Abstract

Computer-generated holograms are generated by three-dimensional technology, and they can be used to reconstruct natural and virtual objects by simulating light waves based on holography. This research was an improvement on previous work that took into consideration reflectance distributions from the various roughnesses of objects. The previous work generated roughness by using a simple model, so that only simple roughness was generated. The proposed method generated more complex roughness than that in the previous work, and the influence of roughness on the reflectance distributions was investigated. Computer simulations, which were compared with the reflectance distributions from the various roughnesses, were carried out. Moreover, computational and optical reconstructions were carried out as examples of reconstructions. As a result of the experiments, we confirmed that the various roughnesses actually influenced the reflectance distributions.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. P. Waters, “Holographic image synthesis utilizing theoretical methods,” Appl. Phys.9, 405–407 (1966).0340-3793
  2. K. Yamaguchi and Y. Sakamoto, “Computer generated hologram with characteristics of reflection: reflectance distributions and reflected images,” Appl. Opt.48, H203–H211 (2009).0003-6935
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Matsushima and A. Kondoh, “A wave-optical algorithm for hidden-surface removal in digitally synthetic full-parallax holograms for three-dimensional objects,” Proc. SPIE0277-786X5290, 90–97 (2004).
  4. K. Matsushima, “Computer-generated holograms for three-dimensional surface objects with shade and texture,” Appl. Opt.44, 4607–4614 (2005).0003-6935
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Sakamoto and Y. Yamashita, “An algorithm for object-light calculation considering reflectance distribution for computer-generated holograms,” J. Inst. Image Inf. Television Eng.56, 611–616 (2002).
  6. H. Nishi, K. Higashi, Y. Arima, K. Matsushima, and S. Nakahara, “New techniques for wave-field rendering of polygon-based high-definition CGHs,” Proc. SPIE0277-786X7957, 79571A (2011).
  7. Y. Sakamoto and A. Tsuruno, “A representation method for object surface glossiness in computer-generated hologram,” IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst.0916-85322, 2046–2053 (2005).
  8. H. Kim, J. Hahn, and B. Lee, “Mathematical modeling of triangle-mesh-modeled three-dimensional surface objects for digital holography,” Appl. Opt.47, D117–D127 (2008).0003-6935
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. J. F. Blinn, “Models of light reflection for computer synthesized pictures,” Comp. Graphics0097-893011, 192–198 (1977).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

H. Nishi, K. Higashi, Y. Arima, K. Matsushima, and S. Nakahara, “New techniques for wave-field rendering of polygon-based high-definition CGHs,” Proc. SPIE0277-786X7957, 79571A (2011).

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2005 (2)

Y. Sakamoto and A. Tsuruno, “A representation method for object surface glossiness in computer-generated hologram,” IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst.0916-85322, 2046–2053 (2005).

K. Matsushima, “Computer-generated holograms for three-dimensional surface objects with shade and texture,” Appl. Opt.44, 4607–4614 (2005).0003-6935
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. Matsushima and A. Kondoh, “A wave-optical algorithm for hidden-surface removal in digitally synthetic full-parallax holograms for three-dimensional objects,” Proc. SPIE0277-786X5290, 90–97 (2004).

2002 (1)

Y. Sakamoto and Y. Yamashita, “An algorithm for object-light calculation considering reflectance distribution for computer-generated holograms,” J. Inst. Image Inf. Television Eng.56, 611–616 (2002).

1991 (1)

1982 (1)

R. L. Cook and K. E. Torrance, “A reflectance model for computer graphics,” ACM Trans. Graph.1, 7–24 (1982).0730-0301
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

J. F. Blinn, “Models of light reflection for computer synthesized pictures,” Comp. Graphics0097-893011, 192–198 (1977).

1975 (1)

B. T. Phong, “Illumination for computer generated pictures,” Commun. ACM18, 311–317 (1975).0001-0782
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

1966 (1)

J. P. Waters, “Holographic image synthesis utilizing theoretical methods,” Appl. Phys.9, 405–407 (1966).0340-3793

Arima, Y.

H. Nishi, K. Higashi, Y. Arima, K. Matsushima, and S. Nakahara, “New techniques for wave-field rendering of polygon-based high-definition CGHs,” Proc. SPIE0277-786X7957, 79571A (2011).

Blinn, J. F.

J. F. Blinn, “Models of light reflection for computer synthesized pictures,” Comp. Graphics0097-893011, 192–198 (1977).

Bräuer, R.

Bryngdahl, O.

Cook, R. L.

R. L. Cook and K. E. Torrance, “A reflectance model for computer graphics,” ACM Trans. Graph.1, 7–24 (1982).0730-0301
[CrossRef]

Hahn, J.

Higashi, K.

H. Nishi, K. Higashi, Y. Arima, K. Matsushima, and S. Nakahara, “New techniques for wave-field rendering of polygon-based high-definition CGHs,” Proc. SPIE0277-786X7957, 79571A (2011).

Kim, H.

Kondoh, A.

K. Matsushima and A. Kondoh, “A wave-optical algorithm for hidden-surface removal in digitally synthetic full-parallax holograms for three-dimensional objects,” Proc. SPIE0277-786X5290, 90–97 (2004).

Lee, B.

Matsushima, K.

H. Nishi, K. Higashi, Y. Arima, K. Matsushima, and S. Nakahara, “New techniques for wave-field rendering of polygon-based high-definition CGHs,” Proc. SPIE0277-786X7957, 79571A (2011).

K. Matsushima, “Shifted angular spectrum method for off-axis numerical propagation,” Opt. Express18, 18453–18463 (2010).1094-4087
[CrossRef]

K. Matsushima, “Computer-generated holograms for three-dimensional surface objects with shade and texture,” Appl. Opt.44, 4607–4614 (2005).0003-6935
[CrossRef]

K. Matsushima and A. Kondoh, “A wave-optical algorithm for hidden-surface removal in digitally synthetic full-parallax holograms for three-dimensional objects,” Proc. SPIE0277-786X5290, 90–97 (2004).

Nakahara, S.

H. Nishi, K. Higashi, Y. Arima, K. Matsushima, and S. Nakahara, “New techniques for wave-field rendering of polygon-based high-definition CGHs,” Proc. SPIE0277-786X7957, 79571A (2011).

Nishi, H.

H. Nishi, K. Higashi, Y. Arima, K. Matsushima, and S. Nakahara, “New techniques for wave-field rendering of polygon-based high-definition CGHs,” Proc. SPIE0277-786X7957, 79571A (2011).

Phong, B. T.

B. T. Phong, “Illumination for computer generated pictures,” Commun. ACM18, 311–317 (1975).0001-0782
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, Y.

K. Yamaguchi and Y. Sakamoto, “Computer generated hologram with characteristics of reflection: reflectance distributions and reflected images,” Appl. Opt.48, H203–H211 (2009).0003-6935
[CrossRef]

Y. Sakamoto and A. Tsuruno, “A representation method for object surface glossiness in computer-generated hologram,” IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst.0916-85322, 2046–2053 (2005).

Y. Sakamoto and Y. Yamashita, “An algorithm for object-light calculation considering reflectance distribution for computer-generated holograms,” J. Inst. Image Inf. Television Eng.56, 611–616 (2002).

Sparrow, E. M.

Torrance, K. E.

R. L. Cook and K. E. Torrance, “A reflectance model for computer graphics,” ACM Trans. Graph.1, 7–24 (1982).0730-0301
[CrossRef]

K. E. Torrance and E. M. Sparrow, “Theory for off-specular reflection from roughened surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.57, 1105–1112 (1967).0030-3941
[CrossRef]

Tsuruno, A.

Y. Sakamoto and A. Tsuruno, “A representation method for object surface glossiness in computer-generated hologram,” IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst.0916-85322, 2046–2053 (2005).

Waters, J. P.

J. P. Waters, “Holographic image synthesis utilizing theoretical methods,” Appl. Phys.9, 405–407 (1966).0340-3793

Wyrowski, F.

Yamaguchi, K.

Yamashita, Y.

Y. Sakamoto and Y. Yamashita, “An algorithm for object-light calculation considering reflectance distribution for computer-generated holograms,” J. Inst. Image Inf. Television Eng.56, 611–616 (2002).

ACM Trans. Graph. (1)

R. L. Cook and K. E. Torrance, “A reflectance model for computer graphics,” ACM Trans. Graph.1, 7–24 (1982).0730-0301
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. (1)

J. P. Waters, “Holographic image synthesis utilizing theoretical methods,” Appl. Phys.9, 405–407 (1966).0340-3793

Commun. ACM (1)

B. T. Phong, “Illumination for computer generated pictures,” Commun. ACM18, 311–317 (1975).0001-0782
[CrossRef]

Comp. Graphics (1)

J. F. Blinn, “Models of light reflection for computer synthesized pictures,” Comp. Graphics0097-893011, 192–198 (1977).

IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst. (1)

Y. Sakamoto and A. Tsuruno, “A representation method for object surface glossiness in computer-generated hologram,” IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst.0916-85322, 2046–2053 (2005).

J. Inst. Image Inf. Television Eng. (1)

Y. Sakamoto and Y. Yamashita, “An algorithm for object-light calculation considering reflectance distribution for computer-generated holograms,” J. Inst. Image Inf. Television Eng.56, 611–616 (2002).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

H. Nishi, K. Higashi, Y. Arima, K. Matsushima, and S. Nakahara, “New techniques for wave-field rendering of polygon-based high-definition CGHs,” Proc. SPIE0277-786X7957, 79571A (2011).

K. Matsushima and A. Kondoh, “A wave-optical algorithm for hidden-surface removal in digitally synthetic full-parallax holograms for three-dimensional objects,” Proc. SPIE0277-786X5290, 90–97 (2004).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Reflectance distributions: (a) diffuse reflection and (b) specular reflection.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Reflections: (a) on object surface, (b) on microfacet.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Coordinate systems for calculations.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Setup for computer simulation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Intensity versus angle with conventional methods: (a) is random phase and (b) is no-phase.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Intensity versus angle with proposed method: (a) is L=1, (b) is L=32, and (c) is L=4096. Unit of L is pixels.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Intensity versus angle with proposed method: (a) is m=0.50, (b) is m=0.20, (c) is m=0.10, (d) is m=0.05, and (e) is m=0.01. Unit of L is pixels.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Half-value angle versus m with proposed method: range of m in (a) is from 0 to 1 and in (b) it is from 0.01 to 0.1. Unit of L is pixels.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Half-value angle versus L with proposed method. Unit of L is pixels.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Half-value angle versus. m versus L with proposed method: (b) is top-view of (a).

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Object for computational and optical reconstructions.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Computational reconstructed images generated by (a) adding random phase, (b) proposed method with m=0.10 and L=1 pixel, and (c) proposed method with m=0.10 and L=8 pixels.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Optical reconstructed images captured by digital camera. These images are generated by (a) adding random phase, (b) proposed method with m=0.10 and L=1 pixel, and (c) proposed method with m=0.10 and L=8 pixels.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters for Computer Simulation

Tables Icon

Table 2. Parameters for Computational and Optical Reconstructions

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

g(ξ,η)=g(ξ,η)exp[jϕm,L(ξ,η)],
D(θ)=exp[(θ/m)2],
ϕm,L(ξ,η)=2d(ξ,η)2πλ,

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