Abstract

High-frequency guided acoustic Brillouin modes have recently been observed in small-core silica photonic crystal fibers. In this paper, we investigate the temperature dependence of the optical sideband frequency generated by one of these guided acoustic waves. The experimental results show a temperature coefficient of 100kHz/°C at an acoustic resonance frequency of 1.15GHz and are in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions. This coefficient demonstrates a temperature sensitivity 10 times larger than that previously reported in conventional single-mode fibers, which is promising in view of potential applications to optical fiber sensors.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. Laude, A. Khelif, S. Benchabane, M. Wilm, T. Sylvestre, B. Kibler, A. Mussot, J. M. Dudley, and H. Maillotte, “Phononic band-gap guidance of acoustic modes in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Dainese, P. St. J. Russell, G. S. Wiederhecker, N. Joly, H. L. Fragnito, V. Laude, and A. Khelif, “Raman-like light scattering from acoustic phonons in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 14, 4141–4150 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Dainese, P. St. J. Russell, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, G. S. Wiederhecker, H. L. Fragnito, V. Laude, and A. Khelif, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering from multi-GHz-guided acoustic phonons in nanostructured photonic crystal fibres,” Nat. Phys. 2, 388–392 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J.-C. Beugnot, T. Sylvestre, H. Maillotte, G. Mélin, and V. Laude, “Guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32, 17–19 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Elser, U. L. Andersen, A. Korn, O. Glöckl, S. Lorenz, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Reduction of guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 133901 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. Shibata, A. Nakazono, N. Taguchi, and S. Tanaka, “Forward Brillouin scattering in holey fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 412–414 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. E. McElhenny, R. K. Pattnaik, J. Toulouse, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Unique characteristic features of stimulated Brillouin scattering in small-core photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 582–593 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Stiller, M. Delqué, J.-C. Beugnot, M. W. Lee, G. Mélin, H. Maillotte, V. Laude, and T. Sylvestre, “Frequency-selective excitation of guided acoustic modes in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 19, 7689–7694 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Tanaka and K. Ogusu, “Temperature coefficient of sideband frequencies produced by depolarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1769–1771 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Matsui, K. Nakajima, T. Sakamoto, K. Shiraki, and I. Sankawa, “Structural dependence of guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering spectra in hole-assisted fiber and its temperature dependence,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6912–6917(2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. Shelby, M. Levenson, and P. Bayer, “Guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 5244–5252 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Nishizawa, S. Kume, M. Mori, T. Goto, and A. Miyauchi, “Symmetric and asymmetric fiber loop mirrors for observing guided-acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering in polarization-maintaining fibers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1424–1426 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. N. Thurston, “Elastic waves in rods and clad rods,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 1–37 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. F. Zou, X. Y. Bao, V. S. Afshar, and L. Chen, “Dependence of the Brillouin frequency shift on strain and temperature in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1485–1487 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (4)

P. Dainese, P. St. J. Russell, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, G. S. Wiederhecker, H. L. Fragnito, V. Laude, and A. Khelif, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering from multi-GHz-guided acoustic phonons in nanostructured photonic crystal fibres,” Nat. Phys. 2, 388–392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Elser, U. L. Andersen, A. Korn, O. Glöckl, S. Lorenz, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Reduction of guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 133901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Shibata, A. Nakazono, N. Taguchi, and S. Tanaka, “Forward Brillouin scattering in holey fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 412–414 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Dainese, P. St. J. Russell, G. S. Wiederhecker, N. Joly, H. L. Fragnito, V. Laude, and A. Khelif, “Raman-like light scattering from acoustic phonons in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 14, 4141–4150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

V. Laude, A. Khelif, S. Benchabane, M. Wilm, T. Sylvestre, B. Kibler, A. Mussot, J. M. Dudley, and H. Maillotte, “Phononic band-gap guidance of acoustic modes in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

1998 (1)

Y. Tanaka and K. Ogusu, “Temperature coefficient of sideband frequencies produced by depolarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1769–1771 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1985 (1)

R. Shelby, M. Levenson, and P. Bayer, “Guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 5244–5252 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

R. N. Thurston, “Elastic waves in rods and clad rods,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 1–37 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Afshar, V. S.

Andersen, U. L.

D. Elser, U. L. Andersen, A. Korn, O. Glöckl, S. Lorenz, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Reduction of guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 133901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, X. Y.

Bayer, P.

R. Shelby, M. Levenson, and P. Bayer, “Guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 5244–5252 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Benchabane, S.

V. Laude, A. Khelif, S. Benchabane, M. Wilm, T. Sylvestre, B. Kibler, A. Mussot, J. M. Dudley, and H. Maillotte, “Phononic band-gap guidance of acoustic modes in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beugnot, J.-C.

Chen, L.

Dainese, P.

P. Dainese, P. St. J. Russell, G. S. Wiederhecker, N. Joly, H. L. Fragnito, V. Laude, and A. Khelif, “Raman-like light scattering from acoustic phonons in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 14, 4141–4150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dainese, P. St. J. Russell, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, G. S. Wiederhecker, H. L. Fragnito, V. Laude, and A. Khelif, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering from multi-GHz-guided acoustic phonons in nanostructured photonic crystal fibres,” Nat. Phys. 2, 388–392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Delqué, M.

Dudley, J. M.

V. Laude, A. Khelif, S. Benchabane, M. Wilm, T. Sylvestre, B. Kibler, A. Mussot, J. M. Dudley, and H. Maillotte, “Phononic band-gap guidance of acoustic modes in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Elser, D.

D. Elser, U. L. Andersen, A. Korn, O. Glöckl, S. Lorenz, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Reduction of guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 133901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fragnito, H. L.

P. Dainese, P. St. J. Russell, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, G. S. Wiederhecker, H. L. Fragnito, V. Laude, and A. Khelif, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering from multi-GHz-guided acoustic phonons in nanostructured photonic crystal fibres,” Nat. Phys. 2, 388–392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Dainese, P. St. J. Russell, G. S. Wiederhecker, N. Joly, H. L. Fragnito, V. Laude, and A. Khelif, “Raman-like light scattering from acoustic phonons in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 14, 4141–4150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glöckl, O.

D. Elser, U. L. Andersen, A. Korn, O. Glöckl, S. Lorenz, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Reduction of guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 133901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goto, T.

Joly, N.

P. Dainese, P. St. J. Russell, G. S. Wiederhecker, N. Joly, H. L. Fragnito, V. Laude, and A. Khelif, “Raman-like light scattering from acoustic phonons in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 14, 4141–4150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dainese, P. St. J. Russell, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, G. S. Wiederhecker, H. L. Fragnito, V. Laude, and A. Khelif, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering from multi-GHz-guided acoustic phonons in nanostructured photonic crystal fibres,” Nat. Phys. 2, 388–392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khelif, A.

P. Dainese, P. St. J. Russell, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, G. S. Wiederhecker, H. L. Fragnito, V. Laude, and A. Khelif, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering from multi-GHz-guided acoustic phonons in nanostructured photonic crystal fibres,” Nat. Phys. 2, 388–392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Dainese, P. St. J. Russell, G. S. Wiederhecker, N. Joly, H. L. Fragnito, V. Laude, and A. Khelif, “Raman-like light scattering from acoustic phonons in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 14, 4141–4150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Laude, A. Khelif, S. Benchabane, M. Wilm, T. Sylvestre, B. Kibler, A. Mussot, J. M. Dudley, and H. Maillotte, “Phononic band-gap guidance of acoustic modes in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kibler, B.

V. Laude, A. Khelif, S. Benchabane, M. Wilm, T. Sylvestre, B. Kibler, A. Mussot, J. M. Dudley, and H. Maillotte, “Phononic band-gap guidance of acoustic modes in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

P. Dainese, P. St. J. Russell, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, G. S. Wiederhecker, H. L. Fragnito, V. Laude, and A. Khelif, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering from multi-GHz-guided acoustic phonons in nanostructured photonic crystal fibres,” Nat. Phys. 2, 388–392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Korn, A.

D. Elser, U. L. Andersen, A. Korn, O. Glöckl, S. Lorenz, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Reduction of guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 133901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koshiba, M.

Kume, S.

Laude, V.

B. Stiller, M. Delqué, J.-C. Beugnot, M. W. Lee, G. Mélin, H. Maillotte, V. Laude, and T. Sylvestre, “Frequency-selective excitation of guided acoustic modes in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 19, 7689–7694 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-C. Beugnot, T. Sylvestre, H. Maillotte, G. Mélin, and V. Laude, “Guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32, 17–19 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Dainese, P. St. J. Russell, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, G. S. Wiederhecker, H. L. Fragnito, V. Laude, and A. Khelif, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering from multi-GHz-guided acoustic phonons in nanostructured photonic crystal fibres,” Nat. Phys. 2, 388–392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Dainese, P. St. J. Russell, G. S. Wiederhecker, N. Joly, H. L. Fragnito, V. Laude, and A. Khelif, “Raman-like light scattering from acoustic phonons in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 14, 4141–4150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Laude, A. Khelif, S. Benchabane, M. Wilm, T. Sylvestre, B. Kibler, A. Mussot, J. M. Dudley, and H. Maillotte, “Phononic band-gap guidance of acoustic modes in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. W.

Leuchs, G.

D. Elser, U. L. Andersen, A. Korn, O. Glöckl, S. Lorenz, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Reduction of guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 133901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levenson, M.

R. Shelby, M. Levenson, and P. Bayer, “Guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 5244–5252 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lorenz, S.

D. Elser, U. L. Andersen, A. Korn, O. Glöckl, S. Lorenz, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Reduction of guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 133901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maillotte, H.

Marquardt, C.

D. Elser, U. L. Andersen, A. Korn, O. Glöckl, S. Lorenz, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Reduction of guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 133901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsui, T.

McElhenny, J. E.

Mélin, G.

Miyauchi, A.

Mori, M.

Mussot, A.

V. Laude, A. Khelif, S. Benchabane, M. Wilm, T. Sylvestre, B. Kibler, A. Mussot, J. M. Dudley, and H. Maillotte, “Phononic band-gap guidance of acoustic modes in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, K.

Nakazono, A.

N. Shibata, A. Nakazono, N. Taguchi, and S. Tanaka, “Forward Brillouin scattering in holey fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 412–414 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nishizawa, N.

Ogusu, K.

Y. Tanaka and K. Ogusu, “Temperature coefficient of sideband frequencies produced by depolarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1769–1771 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pattnaik, R. K.

Russell, P. St. J.

P. Dainese, P. St. J. Russell, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, G. S. Wiederhecker, H. L. Fragnito, V. Laude, and A. Khelif, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering from multi-GHz-guided acoustic phonons in nanostructured photonic crystal fibres,” Nat. Phys. 2, 388–392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Dainese, P. St. J. Russell, G. S. Wiederhecker, N. Joly, H. L. Fragnito, V. Laude, and A. Khelif, “Raman-like light scattering from acoustic phonons in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 14, 4141–4150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saitoh, K.

Sakamoto, T.

Sankawa, I.

Shelby, R.

R. Shelby, M. Levenson, and P. Bayer, “Guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 5244–5252 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, N.

N. Shibata, A. Nakazono, N. Taguchi, and S. Tanaka, “Forward Brillouin scattering in holey fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 412–414 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shiraki, K.

Stiller, B.

Sylvestre, T.

Taguchi, N.

N. Shibata, A. Nakazono, N. Taguchi, and S. Tanaka, “Forward Brillouin scattering in holey fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 412–414 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, S.

N. Shibata, A. Nakazono, N. Taguchi, and S. Tanaka, “Forward Brillouin scattering in holey fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 412–414 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

Y. Tanaka and K. Ogusu, “Temperature coefficient of sideband frequencies produced by depolarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1769–1771 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thurston, R. N.

R. N. Thurston, “Elastic waves in rods and clad rods,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 1–37 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Toulouse, J.

Wiederhecker, G. S.

P. Dainese, P. St. J. Russell, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, G. S. Wiederhecker, H. L. Fragnito, V. Laude, and A. Khelif, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering from multi-GHz-guided acoustic phonons in nanostructured photonic crystal fibres,” Nat. Phys. 2, 388–392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Dainese, P. St. J. Russell, G. S. Wiederhecker, N. Joly, H. L. Fragnito, V. Laude, and A. Khelif, “Raman-like light scattering from acoustic phonons in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 14, 4141–4150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilm, M.

V. Laude, A. Khelif, S. Benchabane, M. Wilm, T. Sylvestre, B. Kibler, A. Mussot, J. M. Dudley, and H. Maillotte, “Phononic band-gap guidance of acoustic modes in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zou, L. F.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

N. Shibata, A. Nakazono, N. Taguchi, and S. Tanaka, “Forward Brillouin scattering in holey fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 412–414 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tanaka and K. Ogusu, “Temperature coefficient of sideband frequencies produced by depolarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1769–1771 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

R. N. Thurston, “Elastic waves in rods and clad rods,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 1–37 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Phys. (1)

P. Dainese, P. St. J. Russell, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, G. S. Wiederhecker, H. L. Fragnito, V. Laude, and A. Khelif, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering from multi-GHz-guided acoustic phonons in nanostructured photonic crystal fibres,” Nat. Phys. 2, 388–392 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

R. Shelby, M. Levenson, and P. Bayer, “Guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 5244–5252 (1985).
[CrossRef]

V. Laude, A. Khelif, S. Benchabane, M. Wilm, T. Sylvestre, B. Kibler, A. Mussot, J. M. Dudley, and H. Maillotte, “Phononic band-gap guidance of acoustic modes in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Elser, U. L. Andersen, A. Korn, O. Glöckl, S. Lorenz, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Reduction of guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 133901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for measuring the temperature coefficient of guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering in a photonic crystal fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimental results: RF spectrum recorded at room temperature showing the guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering spectrum with a dominant peak at 1.154 GHz . (b) Theoretical result: FEM-based numerical simulation of the elasto-optic coefficient κ 2 versus the acoustic frequency.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the cross-section of the photonic crystal fiber under test. (b) Numerical simulation of the single-mode output at 1550 nm . (c) Numerical calculations of the strain energy density distribution and (d) the kinetic energy density at 1.151 GHz .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Color plot: forward Brillouin spectra recorded in a range of 1.1 1.2 GHz for a temperature variation from 20 ° C to 60 ° C . (b) Plot of the main peak versus the temperature. The crosses and the solid line are the experimental data extracted from (a) and a linear fit, respectively. The slope of the solid line is 106 kHz / ° C .

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

κ = σ E i E j p i j k l S k l d x d y .
W S = 1 2 ( u x T x x + ν y T y y + ( u y + ν x ) T x y ) ,
E = 1 2 ρ w 2 ( u 2 + v 2 + w 2 ) .
f L = v s y m π d c ,
θ = 1 f L d f L d T = 1 v L d v L d T ,

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