Abstract

We have developed a new IR optical system that consists of three mirrors and four lenses, and that operates in the temperature range 8°C32°C. This temperature range can induce thermoelastic deformation in the lenses and their mounting subassembly, leading to a large defocus error associated with the displacement of the lenses inside the barrel. We suggest using a new three-shell-based athermalization structure composed of two materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion (Invar and aluminum). A finite element analysis and the experiment data were used to confirm that this new athermalization barrel had a defocus error sensitivity of 11.6nm/°C; this is an improvement on the widely used conventional single-shell titanium barrel model, which has a defocus error sensitivity of 29.8nm/°C. This paper provides the technical details of the new athermalization design, and its computational and experimental performance results.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H.-W. Oh, “Thermal design & analysis,” in IROA Critical Design Review, 103–118 (2008).
  2. Q. Huang, Y.-Q. Chen, Z.-F. Gao, and B. Song, “Athermalization and test validation of infrared imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7383, 73830P (2009).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. Yang and S. Li, “Athermalization for infrared dual field-of-view optical system,” Proc. SPIE 6834, 68342B (2007).
    [Crossref]
  4. C.-W. Kuo, C.-L. Lin, and C.-Y. Han, “Dual field-of-view midwave infrared optical design and athermalization analysis,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3691–3700 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. Bayar, L. Parnas, A. Dikici, A. Colakoglu, and O. F. Farsakoglu, “A forward looking infrared system,” Proc. SPIE 3786, 312–322 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. Vukobratovich, “Optomechanical systems design,” in The Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook (SPIE, 1993), Chap. 3.
  7. D. Malacara, “Zernike polynomials and wavefront fitting,” in Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, 2007), pp. 498–545.
  8. R. R. Shannon, “Aberrations,” in The Art and Science of Optical Design (Cambridge University, 1997), p. 285.
  9. T. H. Jamieson, “Athermalization of optical instruments from the optomechanical viewpoint,” Proc. SPIE CR43,131–159(1992).
  10. P. R. Yoder, “Effects of temperature changes on optical component mountings,” in Mounting Optics in Optical Instruments (SPIE Press, 2002), p. 409.
  11. “Omega Engineering, Inc.,” (http://www.omega.com/).
  12. “Stanford Research Systems Co.,” (http://www.thinksrs.com/).
  13. P. R. Yoder, “Opto-mechanical characteristics of materials,” in Opto-Mechanical Systems Design (Marcel Dekker, 1993), pp. 126–128.

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

Q. Huang, Y.-Q. Chen, Z.-F. Gao, and B. Song, “Athermalization and test validation of infrared imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7383, 73830P (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

C. Yang and S. Li, “Athermalization for infrared dual field-of-view optical system,” Proc. SPIE 6834, 68342B (2007).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

M. Bayar, L. Parnas, A. Dikici, A. Colakoglu, and O. F. Farsakoglu, “A forward looking infrared system,” Proc. SPIE 3786, 312–322 (1999).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

T. H. Jamieson, “Athermalization of optical instruments from the optomechanical viewpoint,” Proc. SPIE CR43,131–159(1992).

Bayar, M.

M. Bayar, L. Parnas, A. Dikici, A. Colakoglu, and O. F. Farsakoglu, “A forward looking infrared system,” Proc. SPIE 3786, 312–322 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-Q.

Q. Huang, Y.-Q. Chen, Z.-F. Gao, and B. Song, “Athermalization and test validation of infrared imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7383, 73830P (2009).
[Crossref]

Colakoglu, A.

M. Bayar, L. Parnas, A. Dikici, A. Colakoglu, and O. F. Farsakoglu, “A forward looking infrared system,” Proc. SPIE 3786, 312–322 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dikici, A.

M. Bayar, L. Parnas, A. Dikici, A. Colakoglu, and O. F. Farsakoglu, “A forward looking infrared system,” Proc. SPIE 3786, 312–322 (1999).
[Crossref]

Farsakoglu, O. F.

M. Bayar, L. Parnas, A. Dikici, A. Colakoglu, and O. F. Farsakoglu, “A forward looking infrared system,” Proc. SPIE 3786, 312–322 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gao, Z.-F.

Q. Huang, Y.-Q. Chen, Z.-F. Gao, and B. Song, “Athermalization and test validation of infrared imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7383, 73830P (2009).
[Crossref]

Han, C.-Y.

Huang, Q.

Q. Huang, Y.-Q. Chen, Z.-F. Gao, and B. Song, “Athermalization and test validation of infrared imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7383, 73830P (2009).
[Crossref]

Jamieson, T. H.

T. H. Jamieson, “Athermalization of optical instruments from the optomechanical viewpoint,” Proc. SPIE CR43,131–159(1992).

Kuo, C.-W.

Li, S.

C. Yang and S. Li, “Athermalization for infrared dual field-of-view optical system,” Proc. SPIE 6834, 68342B (2007).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.-L.

Malacara, D.

D. Malacara, “Zernike polynomials and wavefront fitting,” in Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, 2007), pp. 498–545.

Oh, H.-W.

H.-W. Oh, “Thermal design & analysis,” in IROA Critical Design Review, 103–118 (2008).

Parnas, L.

M. Bayar, L. Parnas, A. Dikici, A. Colakoglu, and O. F. Farsakoglu, “A forward looking infrared system,” Proc. SPIE 3786, 312–322 (1999).
[Crossref]

Shannon, R. R.

R. R. Shannon, “Aberrations,” in The Art and Science of Optical Design (Cambridge University, 1997), p. 285.

Song, B.

Q. Huang, Y.-Q. Chen, Z.-F. Gao, and B. Song, “Athermalization and test validation of infrared imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7383, 73830P (2009).
[Crossref]

Vukobratovich, D.

D. Vukobratovich, “Optomechanical systems design,” in The Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook (SPIE, 1993), Chap. 3.

Yang, C.

C. Yang and S. Li, “Athermalization for infrared dual field-of-view optical system,” Proc. SPIE 6834, 68342B (2007).
[Crossref]

Yoder, P. R.

P. R. Yoder, “Effects of temperature changes on optical component mountings,” in Mounting Optics in Optical Instruments (SPIE Press, 2002), p. 409.

P. R. Yoder, “Opto-mechanical characteristics of materials,” in Opto-Mechanical Systems Design (Marcel Dekker, 1993), pp. 126–128.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Proc. SPIE (4)

M. Bayar, L. Parnas, A. Dikici, A. Colakoglu, and O. F. Farsakoglu, “A forward looking infrared system,” Proc. SPIE 3786, 312–322 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. H. Jamieson, “Athermalization of optical instruments from the optomechanical viewpoint,” Proc. SPIE CR43,131–159(1992).

Q. Huang, Y.-Q. Chen, Z.-F. Gao, and B. Song, “Athermalization and test validation of infrared imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 7383, 73830P (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Yang and S. Li, “Athermalization for infrared dual field-of-view optical system,” Proc. SPIE 6834, 68342B (2007).
[Crossref]

Other (8)

H.-W. Oh, “Thermal design & analysis,” in IROA Critical Design Review, 103–118 (2008).

P. R. Yoder, “Effects of temperature changes on optical component mountings,” in Mounting Optics in Optical Instruments (SPIE Press, 2002), p. 409.

“Omega Engineering, Inc.,” (http://www.omega.com/).

“Stanford Research Systems Co.,” (http://www.thinksrs.com/).

P. R. Yoder, “Opto-mechanical characteristics of materials,” in Opto-Mechanical Systems Design (Marcel Dekker, 1993), pp. 126–128.

D. Vukobratovich, “Optomechanical systems design,” in The Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook (SPIE, 1993), Chap. 3.

D. Malacara, “Zernike polynomials and wavefront fitting,” in Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, 2007), pp. 498–545.

R. R. Shannon, “Aberrations,” in The Art and Science of Optical Design (Cambridge University, 1997), p. 285.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the infrared optical assembly (IROA).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the reentrant model as an athermal design using two materials with different coefficients of expansion (adapted from Vukobratovich [6]).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The single-shell barrel model for an IROA: (a) optical layout of the lenses and focal plane, and (b) the optomechanical design.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Finite element analysis results for a conventional single-lens barrel model: (a) finite element model, and (b) distortion of the lens barrel ( displacement units = mm ).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A three-shell-based athermalization structure: (a) the athermalization lens barrel subsystem model, and (b) a detailed exploded view of the athermal structure consisting of three shells.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Exploded view of the athermalized LBS finite element analysis results at higher temperatures ( displacement units = mm ).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Layout of the thermal sensitivity tests for the LBS.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The six locations of the thermocouples around the LBS.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Increase in temperature with applied voltage. The error bars denote the standard deviation of six measurement points. Y = 12.7 + 0.133 X .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Average temperature variation of the six thermocouples for an increasing temperature profile.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Variation in the Zernike coefficient corresponding to the defocus error of the athermalization LBS. The gradients of the linear-fitted lines are 8.9 nm / ° C for increasing temperature and 7.3 nm / ° C for decreasing temperature. The theoretical gradient for the single-lens barrel model is 29.8 nm / ° C .

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Variation in the WFE for the athermalized LBS. The gradients of the linear-fitted lines are 7.2 nm rms / ° C for increasing temperature and 6.6 nm rms / ° C for decreasing temperature. The theoretical gradient for the single-lens barrel model is 30.0 nm rms / ° C .

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Modal analysis of the athermalization LBS.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Requirements for the IROA a

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Table 2 Sensitivity of the Zernike Defocus Term ( a 4 3 ( 2 r 2 1 ) ) Derived From the Thermo-Optic Coefficient of Each Lens Versus the Uniform Change in Temperature

Tables Icon

Table 3 Change in the Zernike Coefficient Derived From a Finite Element Analysis of the Single LBS Model (Fig. 4) for a Change in Temperature of 1 ° C a

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Table 4 Change in the Zernike Coefficient Derived From a Finite Element Analysis of the Athermalization LBS Model (Fig. 5) for a Change in Temperature of 1 ° C a

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Table 5 Summary of the Theoretical and Experimental Results for the Sensitivity of the Defocus Error and the WFE with Respect to the Temperature for a Conventional Single-Lens Barrel and the New Athermalization LBS a

Equations (1)

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δ = 8 × a 20 × ( f / # ) 2 ,

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