C. Sell, C. Christensen, J. Muehlmeier, G. Tuttle, Z. Y. Li, and K. M. Ho, “Waveguide networks in three-dimensional layer-by-layer photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4605–4607(2004).

[CrossRef]

S. Noda, M. Imada, M. Okano, S. Ogawa, M. Mochizuki, and A. Chutinan, “Semiconductor three-dimensional and two-dimensional photonic crystals and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 726–735 (2002).

[CrossRef]

M. Okano, A. Chutinan, and S. Noda, “Analysis and design of single-defect cavities in a three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 165211 (2002).

[CrossRef]

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, “Design for waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 2353–2356 (2000).

[CrossRef]

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289, 604–606 (2000).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. A. Rinne, F. Garcia-Santamaria, and P. V. Braun, “Embedded cavities and waveguides in three-dimensional silicon photonic crystals,” Nat. Photon. 2, 52–56 (2008).

[CrossRef]

P. V. Braun, S. A. Rinne, and F. Garcí-Santamaría, “Introducing defects in 3D photonic crystals: state of the art,” Adv. Mater. 18, 2665–2678 (2006).

[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Donor and acceptor modes in photonic band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3380–3383(1991).

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[CrossRef]

K. Aoki, H. T. Miyazaki, H. Hirayama, K. Inoshita, T. Baba, K. Sakoda, N. Shinya, and Y. Aoyagi, “Microassembly of semiconductor three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 2, 117–121 (2003).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Stieler, A. Barsic, G. Tuttle, M. Li, and K. M. Ho, “Effects of defect permittivity on resonant frequency and mode shape in the three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103109 (2009).

[CrossRef]

C. Sell, C. Christensen, J. Muehlmeier, G. Tuttle, Z. Y. Li, and K. M. Ho, “Waveguide networks in three-dimensional layer-by-layer photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4605–4607(2004).

[CrossRef]

M. E. B. Özbay, B. Temelkuran, M. M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “Guiding, bending, and splitting of electromagnetic waves in highly confined photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 081107 (2001).

[CrossRef]

E. Özbay, G. Tuttle, M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis, and K. M. Ho, “Defect structures in a layer-by-layer photonic band-gap crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 13961–13965 (1995).

[CrossRef]

E. Özbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, “Micromachined millimeter-wave photonic band-gap crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059–2061 (1994).

[CrossRef]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Commun. 89, 413–416 (1994).

[CrossRef]

J. F. Chen, R. T. Hong, and J. Y. Yang, “Analysis of planar defect structures in three-dimensional layer-by-layer photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 063111 (2008).

[CrossRef]

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702(2010).

[CrossRef]

M. Iida, M. Tani, K. Sakai, M. Watanabe, H. Kitahara, T. Tohme, and M. W. Takeda, “Planar defect modes excited at the band edge of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 73, 2355–2357 (2004).

[CrossRef]

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nat. Mater. 8, 721–725 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, “Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171107 (2006).

[CrossRef]

S. Noda, M. Imada, M. Okano, S. Ogawa, M. Mochizuki, and A. Chutinan, “Semiconductor three-dimensional and two-dimensional photonic crystals and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 726–735 (2002).

[CrossRef]

K. Aoki, H. T. Miyazaki, H. Hirayama, K. Inoshita, T. Baba, K. Sakoda, N. Shinya, and Y. Aoyagi, “Microassembly of semiconductor three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 2, 117–121 (2003).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429, 538–542 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Ishizaki, M. Okano, and S. Noda, “Numerical investigation of emission in finite-sized three-dimensional photonic crystals with structural fluctuations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1157–1161 (2009).

[CrossRef]

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nat. Mater. 8, 721–725 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

E. Istrate and E. H. Sargent, “Photonic crystal heterostructures—resonant tunnelling, waveguides and filters,” J. Opt. A 4, S242 (2002).

[CrossRef]

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702(2010).

[CrossRef]

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429, 538–542 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis,” Opt. Express 8, 173–190 (2001).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Donor and acceptor modes in photonic band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3380–3383(1991).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486–2489(1987).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702(2010).

[CrossRef]

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429, 538–542 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis,” Opt. Express 8, 173–190 (2001).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Kanskar, P. Paddon, V. Pacradouni, R. Morin, A. Busch, J. F. Young, S. R. Johnson, J. MacKenzie, and T. Tiedje, “Observation of leaky slab modes in an air-bridged semiconductor waveguide with a two-dimensional photonic lattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1438–1440 (1997).

[CrossRef]

M. Okano, S. Kako, and S. Noda, “Coupling between a point-defect cavity and a line-defect waveguide in three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 235110 (2003).

[CrossRef]

M. Kanskar, P. Paddon, V. Pacradouni, R. Morin, A. Busch, J. F. Young, S. R. Johnson, J. MacKenzie, and T. Tiedje, “Observation of leaky slab modes in an air-bridged semiconductor waveguide with a two-dimensional photonic lattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1438–1440 (1997).

[CrossRef]

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, “Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171107 (2006).

[CrossRef]

R. W. Tjerkstra, F. B. Segerink, J. J. Kelly, and W. L. Vos, “Fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures by focused ion beam milling,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 973–977(2008).

[CrossRef]

M. Iida, M. Tani, K. Sakai, M. Watanabe, H. Kitahara, T. Tohme, and M. W. Takeda, “Planar defect modes excited at the band edge of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 73, 2355–2357 (2004).

[CrossRef]

P. Kopperschmidt, “Tetragonal photonic woodpile structures,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 729–734 (2003).

[CrossRef]

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, “Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171107 (2006).

[CrossRef]

D. Stieler, A. Barsic, G. Tuttle, M. Li, and K. M. Ho, “Effects of defect permittivity on resonant frequency and mode shape in the three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103109 (2009).

[CrossRef]

C. Sell, C. Christensen, J. Muehlmeier, G. Tuttle, Z. Y. Li, and K. M. Ho, “Waveguide networks in three-dimensional layer-by-layer photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4605–4607(2004).

[CrossRef]

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429, 538–542 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Ohlinger, F. Torres, Y. Lin, K. Lozano, D. Xu, and K. P. Chen, “Photonic crystals with defect structures fabricated through a combination of holographic lithography and two-photon lithography,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 073113 (2010).

[CrossRef]

Y. Lin and P. R. Herman, “Effect of structural variation on the photonic band gap in woodpile photonic crystal with body-centered-cubic symmetry,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063104(2005).

[CrossRef]

K. Ohlinger, F. Torres, Y. Lin, K. Lozano, D. Xu, and K. P. Chen, “Photonic crystals with defect structures fabricated through a combination of holographic lithography and two-photon lithography,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 073113 (2010).

[CrossRef]

M. Kanskar, P. Paddon, V. Pacradouni, R. Morin, A. Busch, J. F. Young, S. R. Johnson, J. MacKenzie, and T. Tiedje, “Observation of leaky slab modes in an air-bridged semiconductor waveguide with a two-dimensional photonic lattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1438–1440 (1997).

[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Donor and acceptor modes in photonic band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3380–3383(1991).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

E. Özbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, “Micromachined millimeter-wave photonic band-gap crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059–2061 (1994).

[CrossRef]

K. Aoki, H. T. Miyazaki, H. Hirayama, K. Inoshita, T. Baba, K. Sakoda, N. Shinya, and Y. Aoyagi, “Microassembly of semiconductor three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 2, 117–121 (2003).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. Noda, M. Imada, M. Okano, S. Ogawa, M. Mochizuki, and A. Chutinan, “Semiconductor three-dimensional and two-dimensional photonic crystals and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 726–735 (2002).

[CrossRef]

M. Kanskar, P. Paddon, V. Pacradouni, R. Morin, A. Busch, J. F. Young, S. R. Johnson, J. MacKenzie, and T. Tiedje, “Observation of leaky slab modes in an air-bridged semiconductor waveguide with a two-dimensional photonic lattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1438–1440 (1997).

[CrossRef]

C. Sell, C. Christensen, J. Muehlmeier, G. Tuttle, Z. Y. Li, and K. M. Ho, “Waveguide networks in three-dimensional layer-by-layer photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4605–4607(2004).

[CrossRef]

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nat. Mater. 8, 721–725 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

V. Ramanan, E. Nelson, A. Brzezinski, P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, “Three dimensional silicon-air photonic crystals with controlled defects using interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 173304 (2008).

[CrossRef]

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nat. Mater. 8, 721–725 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Ishizaki, M. Okano, and S. Noda, “Numerical investigation of emission in finite-sized three-dimensional photonic crystals with structural fluctuations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1157–1161 (2009).

[CrossRef]

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, “Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171107 (2006).

[CrossRef]

M. Okano and S. Noda, “Analysis of multimode point-defect cavities in three-dimensional photonic crystals using group theory in frequency and time domains,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 125105 (2004).

[CrossRef]

M. Okano, S. Kako, and S. Noda, “Coupling between a point-defect cavity and a line-defect waveguide in three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 235110 (2003).

[CrossRef]

M. Okano, A. Chutinan, and S. Noda, “Analysis and design of single-defect cavities in a three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 165211 (2002).

[CrossRef]

S. Noda, M. Imada, M. Okano, S. Ogawa, M. Mochizuki, and A. Chutinan, “Semiconductor three-dimensional and two-dimensional photonic crystals and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 726–735 (2002).

[CrossRef]

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, “Design for waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 2353–2356 (2000).

[CrossRef]

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289, 604–606 (2000).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. Noda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Sasaki, “New realization method for three-dimensional photonic crystal in optical wavelength region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L909–L912 (1996).

[CrossRef]

S. Noda, M. Imada, M. Okano, S. Ogawa, M. Mochizuki, and A. Chutinan, “Semiconductor three-dimensional and two-dimensional photonic crystals and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 726–735 (2002).

[CrossRef]

K. Ohlinger, F. Torres, Y. Lin, K. Lozano, D. Xu, and K. P. Chen, “Photonic crystals with defect structures fabricated through a combination of holographic lithography and two-photon lithography,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 073113 (2010).

[CrossRef]

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nat. Mater. 8, 721–725 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Ishizaki, M. Okano, and S. Noda, “Numerical investigation of emission in finite-sized three-dimensional photonic crystals with structural fluctuations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1157–1161 (2009).

[CrossRef]

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, “Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171107 (2006).

[CrossRef]

M. Okano and S. Noda, “Analysis of multimode point-defect cavities in three-dimensional photonic crystals using group theory in frequency and time domains,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 125105 (2004).

[CrossRef]

M. Okano, S. Kako, and S. Noda, “Coupling between a point-defect cavity and a line-defect waveguide in three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 235110 (2003).

[CrossRef]

M. Okano, A. Chutinan, and S. Noda, “Analysis and design of single-defect cavities in a three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 165211 (2002).

[CrossRef]

S. Noda, M. Imada, M. Okano, S. Ogawa, M. Mochizuki, and A. Chutinan, “Semiconductor three-dimensional and two-dimensional photonic crystals and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 726–735 (2002).

[CrossRef]

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702(2010).

[CrossRef]

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nat. Mater. 8, 721–725 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

E. Özbay, G. Tuttle, M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis, and K. M. Ho, “Defect structures in a layer-by-layer photonic band-gap crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 13961–13965 (1995).

[CrossRef]

E. Özbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, “Micromachined millimeter-wave photonic band-gap crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059–2061 (1994).

[CrossRef]

M. E. B. Özbay, “Dropping of electromagnetic waves through localized modes in three-dimensional photonic band gap structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4514–4516 (2002).

[CrossRef]

M. E. B. Özbay, B. Temelkuran, M. M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “Guiding, bending, and splitting of electromagnetic waves in highly confined photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 081107 (2001).

[CrossRef]

M. Kanskar, P. Paddon, V. Pacradouni, R. Morin, A. Busch, J. F. Young, S. R. Johnson, J. MacKenzie, and T. Tiedje, “Observation of leaky slab modes in an air-bridged semiconductor waveguide with a two-dimensional photonic lattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1438–1440 (1997).

[CrossRef]

M. Kanskar, P. Paddon, V. Pacradouni, R. Morin, A. Busch, J. F. Young, S. R. Johnson, J. MacKenzie, and T. Tiedje, “Observation of leaky slab modes in an air-bridged semiconductor waveguide with a two-dimensional photonic lattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1438–1440 (1997).

[CrossRef]

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429, 538–542 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429, 538–542 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

V. Ramanan, E. Nelson, A. Brzezinski, P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, “Three dimensional silicon-air photonic crystals with controlled defects using interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 173304 (2008).

[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Donor and acceptor modes in photonic band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3380–3383(1991).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. A. Rinne, F. Garcia-Santamaria, and P. V. Braun, “Embedded cavities and waveguides in three-dimensional silicon photonic crystals,” Nat. Photon. 2, 52–56 (2008).

[CrossRef]

P. V. Braun, S. A. Rinne, and F. Garcí-Santamaría, “Introducing defects in 3D photonic crystals: state of the art,” Adv. Mater. 18, 2665–2678 (2006).

[CrossRef]

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702(2010).

[CrossRef]

M. Iida, M. Tani, K. Sakai, M. Watanabe, H. Kitahara, T. Tohme, and M. W. Takeda, “Planar defect modes excited at the band edge of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 73, 2355–2357 (2004).

[CrossRef]

K. Aoki, H. T. Miyazaki, H. Hirayama, K. Inoshita, T. Baba, K. Sakoda, N. Shinya, and Y. Aoyagi, “Microassembly of semiconductor three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 2, 117–121 (2003).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

E. Istrate and E. H. Sargent, “Photonic crystal heterostructures—resonant tunnelling, waveguides and filters,” J. Opt. A 4, S242 (2002).

[CrossRef]

S. Noda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Sasaki, “New realization method for three-dimensional photonic crystal in optical wavelength region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L909–L912 (1996).

[CrossRef]

R. W. Tjerkstra, F. B. Segerink, J. J. Kelly, and W. L. Vos, “Fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures by focused ion beam milling,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 973–977(2008).

[CrossRef]

C. Sell, C. Christensen, J. Muehlmeier, G. Tuttle, Z. Y. Li, and K. M. Ho, “Waveguide networks in three-dimensional layer-by-layer photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4605–4607(2004).

[CrossRef]

K. Aoki, H. T. Miyazaki, H. Hirayama, K. Inoshita, T. Baba, K. Sakoda, N. Shinya, and Y. Aoyagi, “Microassembly of semiconductor three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 2, 117–121 (2003).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

E. Özbay, G. Tuttle, M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis, and K. M. Ho, “Defect structures in a layer-by-layer photonic band-gap crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 13961–13965 (1995).

[CrossRef]

E. Özbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, “Micromachined millimeter-wave photonic band-gap crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059–2061 (1994).

[CrossRef]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Commun. 89, 413–416 (1994).

[CrossRef]

M. E. B. Özbay, B. Temelkuran, M. M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “Guiding, bending, and splitting of electromagnetic waves in highly confined photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 081107 (2001).

[CrossRef]

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429, 538–542 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. E. B. Özbay, B. Temelkuran, M. M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “Guiding, bending, and splitting of electromagnetic waves in highly confined photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 081107 (2001).

[CrossRef]

E. Özbay, G. Tuttle, M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis, and K. M. Ho, “Defect structures in a layer-by-layer photonic band-gap crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 13961–13965 (1995).

[CrossRef]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Commun. 89, 413–416 (1994).

[CrossRef]

D. Stieler, A. Barsic, G. Tuttle, M. Li, and K. M. Ho, “Effects of defect permittivity on resonant frequency and mode shape in the three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103109 (2009).

[CrossRef]

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nat. Mater. 8, 721–725 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech, 2000).

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nat. Mater. 8, 721–725 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Iida, M. Tani, K. Sakai, M. Watanabe, H. Kitahara, T. Tohme, and M. W. Takeda, “Planar defect modes excited at the band edge of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 73, 2355–2357 (2004).

[CrossRef]

M. Iida, M. Tani, K. Sakai, M. Watanabe, H. Kitahara, T. Tohme, and M. W. Takeda, “Planar defect modes excited at the band edge of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 73, 2355–2357 (2004).

[CrossRef]

M. E. B. Özbay, B. Temelkuran, M. M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “Guiding, bending, and splitting of electromagnetic waves in highly confined photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 081107 (2001).

[CrossRef]

M. Kanskar, P. Paddon, V. Pacradouni, R. Morin, A. Busch, J. F. Young, S. R. Johnson, J. MacKenzie, and T. Tiedje, “Observation of leaky slab modes in an air-bridged semiconductor waveguide with a two-dimensional photonic lattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1438–1440 (1997).

[CrossRef]

R. W. Tjerkstra, F. B. Segerink, J. J. Kelly, and W. L. Vos, “Fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures by focused ion beam milling,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 973–977(2008).

[CrossRef]

M. Iida, M. Tani, K. Sakai, M. Watanabe, H. Kitahara, T. Tohme, and M. W. Takeda, “Planar defect modes excited at the band edge of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 73, 2355–2357 (2004).

[CrossRef]

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289, 604–606 (2000).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Ohlinger, F. Torres, Y. Lin, K. Lozano, D. Xu, and K. P. Chen, “Photonic crystals with defect structures fabricated through a combination of holographic lithography and two-photon lithography,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 073113 (2010).

[CrossRef]

D. Stieler, A. Barsic, G. Tuttle, M. Li, and K. M. Ho, “Effects of defect permittivity on resonant frequency and mode shape in the three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103109 (2009).

[CrossRef]

C. Sell, C. Christensen, J. Muehlmeier, G. Tuttle, Z. Y. Li, and K. M. Ho, “Waveguide networks in three-dimensional layer-by-layer photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4605–4607(2004).

[CrossRef]

E. Özbay, G. Tuttle, M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis, and K. M. Ho, “Defect structures in a layer-by-layer photonic band-gap crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 13961–13965 (1995).

[CrossRef]

E. Özbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, “Micromachined millimeter-wave photonic band-gap crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059–2061 (1994).

[CrossRef]

R. W. Tjerkstra, F. B. Segerink, J. J. Kelly, and W. L. Vos, “Fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures by focused ion beam milling,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 973–977(2008).

[CrossRef]

M. Iida, M. Tani, K. Sakai, M. Watanabe, H. Kitahara, T. Tohme, and M. W. Takeda, “Planar defect modes excited at the band edge of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 73, 2355–2357 (2004).

[CrossRef]

V. Ramanan, E. Nelson, A. Brzezinski, P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, “Three dimensional silicon-air photonic crystals with controlled defects using interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 173304 (2008).

[CrossRef]

K. Ohlinger, F. Torres, Y. Lin, K. Lozano, D. Xu, and K. P. Chen, “Photonic crystals with defect structures fabricated through a combination of holographic lithography and two-photon lithography,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 073113 (2010).

[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Donor and acceptor modes in photonic band structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3380–3383(1991).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062(1987).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289, 604–606 (2000).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. Noda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Sasaki, “New realization method for three-dimensional photonic crystal in optical wavelength region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L909–L912 (1996).

[CrossRef]

J. F. Chen, R. T. Hong, and J. Y. Yang, “Analysis of planar defect structures in three-dimensional layer-by-layer photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 063111 (2008).

[CrossRef]

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 14, 302–307 (1966).

[CrossRef]

M. Kanskar, P. Paddon, V. Pacradouni, R. Morin, A. Busch, J. F. Young, S. R. Johnson, J. MacKenzie, and T. Tiedje, “Observation of leaky slab modes in an air-bridged semiconductor waveguide with a two-dimensional photonic lattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1438–1440 (1997).

[CrossRef]

P. V. Braun, S. A. Rinne, and F. Garcí-Santamaría, “Introducing defects in 3D photonic crystals: state of the art,” Adv. Mater. 18, 2665–2678 (2006).

[CrossRef]

P. Kopperschmidt, “Tetragonal photonic woodpile structures,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 729–734 (2003).

[CrossRef]

M. Kanskar, P. Paddon, V. Pacradouni, R. Morin, A. Busch, J. F. Young, S. R. Johnson, J. MacKenzie, and T. Tiedje, “Observation of leaky slab modes in an air-bridged semiconductor waveguide with a two-dimensional photonic lattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1438–1440 (1997).

[CrossRef]

M. E. B. Özbay, “Dropping of electromagnetic waves through localized modes in three-dimensional photonic band gap structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4514–4516 (2002).

[CrossRef]

E. Özbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, “Micromachined millimeter-wave photonic band-gap crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059–2061 (1994).

[CrossRef]

C. Sell, C. Christensen, J. Muehlmeier, G. Tuttle, Z. Y. Li, and K. M. Ho, “Waveguide networks in three-dimensional layer-by-layer photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4605–4607(2004).

[CrossRef]

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, “Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171107 (2006).

[CrossRef]

V. Ramanan, E. Nelson, A. Brzezinski, P. V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, “Three dimensional silicon-air photonic crystals with controlled defects using interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 173304 (2008).

[CrossRef]

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702(2010).

[CrossRef]

S. Noda, M. Imada, M. Okano, S. Ogawa, M. Mochizuki, and A. Chutinan, “Semiconductor three-dimensional and two-dimensional photonic crystals and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 726–735 (2002).

[CrossRef]

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 14, 302–307 (1966).

[CrossRef]

D. Stieler, A. Barsic, G. Tuttle, M. Li, and K. M. Ho, “Effects of defect permittivity on resonant frequency and mode shape in the three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103109 (2009).

[CrossRef]

J. F. Chen, R. T. Hong, and J. Y. Yang, “Analysis of planar defect structures in three-dimensional layer-by-layer photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 063111 (2008).

[CrossRef]

K. Ohlinger, F. Torres, Y. Lin, K. Lozano, D. Xu, and K. P. Chen, “Photonic crystals with defect structures fabricated through a combination of holographic lithography and two-photon lithography,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 073113 (2010).

[CrossRef]

Y. Lin and P. R. Herman, “Effect of structural variation on the photonic band gap in woodpile photonic crystal with body-centered-cubic symmetry,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063104(2005).

[CrossRef]

J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185–200(1994).

[CrossRef]

E. Istrate and E. H. Sargent, “Photonic crystal heterostructures—resonant tunnelling, waveguides and filters,” J. Opt. A 4, S242 (2002).

[CrossRef]

D. J. Kan, A. A. Asatryan, C. G. Poulton, and L. C. Botten, “Multipole method for modeling linear defects in photonic woodpiles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 246–258 (2010).

[CrossRef]

Z.-Y. Li and K.-M. Ho, “Waveguides in three-dimensional layer-by-layer photonic crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 801–809 (2003).

[CrossRef]

K. Ishizaki, M. Okano, and S. Noda, “Numerical investigation of emission in finite-sized three-dimensional photonic crystals with structural fluctuations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1157–1161 (2009).

[CrossRef]

M. Iida, M. Tani, K. Sakai, M. Watanabe, H. Kitahara, T. Tohme, and M. W. Takeda, “Planar defect modes excited at the band edge of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 73, 2355–2357 (2004).

[CrossRef]

R. W. Tjerkstra, F. B. Segerink, J. J. Kelly, and W. L. Vos, “Fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures by focused ion beam milling,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 973–977(2008).

[CrossRef]

S. Noda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Sasaki, “New realization method for three-dimensional photonic crystal in optical wavelength region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L909–L912 (1996).

[CrossRef]

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, “Design for waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 2353–2356 (2000).

[CrossRef]

K. Aoki, H. T. Miyazaki, H. Hirayama, K. Inoshita, T. Baba, K. Sakoda, N. Shinya, and Y. Aoyagi, “Microassembly of semiconductor three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 2, 117–121 (2003).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nat. Mater. 8, 721–725 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. A. Rinne, F. Garcia-Santamaria, and P. V. Braun, “Embedded cavities and waveguides in three-dimensional silicon photonic crystals,” Nat. Photon. 2, 52–56 (2008).

[CrossRef]

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429, 538–542 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

E. Özbay, G. Tuttle, M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis, and K. M. Ho, “Defect structures in a layer-by-layer photonic band-gap crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 13961–13965 (1995).

[CrossRef]

M. Okano and S. Noda, “Analysis of multimode point-defect cavities in three-dimensional photonic crystals using group theory in frequency and time domains,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 125105 (2004).

[CrossRef]

M. Okano, A. Chutinan, and S. Noda, “Analysis and design of single-defect cavities in a three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 165211 (2002).

[CrossRef]

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