Abstract

A variety of intensity-modulated optical displacement sensor architectures have been proposed for use in noncontacting sensing applications, with one of the most widely implemented architectures being the bundled displacement sensor. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the arrangement of measurement fibers in previously reported bundled displacement sensors has not been configured with the use of a validated optical transmission model. Such a model has utility in accurately describing the sensor’s performance a priori and thereby guides the arrangement of the fibers within the bundle to meet application-specific performance needs. In this paper, a recently validated transmission model is used for these purposes, and an optimization approach that employs a genetic algorithm efficiently explores the design space of the proposed bundle sensor architecture. From the converged output of the optimization routine, a bundled displacement sensor configuration is designed and experimentally tested, offering linear performance with a sensitivity of 0.066μm1 and displacement measurement error of 223μm over the axial displacement range of 68mm. It is shown that this optimization approach may be generalized to determine optimized bundle configurations that offer high-sensitivity performance, with an acceptable error level, over a variety of axial displacement ranges. This document has been approved by Los Alamos National Laboratory for unlimited public release (LA-UR 11-03413).

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (2)

E. A. Moro, M. D. Todd, and A. D. Puckett, “Performance characterization of an intensity modulated fiber optic displacement sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7753, 775368 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Moro, M. D. Todd, and A. D. Puckett, “Experimental validation and uncertainty quantification of a single mode optical fiber transmission model,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 856–863 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

A. Cabral and J. Rebordao, “Accuracy of frequency-sweeping interferometry for absolute distance metrology,” Opt. Eng. 46, 073602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

X. Li, K. Nakamura, and S. Ueha, “Reflectivity and illuminating power compensation for optical fibre vibrometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1773–1778 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. Zheng and S. Albin, “Self-referenced reflective intensity modulated fiber optic displacement sensor,” Opt. Eng. 38, 227–232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Suganuma, A. Shimamoto, and K. Tanaka, “Development of a differential optical-fiber displacement sensor,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1103–1109 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

A. Shimamoto and K. Tanaka, “Geometrical analysis of an optical fiber bundle displacement sensor,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6767–6774 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Kersey, “A review of recent developments in fiber optic sensor technology,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 291–317 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1991 (1)

G. He and F. W. Cuomo, “A light intensity function suitable for multimode fiber-optic sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 545–551 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

A. D. Kersey and A. Dandridge, “Applications of fiber-optic sensors,” IEEE Trans. Comp. Hybrids Manuf. Technol. 13, 137–143 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

Albin, S.

J. Zheng and S. Albin, “Self-referenced reflective intensity modulated fiber optic displacement sensor,” Opt. Eng. 38, 227–232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cabral, A.

A. Cabral and J. Rebordao, “Accuracy of frequency-sweeping interferometry for absolute distance metrology,” Opt. Eng. 46, 073602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cook, R. O.

Cuomo, F. W.

G. He and F. W. Cuomo, “A light intensity function suitable for multimode fiber-optic sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 545–551 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dandridge, A.

A. D. Kersey and A. Dandridge, “Applications of fiber-optic sensors,” IEEE Trans. Comp. Hybrids Manuf. Technol. 13, 137–143 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, D. E.

D. E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning (Addison-Wesley, 1989).

Hamm, C. W.

He, G.

G. He and F. W. Cuomo, “A light intensity function suitable for multimode fiber-optic sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 545–551 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, “A review of recent developments in fiber optic sensor technology,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 291–317 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey and A. Dandridge, “Applications of fiber-optic sensors,” IEEE Trans. Comp. Hybrids Manuf. Technol. 13, 137–143 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

X. Li, K. Nakamura, and S. Ueha, “Reflectivity and illuminating power compensation for optical fibre vibrometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1773–1778 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moro, E. A.

E. A. Moro, M. D. Todd, and A. D. Puckett, “Experimental validation and uncertainty quantification of a single mode optical fiber transmission model,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 856–863 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Moro, M. D. Todd, and A. D. Puckett, “Performance characterization of an intensity modulated fiber optic displacement sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7753, 775368 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K.

X. Li, K. Nakamura, and S. Ueha, “Reflectivity and illuminating power compensation for optical fibre vibrometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1773–1778 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Puckett, A. D.

E. A. Moro, M. D. Todd, and A. D. Puckett, “Experimental validation and uncertainty quantification of a single mode optical fiber transmission model,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 856–863 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Moro, M. D. Todd, and A. D. Puckett, “Performance characterization of an intensity modulated fiber optic displacement sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7753, 775368 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rebordao, J.

A. Cabral and J. Rebordao, “Accuracy of frequency-sweeping interferometry for absolute distance metrology,” Opt. Eng. 46, 073602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shimamoto, A.

St-Amant, Y.

Suganuma, F.

Tanaka, K.

Tata, U.

Todd, M. D.

E. A. Moro, M. D. Todd, and A. D. Puckett, “Experimental validation and uncertainty quantification of a single mode optical fiber transmission model,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 856–863 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Moro, M. D. Todd, and A. D. Puckett, “Performance characterization of an intensity modulated fiber optic displacement sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7753, 775368 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Trudel, V.

Ueha, S.

X. Li, K. Nakamura, and S. Ueha, “Reflectivity and illuminating power compensation for optical fibre vibrometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1773–1778 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J.

J. Zheng and S. Albin, “Self-referenced reflective intensity modulated fiber optic displacement sensor,” Opt. Eng. 38, 227–232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

IEEE Trans. Comp. Hybrids Manuf. Technol. (1)

A. D. Kersey and A. Dandridge, “Applications of fiber-optic sensors,” IEEE Trans. Comp. Hybrids Manuf. Technol. 13, 137–143 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

X. Li, K. Nakamura, and S. Ueha, “Reflectivity and illuminating power compensation for optical fibre vibrometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1773–1778 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

J. Zheng and S. Albin, “Self-referenced reflective intensity modulated fiber optic displacement sensor,” Opt. Eng. 38, 227–232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Cabral and J. Rebordao, “Accuracy of frequency-sweeping interferometry for absolute distance metrology,” Opt. Eng. 46, 073602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

A. D. Kersey, “A review of recent developments in fiber optic sensor technology,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 291–317 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

E. A. Moro, M. D. Todd, and A. D. Puckett, “Performance characterization of an intensity modulated fiber optic displacement sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7753, 775368 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

D. E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning (Addison-Wesley, 1989).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Example schematic for a differentially interrogated, bundled, intensity-modulated optical displacement sensor, based on the optical-lever architecture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The bundle configuration produced by the genetic algorithm is shown for a weight ratio a / b = 1.0 , with optimized performance for displacement modulated as the ratio P 1 / P 2 (left) and for displacement modulated as the ratio ( P 1 + P 2 ) / ( P 1 P 2 ) (right). The receiving fibers numbered 1 through 4 indicate the first through the fourth nearest neighbors, respectively, of the receiving fibers in Receiving Group 2 (left).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The output of the optimized sensor architecture corresponding to Fig. 2 (left) is shown as a function of axial displacement (a). The output of the optimized architecture corresponding to Fig. 2 (right) is shown as a basis for comparison (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Bundle configurations, optimized for performance over axial displacement ranges of 3.75 8.00 mm (left) and 3.45 3.55 mm (right), are shown here, calculated for a / b = 1.0 and a / b = 0.002 , respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The outputs of the optimized configurations given in Fig. 4 (left) and Fig. 4 (right) are shown as functions of axial displacement in (a) and (b), respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The separate numerator and denominator terms are shown here for the optimized sensor configuration for a / b = 1.0 and with an output of P 1 / P 2 .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optimized bundle configurations for a sensor output of P 1 / P 2 are shown for a / b = 0.03 (left) and for a / b = 10 (right).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The outputs of optimized sensor architectures with an output of P 1 / P 2 , calculated using a / b = 0.03 and a / b = 10 , are shown as functions of axial displacement. The corresponding least-squares linear fits are shown as dotted lines.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The outputs of bundle configurations that deviate slightly from the optimized bundle configuration are shown. The numbers of the alternate configurations correspond to the numbers of the nearest neighbor fibers in Fig. 2 (left).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

A histogram of cost values is calculated from a 1,000,000 trial Monte Carlo simulation using Eq. (1) with a / b = 1.0 and a sensor output of P 1 / P 2 . The tail of the histogram in (a) is shown in more detail in (b).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The actual bundle as manufactured and grouped differs slightly from the packing structure that was assumed during optimization. Compare this to the simulated, optimized architecture shown in Fig. 2 (left).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

The experimental setup used to test the optimized bundle configuration is shown here.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

A comparison between experimental results and simulation results shows reasonable agreement.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

The sensor output is shown as a function of axial displacement for varying transmission power levels. Note that the relationship between input and output is not robust to changes in the transmission power level.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Experimental P 1 (a) and P 2 (b) terms are shown while reducing the transmission power level from 4.0 to 3.3 mW . The noise floor of the DAQ system is also shown in relation to P 2 (b). For the sake of comparison, 95% of the 4.0 mW experimental data and 82.5% of the 4.0 mW experimental data are plotted in both graphs, which theoretically should correspond to transmission power levels of 3.8 and 3.3 mW , respectively.

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