Abstract

An alternative method for quantification of glistenings in intraocular lenses (IOLs) using an integrating sphere with an adjustable back aperture to remove ballistic photons is presented. Glistenings in soft IOLs have been known for more than a decade; however, their severity and visual impact are still under investigation. A number of studies have been made to quantitatively describe glistenings in IOLs. Quantization and precise grading of IOLs will provide needed information to evaluate the severity and visual impact of glistenings in patients. We investigated the use of a simple modification of an integrating-sphere method to eliminate ballistic photons to quantitatively measure scattered light from glistenings in IOLs. The method described in this paper provides a simple and effective way to quantitatively characterize glistenings in vitro. It may be especially useful to quantify scattering associated with low-grade glistenings where the density of the scattering centers is low. Finally, the modified integrating-sphere method may also be generally applicable to quantitatively characterize scattering from other optical media.

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. N. Ballin, “Glistenings in injection-molded lens,” J. Am. Intra-Ocul. Implant Soc. 10, 473 (1984).
  2. K. M. Klos, R. Richter, O. E. Schnaudigel, and C. Ohrloff, “Image analysis of implanted rigid and foldable intraocular lenses in human eyes using Scheimpflug photography,” Ophthalmic Res. 31, 130–133 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. Werner, “Glistenings and surface light scattering in intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36, 1398–1420(2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Tognetto, L. Toto, G. Sanguinetti, and G. Ravalico, “Glistenings in foldable intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 1211–1216 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Ayaki, H. Nishihara, S. Yaguchi, and R. Koide, “Surfactant induced glistenings: surface active ingredients in ophthalmic solutions may enhance water entry into the voids of implanted acrylic intraocular lenses,” J. Long-term Eff. Med. Implants 16, 451–457 (2006).
  6. S. Arshinoff, “Does a tight capsular bag cause glistenings?,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 24, 6 (1998).
    [PubMed]
  7. H. B. Dick, R. J. Olson, A. J. Augustin, O. Schwenn, G. Magdowski, and N. Pfeiffer, “Vacuoles in the AcrySof_ intraocular lens as factor of the presence of serum in aqueous humor,” Ophthal. Res. 33, 61–67 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Z. Gregori, T. S. Spencer, N. Mamalis, and R. J. Olson, “In vitro comparison of glistening formation among hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 1262–1268 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. K. Dhaliwal, N. Mamalis, R. J. Olson, A. S. Crandall, P. Zimmerman, O. C. Alldredge, F. J. Durcan, and O. Omar, “Visual significance of glistenings seen in the AcrySof intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 22, 452–457 (1996).
    [PubMed]
  10. G. Christiansen, F. J. Durcan, R. J. Olson, and K. Christiansen, “Glistenings in the AcrySof intraocular lens: pilot study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 27, 728–733 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Oshika, Y. Shiokawa, S. Amano, and K. Mitomo, “Influence of glistenings on the optical quality of acrylic foldable intraocular lens,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 1034–1037 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. U. Gunenc, F. H. Oner, S. Tongal, and M. Ferliel, “Effects on visual function of glistenings and folding marks in AcrySof intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 27, 1611–1614(2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Cisneros-Lanuza, M. Hurtado-Sarrio, A. Duch-Samper, R. Gallego-Pinazo, and J. L. Menezo-Rozale, “Glistenings in the Artiflex phakic intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33, 1405–1408 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. Wilkins and R. J. Olson, “Glistenings with long-term follow-up of the Surgidev B20/20 polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lens,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 132, 783–785(2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Waite, N. Faulkner, and R. J. Olson, “Glistenings in the single-piece, hydrophobic, acrylic intraocular lenses,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144, 143–144 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Behndig and E. Mönestam, “Quantification of glistenings in intraocular lenses using Scheimpflug photography,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35, 14–17 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. J. Mackool and J. Colin, “Limitations of Scheimpflug photography in quantifying glistenings,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35, 1480–1481 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

L. Werner, “Glistenings and surface light scattering in intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36, 1398–1420(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

A. Behndig and E. Mönestam, “Quantification of glistenings in intraocular lenses using Scheimpflug photography,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35, 14–17 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Mackool and J. Colin, “Limitations of Scheimpflug photography in quantifying glistenings,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35, 1480–1481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

A. Waite, N. Faulkner, and R. J. Olson, “Glistenings in the single-piece, hydrophobic, acrylic intraocular lenses,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144, 143–144 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cisneros-Lanuza, M. Hurtado-Sarrio, A. Duch-Samper, R. Gallego-Pinazo, and J. L. Menezo-Rozale, “Glistenings in the Artiflex phakic intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33, 1405–1408 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. Ayaki, H. Nishihara, S. Yaguchi, and R. Koide, “Surfactant induced glistenings: surface active ingredients in ophthalmic solutions may enhance water entry into the voids of implanted acrylic intraocular lenses,” J. Long-term Eff. Med. Implants 16, 451–457 (2006).

2002 (2)

N. Z. Gregori, T. S. Spencer, N. Mamalis, and R. J. Olson, “In vitro comparison of glistening formation among hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 1262–1268 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Tognetto, L. Toto, G. Sanguinetti, and G. Ravalico, “Glistenings in foldable intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 1211–1216 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (5)

E. Wilkins and R. J. Olson, “Glistenings with long-term follow-up of the Surgidev B20/20 polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lens,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 132, 783–785(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Christiansen, F. J. Durcan, R. J. Olson, and K. Christiansen, “Glistenings in the AcrySof intraocular lens: pilot study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 27, 728–733 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Oshika, Y. Shiokawa, S. Amano, and K. Mitomo, “Influence of glistenings on the optical quality of acrylic foldable intraocular lens,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 1034–1037 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Gunenc, F. H. Oner, S. Tongal, and M. Ferliel, “Effects on visual function of glistenings and folding marks in AcrySof intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 27, 1611–1614(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. B. Dick, R. J. Olson, A. J. Augustin, O. Schwenn, G. Magdowski, and N. Pfeiffer, “Vacuoles in the AcrySof_ intraocular lens as factor of the presence of serum in aqueous humor,” Ophthal. Res. 33, 61–67 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. M. Klos, R. Richter, O. E. Schnaudigel, and C. Ohrloff, “Image analysis of implanted rigid and foldable intraocular lenses in human eyes using Scheimpflug photography,” Ophthalmic Res. 31, 130–133 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

S. Arshinoff, “Does a tight capsular bag cause glistenings?,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 24, 6 (1998).
[PubMed]

1996 (1)

D. K. Dhaliwal, N. Mamalis, R. J. Olson, A. S. Crandall, P. Zimmerman, O. C. Alldredge, F. J. Durcan, and O. Omar, “Visual significance of glistenings seen in the AcrySof intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 22, 452–457 (1996).
[PubMed]

1984 (1)

N. Ballin, “Glistenings in injection-molded lens,” J. Am. Intra-Ocul. Implant Soc. 10, 473 (1984).

Alldredge, O. C.

D. K. Dhaliwal, N. Mamalis, R. J. Olson, A. S. Crandall, P. Zimmerman, O. C. Alldredge, F. J. Durcan, and O. Omar, “Visual significance of glistenings seen in the AcrySof intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 22, 452–457 (1996).
[PubMed]

Amano, S.

T. Oshika, Y. Shiokawa, S. Amano, and K. Mitomo, “Influence of glistenings on the optical quality of acrylic foldable intraocular lens,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 1034–1037 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arshinoff, S.

S. Arshinoff, “Does a tight capsular bag cause glistenings?,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 24, 6 (1998).
[PubMed]

Augustin, A. J.

H. B. Dick, R. J. Olson, A. J. Augustin, O. Schwenn, G. Magdowski, and N. Pfeiffer, “Vacuoles in the AcrySof_ intraocular lens as factor of the presence of serum in aqueous humor,” Ophthal. Res. 33, 61–67 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ayaki, M.

M. Ayaki, H. Nishihara, S. Yaguchi, and R. Koide, “Surfactant induced glistenings: surface active ingredients in ophthalmic solutions may enhance water entry into the voids of implanted acrylic intraocular lenses,” J. Long-term Eff. Med. Implants 16, 451–457 (2006).

Ballin, N.

N. Ballin, “Glistenings in injection-molded lens,” J. Am. Intra-Ocul. Implant Soc. 10, 473 (1984).

Behndig, A.

A. Behndig and E. Mönestam, “Quantification of glistenings in intraocular lenses using Scheimpflug photography,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35, 14–17 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Christiansen, G.

G. Christiansen, F. J. Durcan, R. J. Olson, and K. Christiansen, “Glistenings in the AcrySof intraocular lens: pilot study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 27, 728–733 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christiansen, K.

G. Christiansen, F. J. Durcan, R. J. Olson, and K. Christiansen, “Glistenings in the AcrySof intraocular lens: pilot study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 27, 728–733 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cisneros-Lanuza, A.

A. Cisneros-Lanuza, M. Hurtado-Sarrio, A. Duch-Samper, R. Gallego-Pinazo, and J. L. Menezo-Rozale, “Glistenings in the Artiflex phakic intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33, 1405–1408 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colin, J.

R. J. Mackool and J. Colin, “Limitations of Scheimpflug photography in quantifying glistenings,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35, 1480–1481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crandall, A. S.

D. K. Dhaliwal, N. Mamalis, R. J. Olson, A. S. Crandall, P. Zimmerman, O. C. Alldredge, F. J. Durcan, and O. Omar, “Visual significance of glistenings seen in the AcrySof intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 22, 452–457 (1996).
[PubMed]

Dhaliwal, D. K.

D. K. Dhaliwal, N. Mamalis, R. J. Olson, A. S. Crandall, P. Zimmerman, O. C. Alldredge, F. J. Durcan, and O. Omar, “Visual significance of glistenings seen in the AcrySof intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 22, 452–457 (1996).
[PubMed]

Dick, H. B.

H. B. Dick, R. J. Olson, A. J. Augustin, O. Schwenn, G. Magdowski, and N. Pfeiffer, “Vacuoles in the AcrySof_ intraocular lens as factor of the presence of serum in aqueous humor,” Ophthal. Res. 33, 61–67 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Duch-Samper, A.

A. Cisneros-Lanuza, M. Hurtado-Sarrio, A. Duch-Samper, R. Gallego-Pinazo, and J. L. Menezo-Rozale, “Glistenings in the Artiflex phakic intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33, 1405–1408 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durcan, F. J.

G. Christiansen, F. J. Durcan, R. J. Olson, and K. Christiansen, “Glistenings in the AcrySof intraocular lens: pilot study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 27, 728–733 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Dhaliwal, N. Mamalis, R. J. Olson, A. S. Crandall, P. Zimmerman, O. C. Alldredge, F. J. Durcan, and O. Omar, “Visual significance of glistenings seen in the AcrySof intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 22, 452–457 (1996).
[PubMed]

Faulkner, N.

A. Waite, N. Faulkner, and R. J. Olson, “Glistenings in the single-piece, hydrophobic, acrylic intraocular lenses,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144, 143–144 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferliel, M.

U. Gunenc, F. H. Oner, S. Tongal, and M. Ferliel, “Effects on visual function of glistenings and folding marks in AcrySof intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 27, 1611–1614(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallego-Pinazo, R.

A. Cisneros-Lanuza, M. Hurtado-Sarrio, A. Duch-Samper, R. Gallego-Pinazo, and J. L. Menezo-Rozale, “Glistenings in the Artiflex phakic intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33, 1405–1408 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregori, N. Z.

N. Z. Gregori, T. S. Spencer, N. Mamalis, and R. J. Olson, “In vitro comparison of glistening formation among hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 1262–1268 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gunenc, U.

U. Gunenc, F. H. Oner, S. Tongal, and M. Ferliel, “Effects on visual function of glistenings and folding marks in AcrySof intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 27, 1611–1614(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurtado-Sarrio, M.

A. Cisneros-Lanuza, M. Hurtado-Sarrio, A. Duch-Samper, R. Gallego-Pinazo, and J. L. Menezo-Rozale, “Glistenings in the Artiflex phakic intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33, 1405–1408 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klos, K. M.

K. M. Klos, R. Richter, O. E. Schnaudigel, and C. Ohrloff, “Image analysis of implanted rigid and foldable intraocular lenses in human eyes using Scheimpflug photography,” Ophthalmic Res. 31, 130–133 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koide, R.

M. Ayaki, H. Nishihara, S. Yaguchi, and R. Koide, “Surfactant induced glistenings: surface active ingredients in ophthalmic solutions may enhance water entry into the voids of implanted acrylic intraocular lenses,” J. Long-term Eff. Med. Implants 16, 451–457 (2006).

Mackool, R. J.

R. J. Mackool and J. Colin, “Limitations of Scheimpflug photography in quantifying glistenings,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35, 1480–1481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magdowski, G.

H. B. Dick, R. J. Olson, A. J. Augustin, O. Schwenn, G. Magdowski, and N. Pfeiffer, “Vacuoles in the AcrySof_ intraocular lens as factor of the presence of serum in aqueous humor,” Ophthal. Res. 33, 61–67 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mamalis, N.

N. Z. Gregori, T. S. Spencer, N. Mamalis, and R. J. Olson, “In vitro comparison of glistening formation among hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 1262–1268 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Dhaliwal, N. Mamalis, R. J. Olson, A. S. Crandall, P. Zimmerman, O. C. Alldredge, F. J. Durcan, and O. Omar, “Visual significance of glistenings seen in the AcrySof intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 22, 452–457 (1996).
[PubMed]

Menezo-Rozale, J. L.

A. Cisneros-Lanuza, M. Hurtado-Sarrio, A. Duch-Samper, R. Gallego-Pinazo, and J. L. Menezo-Rozale, “Glistenings in the Artiflex phakic intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33, 1405–1408 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitomo, K.

T. Oshika, Y. Shiokawa, S. Amano, and K. Mitomo, “Influence of glistenings on the optical quality of acrylic foldable intraocular lens,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 1034–1037 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mönestam, E.

A. Behndig and E. Mönestam, “Quantification of glistenings in intraocular lenses using Scheimpflug photography,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35, 14–17 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, H.

M. Ayaki, H. Nishihara, S. Yaguchi, and R. Koide, “Surfactant induced glistenings: surface active ingredients in ophthalmic solutions may enhance water entry into the voids of implanted acrylic intraocular lenses,” J. Long-term Eff. Med. Implants 16, 451–457 (2006).

Ohrloff, C.

K. M. Klos, R. Richter, O. E. Schnaudigel, and C. Ohrloff, “Image analysis of implanted rigid and foldable intraocular lenses in human eyes using Scheimpflug photography,” Ophthalmic Res. 31, 130–133 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olson, R. J.

A. Waite, N. Faulkner, and R. J. Olson, “Glistenings in the single-piece, hydrophobic, acrylic intraocular lenses,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144, 143–144 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Z. Gregori, T. S. Spencer, N. Mamalis, and R. J. Olson, “In vitro comparison of glistening formation among hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 1262–1268 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Christiansen, F. J. Durcan, R. J. Olson, and K. Christiansen, “Glistenings in the AcrySof intraocular lens: pilot study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 27, 728–733 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Wilkins and R. J. Olson, “Glistenings with long-term follow-up of the Surgidev B20/20 polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lens,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 132, 783–785(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. B. Dick, R. J. Olson, A. J. Augustin, O. Schwenn, G. Magdowski, and N. Pfeiffer, “Vacuoles in the AcrySof_ intraocular lens as factor of the presence of serum in aqueous humor,” Ophthal. Res. 33, 61–67 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Dhaliwal, N. Mamalis, R. J. Olson, A. S. Crandall, P. Zimmerman, O. C. Alldredge, F. J. Durcan, and O. Omar, “Visual significance of glistenings seen in the AcrySof intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 22, 452–457 (1996).
[PubMed]

Omar, O.

D. K. Dhaliwal, N. Mamalis, R. J. Olson, A. S. Crandall, P. Zimmerman, O. C. Alldredge, F. J. Durcan, and O. Omar, “Visual significance of glistenings seen in the AcrySof intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 22, 452–457 (1996).
[PubMed]

Oner, F. H.

U. Gunenc, F. H. Oner, S. Tongal, and M. Ferliel, “Effects on visual function of glistenings and folding marks in AcrySof intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 27, 1611–1614(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oshika, T.

T. Oshika, Y. Shiokawa, S. Amano, and K. Mitomo, “Influence of glistenings on the optical quality of acrylic foldable intraocular lens,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 1034–1037 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, N.

H. B. Dick, R. J. Olson, A. J. Augustin, O. Schwenn, G. Magdowski, and N. Pfeiffer, “Vacuoles in the AcrySof_ intraocular lens as factor of the presence of serum in aqueous humor,” Ophthal. Res. 33, 61–67 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ravalico, G.

D. Tognetto, L. Toto, G. Sanguinetti, and G. Ravalico, “Glistenings in foldable intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 1211–1216 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, R.

K. M. Klos, R. Richter, O. E. Schnaudigel, and C. Ohrloff, “Image analysis of implanted rigid and foldable intraocular lenses in human eyes using Scheimpflug photography,” Ophthalmic Res. 31, 130–133 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanguinetti, G.

D. Tognetto, L. Toto, G. Sanguinetti, and G. Ravalico, “Glistenings in foldable intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 1211–1216 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnaudigel, O. E.

K. M. Klos, R. Richter, O. E. Schnaudigel, and C. Ohrloff, “Image analysis of implanted rigid and foldable intraocular lenses in human eyes using Scheimpflug photography,” Ophthalmic Res. 31, 130–133 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwenn, O.

H. B. Dick, R. J. Olson, A. J. Augustin, O. Schwenn, G. Magdowski, and N. Pfeiffer, “Vacuoles in the AcrySof_ intraocular lens as factor of the presence of serum in aqueous humor,” Ophthal. Res. 33, 61–67 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shiokawa, Y.

T. Oshika, Y. Shiokawa, S. Amano, and K. Mitomo, “Influence of glistenings on the optical quality of acrylic foldable intraocular lens,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 1034–1037 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spencer, T. S.

N. Z. Gregori, T. S. Spencer, N. Mamalis, and R. J. Olson, “In vitro comparison of glistening formation among hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 1262–1268 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tognetto, D.

D. Tognetto, L. Toto, G. Sanguinetti, and G. Ravalico, “Glistenings in foldable intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 1211–1216 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tongal, S.

U. Gunenc, F. H. Oner, S. Tongal, and M. Ferliel, “Effects on visual function of glistenings and folding marks in AcrySof intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 27, 1611–1614(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toto, L.

D. Tognetto, L. Toto, G. Sanguinetti, and G. Ravalico, “Glistenings in foldable intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 1211–1216 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waite, A.

A. Waite, N. Faulkner, and R. J. Olson, “Glistenings in the single-piece, hydrophobic, acrylic intraocular lenses,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144, 143–144 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, L.

L. Werner, “Glistenings and surface light scattering in intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36, 1398–1420(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilkins, E.

E. Wilkins and R. J. Olson, “Glistenings with long-term follow-up of the Surgidev B20/20 polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lens,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 132, 783–785(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yaguchi, S.

M. Ayaki, H. Nishihara, S. Yaguchi, and R. Koide, “Surfactant induced glistenings: surface active ingredients in ophthalmic solutions may enhance water entry into the voids of implanted acrylic intraocular lenses,” J. Long-term Eff. Med. Implants 16, 451–457 (2006).

Zimmerman, P.

D. K. Dhaliwal, N. Mamalis, R. J. Olson, A. S. Crandall, P. Zimmerman, O. C. Alldredge, F. J. Durcan, and O. Omar, “Visual significance of glistenings seen in the AcrySof intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 22, 452–457 (1996).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

E. Wilkins and R. J. Olson, “Glistenings with long-term follow-up of the Surgidev B20/20 polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lens,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 132, 783–785(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Waite, N. Faulkner, and R. J. Olson, “Glistenings in the single-piece, hydrophobic, acrylic intraocular lenses,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 144, 143–144 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

T. Oshika, Y. Shiokawa, S. Amano, and K. Mitomo, “Influence of glistenings on the optical quality of acrylic foldable intraocular lens,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 1034–1037 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Intra-Ocul. Implant Soc. (1)

N. Ballin, “Glistenings in injection-molded lens,” J. Am. Intra-Ocul. Implant Soc. 10, 473 (1984).

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (10)

L. Werner, “Glistenings and surface light scattering in intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36, 1398–1420(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Tognetto, L. Toto, G. Sanguinetti, and G. Ravalico, “Glistenings in foldable intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 1211–1216 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Arshinoff, “Does a tight capsular bag cause glistenings?,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 24, 6 (1998).
[PubMed]

N. Z. Gregori, T. S. Spencer, N. Mamalis, and R. J. Olson, “In vitro comparison of glistening formation among hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 1262–1268 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Dhaliwal, N. Mamalis, R. J. Olson, A. S. Crandall, P. Zimmerman, O. C. Alldredge, F. J. Durcan, and O. Omar, “Visual significance of glistenings seen in the AcrySof intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 22, 452–457 (1996).
[PubMed]

G. Christiansen, F. J. Durcan, R. J. Olson, and K. Christiansen, “Glistenings in the AcrySof intraocular lens: pilot study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 27, 728–733 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Gunenc, F. H. Oner, S. Tongal, and M. Ferliel, “Effects on visual function of glistenings and folding marks in AcrySof intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 27, 1611–1614(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cisneros-Lanuza, M. Hurtado-Sarrio, A. Duch-Samper, R. Gallego-Pinazo, and J. L. Menezo-Rozale, “Glistenings in the Artiflex phakic intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33, 1405–1408 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Behndig and E. Mönestam, “Quantification of glistenings in intraocular lenses using Scheimpflug photography,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35, 14–17 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Mackool and J. Colin, “Limitations of Scheimpflug photography in quantifying glistenings,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35, 1480–1481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Long-term Eff. Med. Implants (1)

M. Ayaki, H. Nishihara, S. Yaguchi, and R. Koide, “Surfactant induced glistenings: surface active ingredients in ophthalmic solutions may enhance water entry into the voids of implanted acrylic intraocular lenses,” J. Long-term Eff. Med. Implants 16, 451–457 (2006).

Ophthal. Res. (1)

H. B. Dick, R. J. Olson, A. J. Augustin, O. Schwenn, G. Magdowski, and N. Pfeiffer, “Vacuoles in the AcrySof_ intraocular lens as factor of the presence of serum in aqueous humor,” Ophthal. Res. 33, 61–67 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmic Res. (1)

K. M. Klos, R. Richter, O. E. Schnaudigel, and C. Ohrloff, “Image analysis of implanted rigid and foldable intraocular lenses in human eyes using Scheimpflug photography,” Ophthalmic Res. 31, 130–133 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Screen capture of the Zemax simulation. Illustrations of ballistic photon and scattered photon paths (solid and dashed arrows represent ballistic and scattered photon paths, respectively) for (b) an IOL with f = 100 mm , (c) an IOL with f = 20 mm , and (d) an IOL with f = 20 mm with a beam stopper (BS) placed at the focal spot. DET represents the photo detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic arrangement of the measurement setup using an integrating sphere.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

BRIM arrangement using a stainless steel tube as a ballistic-photon removing tool.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Microscopic images of different IOLs: (a) IOL #8 (manufacturer grade 1), (b) IOL #5 (manufacturer grade 2), (c) IOL #3 (manufacturer grade 3), and (d) IOL #1 (manufacturer grade 4).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of IOL Samples

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of Results Using Integrating-Sphere Method

Tables Icon

Table 3 Summary of Results Using BRIM

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

DS = S T × 100 ( % ) .
NS = S T ,

Metrics