Abstract

Intensive use of laser guide stars with the new generation of extremely large telescopes and hypertelescopes will require the use of more efficient lasers to surmount novel limitations and aberrations. The pulsed frequency-shifted feedback (FSF) laser we have developed overcomes the saturation of sodium atoms and solves the new problems. This work presents a highly efficient solution for operating pulsed FSF lasers. For the first time, an intracavity preamplifier achieves a gain of 104 and more than 40μJ per pulse, with a near-diffraction-limited beam and without amplified spontaneous emission. Endurance tests have shown that good performance is maintained over several hundred hours.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010 (2)

2009 (1)

2008 (5)

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Nelson and G. H. Sanders, “The status of the Thirty Meter Telescope project,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121A (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The 42 m European ELT: status,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Labeyrie, H. Le Coroller, and J. Dejonghe, “Steps toward hypertelescopes on Earth and in space,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70133J (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Lai, C. Veillet, D. Salmon, K. Ho, M. R. Baril, G. A. Barrick, J. Thomas, D. Teeple, T. Benedict, J.-P. Pique, and H. de Chatellus, “VASAO: visible all sky adaptive optics: a new adaptive optics concept for CFHT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701543(2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

I. C. Moldovan, V. Fesquet, F. Marc, H. Guillet de Chatellus, and J.-P. Pique, “Sodium UV modeless laser excitation for PLGS,” Ann. Phys. Fr. 32, 91–93 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

J.-P. Pique, I. C. Moldovan, and V. Fesquet, “Concept for polychromatic laser guide stars: one-photon excitation of the 4P3/2 level of a sodium atom,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2817–2828 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Ellerbroek, J. P. Véran, C. Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Calia, W. Hackenberg, S. Chernikov, Y. Feng, and L. Taylor, “AFIRE: fiber Raman laser for laser guide star adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721M (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

W. N. Sisk and W. Sanders, “The concentration dependence of the normalized photostability of 1,3,5,7,8-pentamethyl-2,6-di-t-butylpyrromethene-difluoroborate complex (PM-597) methanol solutions,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 167, 185–189 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2000 (1)

K. Nakamura, T. Hara, M. Yoshida, T. Miyahara, and H. Ito, “Optical frequency domain ranging by a frequency-shifted feedback laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 305–315(2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

K. Nakamura, T. Miyahara, and H. Ito, “Observation of highly phase-correlated chirped frequency comb output from a frequency-shifted feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2631–2633 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Nakamura, F. Abe, K. Kasahara, T. Hara, M. Sato, and H. Ito, “Spectral characteristics of an all solid-state frequency-shifted feedback laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 103–111 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

I. C. Littler and J. H. Eschner, “The cw modeless laser: model calculation of an active feedback cavity,” Opt. Commun. 87, 44–52 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1988 (1)

Abe, F.

K. Nakamura, F. Abe, K. Kasahara, T. Hara, M. Sato, and H. Ito, “Spectral characteristics of an all solid-state frequency-shifted feedback laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 103–111 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Arriagada, G.

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Balle, S.

Baril, M. R.

O. Lai, C. Veillet, D. Salmon, K. Ho, M. R. Baril, G. A. Barrick, J. Thomas, D. Teeple, T. Benedict, J.-P. Pique, and H. de Chatellus, “VASAO: visible all sky adaptive optics: a new adaptive optics concept for CFHT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701543(2008).
[CrossRef]

Barrick, G. A.

O. Lai, C. Veillet, D. Salmon, K. Ho, M. R. Baril, G. A. Barrick, J. Thomas, D. Teeple, T. Benedict, J.-P. Pique, and H. de Chatellus, “VASAO: visible all sky adaptive optics: a new adaptive optics concept for CFHT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701543(2008).
[CrossRef]

Bec, M.

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Benedict, T.

O. Lai, C. Veillet, D. Salmon, K. Ho, M. R. Baril, G. A. Barrick, J. Thomas, D. Teeple, T. Benedict, J.-P. Pique, and H. de Chatellus, “VASAO: visible all sky adaptive optics: a new adaptive optics concept for CFHT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701543(2008).
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, K.

Boccas, M.

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bombino, S.

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bonnet, G.

Boyer, C.

C. Boyer, B. Ellerbroek, L. Gilles, and L. Wang, “The TMT Laser Guide Star Facility,” in Proceedings of the 1st AO4ELT Conference on Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes (EDP Sciences, 2010), pp. 1–6.

Bradley, C.

Calia, D. B.

D. B. Calia, W. Hackenberg, S. Chernikov, Y. Feng, and L. Taylor, “AFIRE: fiber Raman laser for laser guide star adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721M (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carter, C.

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cavedoni, C.

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chernikov, S.

D. B. Calia, W. Hackenberg, S. Chernikov, Y. Feng, and L. Taylor, “AFIRE: fiber Raman laser for laser guide star adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721M (2006).
[CrossRef]

Clare, R.

O. Lardière, R. Conan, R. Clare, C. Bradley, and N. Hubin, “Performance comparison of centroiding algorithms for laser guide star wavefront sensing with extremely large telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 49, G78–G94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Ellerbroek, J. P. Véran, C. Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).
[CrossRef]

Collao, F.

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Collins, P.

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Conan, R.

Courtillot, I.

V. Fesquet, J.-P. Pique, I. Courtillot, and I. C. Moldovan, “Intracavity preamplifier of modeless laser,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, 2005 (IEEE, 2005), p. 187.
[CrossRef]

d’Orgeville, C.

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Daruich, F.

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Chatellus, H.

O. Lai, C. Veillet, D. Salmon, K. Ho, M. R. Baril, G. A. Barrick, J. Thomas, D. Teeple, T. Benedict, J.-P. Pique, and H. de Chatellus, “VASAO: visible all sky adaptive optics: a new adaptive optics concept for CFHT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701543(2008).
[CrossRef]

Dejonghe, J.

A. Labeyrie, H. Le Coroller, and J. Dejonghe, “Steps toward hypertelescopes on Earth and in space,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70133J (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ellerbroek, B.

C. Boyer, B. Ellerbroek, L. Gilles, and L. Wang, “The TMT Laser Guide Star Facility,” in Proceedings of the 1st AO4ELT Conference on Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes (EDP Sciences, 2010), pp. 1–6.

Ellerbroek, E.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Ellerbroek, J. P. Véran, C. Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).
[CrossRef]

Eschner, J. H.

I. C. Littler and J. H. Eschner, “The cw modeless laser: model calculation of an active feedback cavity,” Opt. Commun. 87, 44–52 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Farinotti, S.

Feng, Y.

D. B. Calia, W. Hackenberg, S. Chernikov, Y. Feng, and L. Taylor, “AFIRE: fiber Raman laser for laser guide star adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721M (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fesquet, V.

I. C. Moldovan, V. Fesquet, F. Marc, H. Guillet de Chatellus, and J.-P. Pique, “Sodium UV modeless laser excitation for PLGS,” Ann. Phys. Fr. 32, 91–93 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Pique, I. C. Moldovan, and V. Fesquet, “Concept for polychromatic laser guide stars: one-photon excitation of the 4P3/2 level of a sodium atom,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2817–2828 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Fesquet, J.-P. Pique, I. Courtillot, and I. C. Moldovan, “Intracavity preamplifier of modeless laser,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, 2005 (IEEE, 2005), p. 187.
[CrossRef]

Gilles, L.

C. Boyer, B. Ellerbroek, L. Gilles, and L. Wang, “The TMT Laser Guide Star Facility,” in Proceedings of the 1st AO4ELT Conference on Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes (EDP Sciences, 2010), pp. 1–6.

Gilmozzi, R.

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The 42 m European ELT: status,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guillet de Chatellus, H.

I. C. Moldovan, V. Fesquet, F. Marc, H. Guillet de Chatellus, and J.-P. Pique, “Sodium UV modeless laser excitation for PLGS,” Ann. Phys. Fr. 32, 91–93 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guillet de Chetellus, H.

Hackenberg, W.

D. B. Calia, W. Hackenberg, S. Chernikov, Y. Feng, and L. Taylor, “AFIRE: fiber Raman laser for laser guide star adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721M (2006).
[CrossRef]

Halle, P. D.

Hara, T.

K. Nakamura, T. Hara, M. Yoshida, T. Miyahara, and H. Ito, “Optical frequency domain ranging by a frequency-shifted feedback laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 305–315(2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakamura, F. Abe, K. Kasahara, T. Hara, M. Sato, and H. Ito, “Spectral characteristics of an all solid-state frequency-shifted feedback laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 103–111 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Herriot, G.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Ellerbroek, J. P. Véran, C. Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).
[CrossRef]

Hickson, P.

T. Pfrommer and P. Hickson, “High-resolution lidar observations of mesospheric sodium and implications for adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, A97–A105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Ellerbroek, J. P. Véran, C. Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K.

O. Lai, C. Veillet, D. Salmon, K. Ho, M. R. Baril, G. A. Barrick, J. Thomas, D. Teeple, T. Benedict, J.-P. Pique, and H. de Chatellus, “VASAO: visible all sky adaptive optics: a new adaptive optics concept for CFHT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701543(2008).
[CrossRef]

Hubin, N.

Ito, H.

K. Nakamura, T. Hara, M. Yoshida, T. Miyahara, and H. Ito, “Optical frequency domain ranging by a frequency-shifted feedback laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 305–315(2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakamura, T. Miyahara, and H. Ito, “Observation of highly phase-correlated chirped frequency comb output from a frequency-shifted feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2631–2633 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakamura, F. Abe, K. Kasahara, T. Hara, M. Sato, and H. Ito, “Spectral characteristics of an all solid-state frequency-shifted feedback laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 103–111 (1997).
[CrossRef]

James, E.

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Karewicz, S.

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kasahara, K.

K. Nakamura, F. Abe, K. Kasahara, T. Hara, M. Sato, and H. Ito, “Spectral characteristics of an all solid-state frequency-shifted feedback laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 103–111 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

Labeyrie, A.

A. Labeyrie, H. Le Coroller, and J. Dejonghe, “Steps toward hypertelescopes on Earth and in space,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70133J (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lai, O.

O. Lai, C. Veillet, D. Salmon, K. Ho, M. R. Baril, G. A. Barrick, J. Thomas, D. Teeple, T. Benedict, J.-P. Pique, and H. de Chatellus, “VASAO: visible all sky adaptive optics: a new adaptive optics concept for CFHT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701543(2008).
[CrossRef]

Lardière, O.

Lazo, M.

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Le Coroller, H.

A. Labeyrie, H. Le Coroller, and J. Dejonghe, “Steps toward hypertelescopes on Earth and in space,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70133J (2008).
[CrossRef]

Littler, I. C.

Looze, D.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Ellerbroek, J. P. Véran, C. Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).
[CrossRef]

Maltes, D.

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marc, F.

F. Marc, H. Guillet de Chetellus, and J.-P. Pique, “Effects of laser beam propagation and saturation on the spatial shape of sodium laser guide stars,” Opt. Express 17, 4920–4931(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Moldovan, V. Fesquet, F. Marc, H. Guillet de Chatellus, and J.-P. Pique, “Sodium UV modeless laser excitation for PLGS,” Ann. Phys. Fr. 32, 91–93 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miyahara, T.

K. Nakamura, T. Hara, M. Yoshida, T. Miyahara, and H. Ito, “Optical frequency domain ranging by a frequency-shifted feedback laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 305–315(2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakamura, T. Miyahara, and H. Ito, “Observation of highly phase-correlated chirped frequency comb output from a frequency-shifted feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2631–2633 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moldovan, I. C.

I. C. Moldovan, V. Fesquet, F. Marc, H. Guillet de Chatellus, and J.-P. Pique, “Sodium UV modeless laser excitation for PLGS,” Ann. Phys. Fr. 32, 91–93 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Pique, I. C. Moldovan, and V. Fesquet, “Concept for polychromatic laser guide stars: one-photon excitation of the 4P3/2 level of a sodium atom,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2817–2828 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Fesquet, J.-P. Pique, I. Courtillot, and I. C. Moldovan, “Intracavity preamplifier of modeless laser,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, 2005 (IEEE, 2005), p. 187.
[CrossRef]

Mouser, R.

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K.

K. Nakamura, T. Hara, M. Yoshida, T. Miyahara, and H. Ito, “Optical frequency domain ranging by a frequency-shifted feedback laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 305–315(2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakamura, T. Miyahara, and H. Ito, “Observation of highly phase-correlated chirped frequency comb output from a frequency-shifted feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2631–2633 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakamura, F. Abe, K. Kasahara, T. Hara, M. Sato, and H. Ito, “Spectral characteristics of an all solid-state frequency-shifted feedback laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 103–111 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J.

J. Nelson and G. H. Sanders, “The status of the Thirty Meter Telescope project,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perez, G.

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pfrommer, T.

Pique, J.-P.

F. Marc, H. Guillet de Chetellus, and J.-P. Pique, “Effects of laser beam propagation and saturation on the spatial shape of sodium laser guide stars,” Opt. Express 17, 4920–4931(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Lai, C. Veillet, D. Salmon, K. Ho, M. R. Baril, G. A. Barrick, J. Thomas, D. Teeple, T. Benedict, J.-P. Pique, and H. de Chatellus, “VASAO: visible all sky adaptive optics: a new adaptive optics concept for CFHT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701543(2008).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Moldovan, V. Fesquet, F. Marc, H. Guillet de Chatellus, and J.-P. Pique, “Sodium UV modeless laser excitation for PLGS,” Ann. Phys. Fr. 32, 91–93 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Pique, I. C. Moldovan, and V. Fesquet, “Concept for polychromatic laser guide stars: one-photon excitation of the 4P3/2 level of a sodium atom,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2817–2828 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Pique and S. Farinotti, “Efficient modeless laser for a mesospheric sodium laser guide star,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2093–2101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Fesquet, J.-P. Pique, I. Courtillot, and I. C. Moldovan, “Intracavity preamplifier of modeless laser,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, 2005 (IEEE, 2005), p. 187.
[CrossRef]

Rigaut, F.

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rojas, R.

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, D.

O. Lai, C. Veillet, D. Salmon, K. Ho, M. R. Baril, G. A. Barrick, J. Thomas, D. Teeple, T. Benedict, J.-P. Pique, and H. de Chatellus, “VASAO: visible all sky adaptive optics: a new adaptive optics concept for CFHT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701543(2008).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, G. H.

J. Nelson and G. H. Sanders, “The status of the Thirty Meter Telescope project,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, W.

W. N. Sisk and W. Sanders, “The concentration dependence of the normalized photostability of 1,3,5,7,8-pentamethyl-2,6-di-t-butylpyrromethene-difluoroborate complex (PM-597) methanol solutions,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 167, 185–189 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sato, M.

K. Nakamura, F. Abe, K. Kasahara, T. Hara, M. Sato, and H. Ito, “Spectral characteristics of an all solid-state frequency-shifted feedback laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 103–111 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shattil, S. J.

She, C. Y.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Ellerbroek, J. P. Véran, C. Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).
[CrossRef]

Sheehan, M.

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shore, B. W.

Sisk, W. N.

W. N. Sisk and W. Sanders, “The concentration dependence of the normalized photostability of 1,3,5,7,8-pentamethyl-2,6-di-t-butylpyrromethene-difluoroborate complex (PM-597) methanol solutions,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 167, 185–189 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spyromilio, J.

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The 42 m European ELT: status,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stellpflug, M.

Taylor, L.

D. B. Calia, W. Hackenberg, S. Chernikov, Y. Feng, and L. Taylor, “AFIRE: fiber Raman laser for laser guide star adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721M (2006).
[CrossRef]

Teeple, D.

O. Lai, C. Veillet, D. Salmon, K. Ho, M. R. Baril, G. A. Barrick, J. Thomas, D. Teeple, T. Benedict, J.-P. Pique, and H. de Chatellus, “VASAO: visible all sky adaptive optics: a new adaptive optics concept for CFHT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701543(2008).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J.

O. Lai, C. Veillet, D. Salmon, K. Ho, M. R. Baril, G. A. Barrick, J. Thomas, D. Teeple, T. Benedict, J.-P. Pique, and H. de Chatellus, “VASAO: visible all sky adaptive optics: a new adaptive optics concept for CFHT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701543(2008).
[CrossRef]

Trancho, G.

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Veillet, C.

O. Lai, C. Veillet, D. Salmon, K. Ho, M. R. Baril, G. A. Barrick, J. Thomas, D. Teeple, T. Benedict, J.-P. Pique, and H. de Chatellus, “VASAO: visible all sky adaptive optics: a new adaptive optics concept for CFHT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701543(2008).
[CrossRef]

Véran, J. P.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Ellerbroek, J. P. Véran, C. Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).
[CrossRef]

Vergara, V.

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vucina, T.

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

C. Boyer, B. Ellerbroek, L. Gilles, and L. Wang, “The TMT Laser Guide Star Facility,” in Proceedings of the 1st AO4ELT Conference on Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes (EDP Sciences, 2010), pp. 1–6.

Yoshida, M.

K. Nakamura, T. Hara, M. Yoshida, T. Miyahara, and H. Ito, “Optical frequency domain ranging by a frequency-shifted feedback laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 305–315(2000).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. Fr. (1)

I. C. Moldovan, V. Fesquet, F. Marc, H. Guillet de Chatellus, and J.-P. Pique, “Sodium UV modeless laser excitation for PLGS,” Ann. Phys. Fr. 32, 91–93 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Nakamura, T. Miyahara, and H. Ito, “Observation of highly phase-correlated chirped frequency comb output from a frequency-shifted feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2631–2633 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

K. Nakamura, F. Abe, K. Kasahara, T. Hara, M. Sato, and H. Ito, “Spectral characteristics of an all solid-state frequency-shifted feedback laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 103–111 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakamura, T. Hara, M. Yoshida, T. Miyahara, and H. Ito, “Optical frequency domain ranging by a frequency-shifted feedback laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 305–315(2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Photochem. Photobiol. A (1)

W. N. Sisk and W. Sanders, “The concentration dependence of the normalized photostability of 1,3,5,7,8-pentamethyl-2,6-di-t-butylpyrromethene-difluoroborate complex (PM-597) methanol solutions,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 167, 185–189 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

I. C. Littler and J. H. Eschner, “The cw modeless laser: model calculation of an active feedback cavity,” Opt. Commun. 87, 44–52 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (7)

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Ellerbroek, J. P. Véran, C. Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Nelson and G. H. Sanders, “The status of the Thirty Meter Telescope project,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121A (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The 42 m European ELT: status,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Labeyrie, H. Le Coroller, and J. Dejonghe, “Steps toward hypertelescopes on Earth and in space,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70133J (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Calia, W. Hackenberg, S. Chernikov, Y. Feng, and L. Taylor, “AFIRE: fiber Raman laser for laser guide star adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721M (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Lai, C. Veillet, D. Salmon, K. Ho, M. R. Baril, G. A. Barrick, J. Thomas, D. Teeple, T. Benedict, J.-P. Pique, and H. de Chatellus, “VASAO: visible all sky adaptive optics: a new adaptive optics concept for CFHT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701543(2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

C. Boyer, B. Ellerbroek, L. Gilles, and L. Wang, “The TMT Laser Guide Star Facility,” in Proceedings of the 1st AO4ELT Conference on Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes (EDP Sciences, 2010), pp. 1–6.

V. Fesquet, J.-P. Pique, I. Courtillot, and I. C. Moldovan, “Intracavity preamplifier of modeless laser,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, 2005 (IEEE, 2005), p. 187.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Pulsed FSF laser setup: J, R6G jet; C, PM597 cell; M1, M2, M3, cavity mirrors; AO, acousto-optic frequency shifter; Lyot, Lyot filter; E, etalon; VERDI, cw 532 nm pump; NAVIGATOR, pulsed 532 nm pump; PD, high-speed photodiode; FP, Fabry–Perot analyzer; Na, sodium oven; W-meter, wave meter. For characteristics, see the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time evolution of the output power of the FSF laser with its intracavity pulsed preamplifier: (a), (b) experiment and (c), (d) theory. Time zooms (b) and (d) show pulse widths of about 40 ns . For the relaxation oscillations in (a) and (c), see Fig. 3 and text. Note the 1.5 μs bleaching time hole of the experiment (a), which is not included in the model (c).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Buildup of the cw laser power just after the AO-RF power is turned on: (a) experiment, (b) theory, and (c) RF power gate. Relaxation oscillations of 2 μs are well described by the FSF model.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

ICPA output pulse energy and output pulse-width versus pump energy. (a) and (b) theory, (c) and (d) experiment. The pump threshold is 100 μJ and the slope efficiency 12.3%. Above pump energy 200 μJ , the output energy increases linearly and the pulse-width is approximately constant.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output pulse energy versus jet cw pump power. (a) theory and (b) experiment. See text.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Linewidth versus ICPA pump energy: (a) theory and (b) experiment, in good agreement, show no dependence of the linewidth on pump energy.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The RF spectrum of the Michelson inter ferometer output signal for the distance z 80 cm . ν 0 is the free spectral range of the laser cavity. The beat frequency δ ν is about 106 MHz .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters Used in the Model

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d N 1 j ( t ) d t = ( exp ( σ p j N 1 j ( t ) / π w j 2 ) 1 ) λ p j h c P cw + N 2 j ( t ) τ j + N 2 j ( t ) π w j 2 σ l j τ R T Δ ν 2 Δ ν 2 n ( ν , t ) d ν ,
d N 2 j ( t ) d t = d N 1 j ( t ) d t ,
d N 1 c ( t ) d t = ( exp ( σ p c N 1 c ( t ) / π w c 2 ) 1 ) λ p c h c P p ( t ) + N 2 c ( t ) τ c + N 2 c ( t ) π w c 2 σ l c τ R T Δ ν 2 Δ ν 2 n ( ν , t ) d ν ,
d N 2 c ( t ) d t = d N 1 c ( t ) d t ,
P p ( t ) = E p Δ t p 2 log ( 4 ) π exp ( 2 log ( 4 ) ( t t p Δ t p ) 2 ) ,
δ n ( ν , t ) δ t = n ( ν , t ) τ R T ( σ l j π w j 2 N 2 j ( t ) + σ l c π w c 2 N 2 c ( t ) γ ( ν ) ) + σ l j π w j 2 N 2 j ( t ) + σ l c π w c 2 N 2 c ( t ) ,
γ ( ν ) = 1 τ R T ( T + 2 π ν Δ ν AO + 2 ( π ν Δ ν Lyot ) 2 + 2 log ( 1 + 4 R 1 R 2 sin 2 ( π ν FSR ) ) + D ) ,
F relax = 1 2 π γ ( r 1 ) τ R T τ g ( r 2 τ g ) 2 ,
E out = h c λ l T 2 π w m 2 2 Δ τ out 2 Δ τ out n ( ν , t ) d t d ν ,
ν R F m = ν 0 ( m ± 4 ν AO c z ) ,

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