Abstract

We report on the postfilamentation behavior of a Stokes pulse created from intense and collimated ultrashort pulses propagating in air. A systematic analysis of the pulse propagation revealed that the redshifted Raman pulse produced during filamentation had a larger divergence than the postfilamentation intense pump pulse. Also, the analysis of the far-field Stokes transverse ring revealed that the intensity in this ionization-free light channel is still sufficiently high to induce stimulated Raman scattering after ionization had ended. This behavior further extends the potential of filamentation to remotely induce third-order nonlinearities.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. P. Kandidov, S. A. Shlenov, and O. G. Kosareva, “Filamentation of high-power femtosecond laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 39, 205–228 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, “Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation,” Opt. Express 16, 466–493 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. L. Chin, Femtosecond Laser Filamentation (Springer-Verlag, 2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Liu and S. L. Chin, “Direct measurement of the critical power of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air,” Opt. Express 13, 5750–5755 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Méchain, C. D’Amico, Y.-B. André, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Range of plasma filaments created in air by a multi-terawatt femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 247, 171–180(2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 877–879 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Becker, N. Akozbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 287–290 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Méchain, A. Couairon, Y.-B. André, C. D’Amico, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 379–382 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J.-F. Daigle, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, T.-J. Wang, S. Hosseini, S. Yuan, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Formation and evolution of intense, post-filamentation, ionization-free low divergence beams,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3601–3606 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. J. Cook and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Intense terahertz pulses by four-wave rectification in air,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1210–1212(2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, P. Serafim, B. Hafizi, and A. Ting, “Stimulated Raman scattering of intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 056502 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. F. Gordon, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2865–2874 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. M. Zheltikov, “Raman response function of atmospheric air,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2052–2054 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. Faccio, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, P. Polesana, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Phase- and group-matched nonlinear interactions mediated by multiple filamentation in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 055802 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. Liu and S. L. Chin, “Abnormal wavelength dependence of the self-cleaning phenomenon during femtosecond-laser-pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 013826 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Chen, F. Théberge, C. Marceau, H. Xu, N. Aközbek, O. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, “Observation of filamentation-induced continuous self-frequency down shift in air,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 219–222 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Und Optoelektronik 29, 51–53 (1997).
  22. S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 477–483 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

J.-F. Daigle, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, T.-J. Wang, S. Hosseini, S. Yuan, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Formation and evolution of intense, post-filamentation, ionization-free low divergence beams,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3601–3606 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

V. P. Kandidov, S. A. Shlenov, and O. G. Kosareva, “Filamentation of high-power femtosecond laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 39, 205–228 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Y. Chen, F. Théberge, C. Marceau, H. Xu, N. Aközbek, O. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, “Observation of filamentation-induced continuous self-frequency down shift in air,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 219–222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, “Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation,” Opt. Express 16, 466–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

A. M. Zheltikov, “Raman response function of atmospheric air,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2052–2054 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, P. Polesana, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Phase- and group-matched nonlinear interactions mediated by multiple filamentation in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 055802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu and S. L. Chin, “Abnormal wavelength dependence of the self-cleaning phenomenon during femtosecond-laser-pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 013826 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 477–483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, C. D’Amico, Y.-B. André, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Range of plasma filaments created in air by a multi-terawatt femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 247, 171–180(2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu and S. L. Chin, “Direct measurement of the critical power of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air,” Opt. Express 13, 5750–5755 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. F. Gordon, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2865–2874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, Y.-B. André, C. D’Amico, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 379–382 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Becker, N. Akozbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 287–290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 877–879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, P. Serafim, B. Hafizi, and A. Ting, “Stimulated Raman scattering of intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 056502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Cook and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Intense terahertz pulses by four-wave rectification in air,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1210–1212(2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Und Optoelektronik 29, 51–53 (1997).

Akozbek, N.

A. Becker, N. Akozbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 287–290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aközbek, N.

Y. Chen, F. Théberge, C. Marceau, H. Xu, N. Aközbek, O. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, “Observation of filamentation-induced continuous self-frequency down shift in air,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 219–222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

André, Y.-B.

G. Méchain, C. D’Amico, Y.-B. André, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Range of plasma filaments created in air by a multi-terawatt femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 247, 171–180(2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, Y.-B. André, C. D’Amico, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 379–382 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Becker, A.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Becker, N. Akozbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 287–290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bergé, L.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, C. M.

A. Becker, N. Akozbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 287–290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, F. Théberge, C. Marceau, H. Xu, N. Aközbek, O. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, “Observation of filamentation-induced continuous self-frequency down shift in air,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 219–222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

J.-F. Daigle, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, T.-J. Wang, S. Hosseini, S. Yuan, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Formation and evolution of intense, post-filamentation, ionization-free low divergence beams,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3601–3606 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, F. Théberge, C. Marceau, H. Xu, N. Aközbek, O. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, “Observation of filamentation-induced continuous self-frequency down shift in air,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 219–222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu and S. L. Chin, “Abnormal wavelength dependence of the self-cleaning phenomenon during femtosecond-laser-pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 013826 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 477–483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Liu and S. L. Chin, “Direct measurement of the critical power of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air,” Opt. Express 13, 5750–5755 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Becker, N. Akozbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 287–290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 877–879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, Femtosecond Laser Filamentation (Springer-Verlag, 2010).
[CrossRef]

Cook, D. J.

Couairon, A.

D. Faccio, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, P. Polesana, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Phase- and group-matched nonlinear interactions mediated by multiple filamentation in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 055802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, C. D’Amico, Y.-B. André, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Range of plasma filaments created in air by a multi-terawatt femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 247, 171–180(2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, Y.-B. André, C. D’Amico, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 379–382 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D’Amico, C.

G. Méchain, C. D’Amico, Y.-B. André, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Range of plasma filaments created in air by a multi-terawatt femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 247, 171–180(2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, Y.-B. André, C. D’Amico, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 379–382 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Daigle, J.-F.

J.-F. Daigle, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, T.-J. Wang, S. Hosseini, S. Yuan, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Formation and evolution of intense, post-filamentation, ionization-free low divergence beams,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3601–3606 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dubietis, A.

D. Faccio, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, P. Polesana, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Phase- and group-matched nonlinear interactions mediated by multiple filamentation in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 055802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Faccio, D.

D. Faccio, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, P. Polesana, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Phase- and group-matched nonlinear interactions mediated by multiple filamentation in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 055802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

G. Méchain, C. D’Amico, Y.-B. André, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Range of plasma filaments created in air by a multi-terawatt femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 247, 171–180(2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, Y.-B. André, C. D’Amico, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 379–382 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, D. F.

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. F. Gordon, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2865–2874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hafizi, B.

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. F. Gordon, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2865–2874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, P. Serafim, B. Hafizi, and A. Ting, “Stimulated Raman scattering of intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 056502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hochstrasser, R. M.

Hosseini, S.

J.-F. Daigle, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, T.-J. Wang, S. Hosseini, S. Yuan, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Formation and evolution of intense, post-filamentation, ionization-free low divergence beams,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3601–3606 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini, S. A.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V. P.

V. P. Kandidov, S. A. Shlenov, and O. G. Kosareva, “Filamentation of high-power femtosecond laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 39, 205–228 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kapetanakos, C. A.

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. F. Gordon, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2865–2874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, “Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation,” Opt. Express 16, 466–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 877–879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kosareva, O.

J.-F. Daigle, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, T.-J. Wang, S. Hosseini, S. Yuan, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Formation and evolution of intense, post-filamentation, ionization-free low divergence beams,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3601–3606 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, F. Théberge, C. Marceau, H. Xu, N. Aközbek, O. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, “Observation of filamentation-induced continuous self-frequency down shift in air,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 219–222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kosareva, O. G.

V. P. Kandidov, S. A. Shlenov, and O. G. Kosareva, “Filamentation of high-power femtosecond laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 39, 205–228 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

W. Liu and S. L. Chin, “Abnormal wavelength dependence of the self-cleaning phenomenon during femtosecond-laser-pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 013826 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 477–483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Liu and S. L. Chin, “Direct measurement of the critical power of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air,” Opt. Express 13, 5750–5755 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lotti, A.

D. Faccio, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, P. Polesana, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Phase- and group-matched nonlinear interactions mediated by multiple filamentation in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 055802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Q.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marceau, C.

Y. Chen, F. Théberge, C. Marceau, H. Xu, N. Aközbek, O. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, “Observation of filamentation-induced continuous self-frequency down shift in air,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 219–222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Méchain, G.

G. Méchain, C. D’Amico, Y.-B. André, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Range of plasma filaments created in air by a multi-terawatt femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 247, 171–180(2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, Y.-B. André, C. D’Amico, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 379–382 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, C. D’Amico, Y.-B. André, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Range of plasma filaments created in air by a multi-terawatt femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 247, 171–180(2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, Y.-B. André, C. D’Amico, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 379–382 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Niedermeier, S.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Und Optoelektronik 29, 51–53 (1997).

Nikolov, S.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Und Optoelektronik 29, 51–53 (1997).

Nuter, R.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oral, E.

A. Becker, N. Akozbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 287–290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Panov, N.

J.-F. Daigle, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, T.-J. Wang, S. Hosseini, S. Yuan, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Formation and evolution of intense, post-filamentation, ionization-free low divergence beams,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3601–3606 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Peñano, J. R.

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. F. Gordon, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2865–2874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, P. Serafim, B. Hafizi, and A. Ting, “Stimulated Raman scattering of intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 056502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Piskarskas, A.

D. Faccio, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, P. Polesana, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Phase- and group-matched nonlinear interactions mediated by multiple filamentation in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 055802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Polesana, P.

D. Faccio, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, P. Polesana, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Phase- and group-matched nonlinear interactions mediated by multiple filamentation in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 055802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

G. Méchain, C. D’Amico, Y.-B. André, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Range of plasma filaments created in air by a multi-terawatt femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 247, 171–180(2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, Y.-B. André, C. D’Amico, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 379–382 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rairoux, P.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Und Optoelektronik 29, 51–53 (1997).

Ronneberger, F.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Und Optoelektronik 29, 51–53 (1997).

Roy, G.

J.-F. Daigle, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, T.-J. Wang, S. Hosseini, S. Yuan, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Formation and evolution of intense, post-filamentation, ionization-free low divergence beams,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3601–3606 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, E.

G. Méchain, C. D’Amico, Y.-B. André, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Range of plasma filaments created in air by a multi-terawatt femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 247, 171–180(2005).
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

G. Méchain, C. D’Amico, Y.-B. André, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Range of plasma filaments created in air by a multi-terawatt femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 247, 171–180(2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, Y.-B. André, C. D’Amico, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 379–382 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 877–879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Und Optoelektronik 29, 51–53 (1997).

Schillinger, H.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Und Optoelektronik 29, 51–53 (1997).

Schroeder, H.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Serafim, P.

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, P. Serafim, B. Hafizi, and A. Ting, “Stimulated Raman scattering of intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 056502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shlenov, S. A.

V. P. Kandidov, S. A. Shlenov, and O. G. Kosareva, “Filamentation of high-power femtosecond laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 39, 205–228 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Skupin, S.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sprangle, P.

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. F. Gordon, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2865–2874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, P. Serafim, B. Hafizi, and A. Ting, “Stimulated Raman scattering of intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 056502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stein, B.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Und Optoelektronik 29, 51–53 (1997).

Tamosauskas, G.

D. Faccio, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, P. Polesana, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Phase- and group-matched nonlinear interactions mediated by multiple filamentation in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 055802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Théberge, F.

Y. Chen, F. Théberge, C. Marceau, H. Xu, N. Aközbek, O. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, “Observation of filamentation-induced continuous self-frequency down shift in air,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 219–222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 477–483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ting, A.

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. F. Gordon, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2865–2874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, P. Serafim, B. Hafizi, and A. Ting, “Stimulated Raman scattering of intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 056502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Trapani, P. Di

D. Faccio, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, P. Polesana, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Phase- and group-matched nonlinear interactions mediated by multiple filamentation in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 055802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tzortzakis, S.

G. Méchain, C. D’Amico, Y.-B. André, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Range of plasma filaments created in air by a multi-terawatt femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 247, 171–180(2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, Y.-B. André, C. D’Amico, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 379–382 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Valiulis, G.

D. Faccio, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, P. Polesana, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Phase- and group-matched nonlinear interactions mediated by multiple filamentation in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 055802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vijayalakshmi, K.

A. Becker, N. Akozbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 287–290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.-J.

J.-F. Daigle, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, T.-J. Wang, S. Hosseini, S. Yuan, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Formation and evolution of intense, post-filamentation, ionization-free low divergence beams,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3601–3606 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wedekind, C.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Und Optoelektronik 29, 51–53 (1997).

Werner, C.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Und Optoelektronik 29, 51–53 (1997).

Wille, H.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Und Optoelektronik 29, 51–53 (1997).

Wolf, J.-P.

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, “Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation,” Opt. Express 16, 466–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wöste, L.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Und Optoelektronik 29, 51–53 (1997).

Xu, H.

Y. Chen, F. Théberge, C. Marceau, H. Xu, N. Aközbek, O. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, “Observation of filamentation-induced continuous self-frequency down shift in air,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 219–222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, S.

J.-F. Daigle, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, T.-J. Wang, S. Hosseini, S. Yuan, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Formation and evolution of intense, post-filamentation, ionization-free low divergence beams,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3601–3606 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zheltikov, A. M.

Appl. Phys. B (5)

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 877–879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Becker, N. Akozbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 287–290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, Y.-B. André, C. D’Amico, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 379–382 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, F. Théberge, C. Marceau, H. Xu, N. Aközbek, O. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, “Observation of filamentation-induced continuous self-frequency down shift in air,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 219–222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 477–483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laser Und Optoelektronik (1)

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Und Optoelektronik 29, 51–53 (1997).

Opt. Commun. (2)

G. Méchain, C. D’Amico, Y.-B. André, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Range of plasma filaments created in air by a multi-terawatt femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 247, 171–180(2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Daigle, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, T.-J. Wang, S. Hosseini, S. Yuan, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Formation and evolution of intense, post-filamentation, ionization-free low divergence beams,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3601–3606 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Plasmas (1)

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. F. Gordon, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2865–2874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

D. Faccio, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, P. Polesana, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Phase- and group-matched nonlinear interactions mediated by multiple filamentation in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 055802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu and S. L. Chin, “Abnormal wavelength dependence of the self-cleaning phenomenon during femtosecond-laser-pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 013826 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, P. Serafim, B. Hafizi, and A. Ting, “Stimulated Raman scattering of intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 056502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quantum Electron. (1)

V. P. Kandidov, S. A. Shlenov, and O. G. Kosareva, “Filamentation of high-power femtosecond laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 39, 205–228 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. L. Chin, Femtosecond Laser Filamentation (Springer-Verlag, 2010).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental unit that was moved along the beam. At each position, three measurements were performed. The weak reflection from a bulk fused silica wedge is directed to an integration sphere (IS) connected to a fiber spectrometer. A 2.0 mm diameter iris (PH) was inserted before IS to measure the filament/hot spot spectrum. IS and PH were then removed and W’s front surface reflection was directed to a spectrally flat diffuser. A CCD camera imaged the scattered beam pattern for various spectral windows (bandpass filters, BP). Finally, the wedge was removed and N 2 fluorescence was imaged onto the sensitive surface of a photomultiplier tube (PMT) with a fused silica lens ( f 2 = 6 cm ). A UG11 filter and a 800 nm dielectric mirror ensured that the detected signal was attributed to N 2 fluorescence.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

On-axis spectra measured using a fiber spectrometer coupled to an integration sphere. A 2.5 mm diameter pinhole ensured that only the filament/postfilament hot spot entered the sphere. Spectra are presented for different positions in (a) linear and (b) logarithmic scales.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Beam patterns measured along the propagation direction using a CCD camera protected with bandpass filters centered at 800 nm (top row) and 850 nm (bottom row).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Hot spot diameters FWHM plotted as a function of the distance from the compressor. The black circles show the data measured using BP800 and the blue squares, the data obtained with BP850. The red triangles correspond to the fluorescence signal intensity measured along the beam with a PMT. The corresponding scale is on the right-hand side of the figure.

Equations (1)

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cos θ 0 1 β 2 ( ω R 2 + Γ 2 2 ) 2 k 0 ( n K + n R ) n 0 ( ω R 2 + Γ 2 2 ω 0 2 ) I 0 .

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