Abstract

A novel hybrid approach to fabricate large-area well-ordered Ag/Au bimetallic nanodot arrays and its potential applications for biosensing is investigated. With the combination of laser interference lithography and the thermal annealing technique, Ag/Au bimetallic nanodots about 50nm are formed inside periodic nanodisk arrays at a dimension of 530nm on quartz substrates. Extinction spectra of the fabricated nanostructures show their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) can be well controlled by Au concentration, which offers a means to flexibly tune the optical properties of the nanodot arrays. To study the sensitivity of the nanodot arrays, resonance wavelength changes per refractive index unit (RIU) are performed in different surrounding environments. This shows a 94% increase in peak shift per refractive index unit (nanometers/RIU) compared to the nanodot arrays formed only by thermal annealing. These results demonstrate a feasible approach to improve LSPR-based biosensor performance.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. B. Zheng, L. Jensen, W. Yan, and T. R. Walker, B. K. Juluri, L. Jensen, and T. J. Huang, “Chemically tuning the localized surface plasmon resonances of gold nanostructure arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 7019–7024 (2009).
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  6. R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmuller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Direct near-field optical imaging of higher order plasmonic resonances,” Nano Lett. 8, 3155–3159 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sonnichsen, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering,” Nano Lett. 3, 935–938(2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 10596–10604(2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. L. Schatternburg, R. J. Aucoin, and R. C. Fleming, “Optically matched trilevel resist process for nanostructure fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3007–3011(1995).
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  13. D. R. Lide, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 87th ed. (CRC Press, 2006).
  14. H. Krishna, N. Shirato, S. Yadavali, R. Sachan, J. Strader, and R. Kalyanaraman, “Self-organization of nanoscle multilayer liquid metal films: experiment and theory,” ACS Nano 5, 470–476 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. E. Motl, E. Ewusi-Ann, I. T. Sines, L. Jensen, and R. E. Schaak, “Au-Cu alloy nanoparticles with tunable compositions and plasmonic properties: experimental determination of composition and correlation with theory,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 19263–19269 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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  18. R. K. Roy, S. K. Mandal, and A. K. Pal, “Effect of interfacial alloying on the surface plasmon resonance of nanocrystalline Au-Ag multilayer thin films,” Eur. Phys. J. B 33, 109–114(2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. B. Zheng, B. K. Juluri, X. Mao, T. R. Walker, and T. J. Huang, “Systematic investigation of localized surface plasmon resonance of long range ordered Au nanodisk arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 014308 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Chem. Rev. 111, 3828–3857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Krishna, N. Shirato, S. Yadavali, R. Sachan, J. Strader, and R. Kalyanaraman, “Self-organization of nanoscle multilayer liquid metal films: experiment and theory,” ACS Nano 5, 470–476 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

N. E. Motl, E. Ewusi-Ann, I. T. Sines, L. Jensen, and R. E. Schaak, “Au-Cu alloy nanoparticles with tunable compositions and plasmonic properties: experimental determination of composition and correlation with theory,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 19263–19269 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hou, J. Xu, P. Wang, and D. Yu, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy on coupled two-layer nanorings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

T. Sannomiya, P. K. Sahoo, D. I. Mahcicek, H. H. Solak, C. Hafner, D. Grieshaber, and J. Voros, “Biosensing by densely packed and optically coupled plasmonic particle arrays,” Small 5, 1889–1896 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. B. Zheng, L. Jensen, W. Yan, and T. R. Walker, B. K. Juluri, L. Jensen, and T. J. Huang, “Chemically tuning the localized surface plasmon resonances of gold nanostructure arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 7019–7024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

Y. B. Zheng, B. K. Juluri, X. Mao, T. R. Walker, and T. J. Huang, “Systematic investigation of localized surface plasmon resonance of long range ordered Au nanodisk arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 014308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Liu, M. H. Hong, H. W. Cheung, F. Zhang, Z. Q. Huang, L. S. Tan, and T. S. A. Hor, “Bimetallic structure fabricated by laser interference lithography for tuning surface plasmon resonance,” Opt. Express 16, 10701–10709(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 16, 21793–21800 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmuller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Direct near-field optical imaging of higher order plasmonic resonances,” Nano Lett. 8, 3155–3159 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. K. S. Hsiao, Y. B. Zheng, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, “Light-driven plasmonic switches based on Au nanodisk arrays and photoresponsive liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 20, 3528–3532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sonnichsen, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering,” Nano Lett. 3, 935–938(2003).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Kelly and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Van McFarland and R. P. Duyne, “Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 3, 1057–1062 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Roy, S. K. Mandal, and A. K. Pal, “Effect of interfacial alloying on the surface plasmon resonance of nanocrystalline Au-Ag multilayer thin films,” Eur. Phys. J. B 33, 109–114(2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 10596–10604(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. L. Schatternburg, R. J. Aucoin, and R. C. Fleming, “Optically matched trilevel resist process for nanostructure fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3007–3011(1995).
[CrossRef]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aucoin, R. J.

M. L. Schatternburg, R. J. Aucoin, and R. C. Fleming, “Optically matched trilevel resist process for nanostructure fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3007–3011(1995).
[CrossRef]

Catchpole, K. R.

Cheung, H. W.

Dmitriev, A.

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmuller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Direct near-field optical imaging of higher order plasmonic resonances,” Nano Lett. 8, 3155–3159 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorfmuller, J.

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmuller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Direct near-field optical imaging of higher order plasmonic resonances,” Nano Lett. 8, 3155–3159 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duyne, R. P.

A. D. Van McFarland and R. P. Duyne, “Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 3, 1057–1062 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Esteban, R.

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmuller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Direct near-field optical imaging of higher order plasmonic resonances,” Nano Lett. 8, 3155–3159 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Etrich, C.

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmuller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Direct near-field optical imaging of higher order plasmonic resonances,” Nano Lett. 8, 3155–3159 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ewusi-Ann, E.

N. E. Motl, E. Ewusi-Ann, I. T. Sines, L. Jensen, and R. E. Schaak, “Au-Cu alloy nanoparticles with tunable compositions and plasmonic properties: experimental determination of composition and correlation with theory,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 19263–19269 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sonnichsen, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering,” Nano Lett. 3, 935–938(2003).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, R. C.

M. L. Schatternburg, R. J. Aucoin, and R. C. Fleming, “Optically matched trilevel resist process for nanostructure fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3007–3011(1995).
[CrossRef]

Franzl, T.

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sonnichsen, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering,” Nano Lett. 3, 935–938(2003).
[CrossRef]

Grieshaber, D.

T. Sannomiya, P. K. Sahoo, D. I. Mahcicek, H. H. Solak, C. Hafner, D. Grieshaber, and J. Voros, “Biosensing by densely packed and optically coupled plasmonic particle arrays,” Small 5, 1889–1896 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haes, A. J.

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 10596–10604(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hafner, C.

T. Sannomiya, P. K. Sahoo, D. I. Mahcicek, H. H. Solak, C. Hafner, D. Grieshaber, and J. Voros, “Biosensing by densely packed and optically coupled plasmonic particle arrays,” Small 5, 1889–1896 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hafner, J. H.

K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Chem. Rev. 111, 3828–3857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, M. H.

Hor, T. S. A.

Hou, Y.

Y. Hou, J. Xu, P. Wang, and D. Yu, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy on coupled two-layer nanorings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, V. K. S.

V. K. S. Hsiao, Y. B. Zheng, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, “Light-driven plasmonic switches based on Au nanodisk arrays and photoresponsive liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 20, 3528–3532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T. J.

Y. B. Zheng, L. Jensen, W. Yan, and T. R. Walker, B. K. Juluri, L. Jensen, and T. J. Huang, “Chemically tuning the localized surface plasmon resonances of gold nanostructure arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 7019–7024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. K. S. Hsiao, Y. B. Zheng, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, “Light-driven plasmonic switches based on Au nanodisk arrays and photoresponsive liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 20, 3528–3532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Zheng, B. K. Juluri, X. Mao, T. R. Walker, and T. J. Huang, “Systematic investigation of localized surface plasmon resonance of long range ordered Au nanodisk arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 014308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z. Q.

Jensen, L.

N. E. Motl, E. Ewusi-Ann, I. T. Sines, L. Jensen, and R. E. Schaak, “Au-Cu alloy nanoparticles with tunable compositions and plasmonic properties: experimental determination of composition and correlation with theory,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 19263–19269 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Zheng, L. Jensen, W. Yan, and T. R. Walker, B. K. Juluri, L. Jensen, and T. J. Huang, “Chemically tuning the localized surface plasmon resonances of gold nanostructure arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 7019–7024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Zheng, L. Jensen, W. Yan, and T. R. Walker, B. K. Juluri, L. Jensen, and T. J. Huang, “Chemically tuning the localized surface plasmon resonances of gold nanostructure arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 7019–7024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Juluri, B. K.

Y. B. Zheng, L. Jensen, W. Yan, and T. R. Walker, B. K. Juluri, L. Jensen, and T. J. Huang, “Chemically tuning the localized surface plasmon resonances of gold nanostructure arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 7019–7024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. K. S. Hsiao, Y. B. Zheng, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, “Light-driven plasmonic switches based on Au nanodisk arrays and photoresponsive liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 20, 3528–3532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Zheng, B. K. Juluri, X. Mao, T. R. Walker, and T. J. Huang, “Systematic investigation of localized surface plasmon resonance of long range ordered Au nanodisk arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 014308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kalyanaraman, R.

H. Krishna, N. Shirato, S. Yadavali, R. Sachan, J. Strader, and R. Kalyanaraman, “Self-organization of nanoscle multilayer liquid metal films: experiment and theory,” ACS Nano 5, 470–476 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, K. L.

K. L. Kelly and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kern, K.

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmuller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Direct near-field optical imaging of higher order plasmonic resonances,” Nano Lett. 8, 3155–3159 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klar, T. A.

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sonnichsen, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering,” Nano Lett. 3, 935–938(2003).
[CrossRef]

Kowarik, S.

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sonnichsen, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering,” Nano Lett. 3, 935–938(2003).
[CrossRef]

Krishna, H.

H. Krishna, N. Shirato, S. Yadavali, R. Sachan, J. Strader, and R. Kalyanaraman, “Self-organization of nanoscle multilayer liquid metal films: experiment and theory,” ACS Nano 5, 470–476 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lide, D. R.

D. R. Lide, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 87th ed. (CRC Press, 2006).

Liu, C. H.

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahcicek, D. I.

T. Sannomiya, P. K. Sahoo, D. I. Mahcicek, H. H. Solak, C. Hafner, D. Grieshaber, and J. Voros, “Biosensing by densely packed and optically coupled plasmonic particle arrays,” Small 5, 1889–1896 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandal, S. K.

R. K. Roy, S. K. Mandal, and A. K. Pal, “Effect of interfacial alloying on the surface plasmon resonance of nanocrystalline Au-Ag multilayer thin films,” Eur. Phys. J. B 33, 109–114(2003).
[CrossRef]

Mao, X.

Y. B. Zheng, B. K. Juluri, X. Mao, T. R. Walker, and T. J. Huang, “Systematic investigation of localized surface plasmon resonance of long range ordered Au nanodisk arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 014308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, K. M.

K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Chem. Rev. 111, 3828–3857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motl, N. E.

N. E. Motl, E. Ewusi-Ann, I. T. Sines, L. Jensen, and R. E. Schaak, “Au-Cu alloy nanoparticles with tunable compositions and plasmonic properties: experimental determination of composition and correlation with theory,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 19263–19269 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pal, A. K.

R. K. Roy, S. K. Mandal, and A. K. Pal, “Effect of interfacial alloying on the surface plasmon resonance of nanocrystalline Au-Ag multilayer thin films,” Eur. Phys. J. B 33, 109–114(2003).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

Raschke, G.

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sonnichsen, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering,” Nano Lett. 3, 935–938(2003).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmuller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Direct near-field optical imaging of higher order plasmonic resonances,” Nano Lett. 8, 3155–3159 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, R. K.

R. K. Roy, S. K. Mandal, and A. K. Pal, “Effect of interfacial alloying on the surface plasmon resonance of nanocrystalline Au-Ag multilayer thin films,” Eur. Phys. J. B 33, 109–114(2003).
[CrossRef]

Sachan, R.

H. Krishna, N. Shirato, S. Yadavali, R. Sachan, J. Strader, and R. Kalyanaraman, “Self-organization of nanoscle multilayer liquid metal films: experiment and theory,” ACS Nano 5, 470–476 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sahoo, P. K.

T. Sannomiya, P. K. Sahoo, D. I. Mahcicek, H. H. Solak, C. Hafner, D. Grieshaber, and J. Voros, “Biosensing by densely packed and optically coupled plasmonic particle arrays,” Small 5, 1889–1896 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sannomiya, T.

T. Sannomiya, P. K. Sahoo, D. I. Mahcicek, H. H. Solak, C. Hafner, D. Grieshaber, and J. Voros, “Biosensing by densely packed and optically coupled plasmonic particle arrays,” Small 5, 1889–1896 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaak, R. E.

N. E. Motl, E. Ewusi-Ann, I. T. Sines, L. Jensen, and R. E. Schaak, “Au-Cu alloy nanoparticles with tunable compositions and plasmonic properties: experimental determination of composition and correlation with theory,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 19263–19269 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schatternburg, M. L.

M. L. Schatternburg, R. J. Aucoin, and R. C. Fleming, “Optically matched trilevel resist process for nanostructure fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3007–3011(1995).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, G. C.

K. L. Kelly and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shirato, N.

H. Krishna, N. Shirato, S. Yadavali, R. Sachan, J. Strader, and R. Kalyanaraman, “Self-organization of nanoscle multilayer liquid metal films: experiment and theory,” ACS Nano 5, 470–476 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sines, I. T.

N. E. Motl, E. Ewusi-Ann, I. T. Sines, L. Jensen, and R. E. Schaak, “Au-Cu alloy nanoparticles with tunable compositions and plasmonic properties: experimental determination of composition and correlation with theory,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 19263–19269 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Solak, H. H.

T. Sannomiya, P. K. Sahoo, D. I. Mahcicek, H. H. Solak, C. Hafner, D. Grieshaber, and J. Voros, “Biosensing by densely packed and optically coupled plasmonic particle arrays,” Small 5, 1889–1896 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonnichsen, C.

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sonnichsen, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering,” Nano Lett. 3, 935–938(2003).
[CrossRef]

Strader, J.

H. Krishna, N. Shirato, S. Yadavali, R. Sachan, J. Strader, and R. Kalyanaraman, “Self-organization of nanoscle multilayer liquid metal films: experiment and theory,” ACS Nano 5, 470–476 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tan, L. S.

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 10596–10604(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van McFarland, A. D.

A. D. Van McFarland and R. P. Duyne, “Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 3, 1057–1062 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vogelgesang, R.

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmuller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Direct near-field optical imaging of higher order plasmonic resonances,” Nano Lett. 8, 3155–3159 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voros, J.

T. Sannomiya, P. K. Sahoo, D. I. Mahcicek, H. H. Solak, C. Hafner, D. Grieshaber, and J. Voros, “Biosensing by densely packed and optically coupled plasmonic particle arrays,” Small 5, 1889–1896 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, T. R.

Y. B. Zheng, L. Jensen, W. Yan, and T. R. Walker, B. K. Juluri, L. Jensen, and T. J. Huang, “Chemically tuning the localized surface plasmon resonances of gold nanostructure arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 7019–7024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Zheng, B. K. Juluri, X. Mao, T. R. Walker, and T. J. Huang, “Systematic investigation of localized surface plasmon resonance of long range ordered Au nanodisk arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 014308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

Y. Hou, J. Xu, P. Wang, and D. Yu, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy on coupled two-layer nanorings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Y. Hou, J. Xu, P. Wang, and D. Yu, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy on coupled two-layer nanorings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yadavali, S.

H. Krishna, N. Shirato, S. Yadavali, R. Sachan, J. Strader, and R. Kalyanaraman, “Self-organization of nanoscle multilayer liquid metal films: experiment and theory,” ACS Nano 5, 470–476 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yan, W.

Y. B. Zheng, L. Jensen, W. Yan, and T. R. Walker, B. K. Juluri, L. Jensen, and T. J. Huang, “Chemically tuning the localized surface plasmon resonances of gold nanostructure arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 7019–7024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, D.

Y. Hou, J. Xu, P. Wang, and D. Yu, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy on coupled two-layer nanorings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, Y. B.

Y. B. Zheng, L. Jensen, W. Yan, and T. R. Walker, B. K. Juluri, L. Jensen, and T. J. Huang, “Chemically tuning the localized surface plasmon resonances of gold nanostructure arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 7019–7024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. K. S. Hsiao, Y. B. Zheng, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, “Light-driven plasmonic switches based on Au nanodisk arrays and photoresponsive liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 20, 3528–3532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Zheng, B. K. Juluri, X. Mao, T. R. Walker, and T. J. Huang, “Systematic investigation of localized surface plasmon resonance of long range ordered Au nanodisk arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 014308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

H. Krishna, N. Shirato, S. Yadavali, R. Sachan, J. Strader, and R. Kalyanaraman, “Self-organization of nanoscle multilayer liquid metal films: experiment and theory,” ACS Nano 5, 470–476 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

V. K. S. Hsiao, Y. B. Zheng, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, “Light-driven plasmonic switches based on Au nanodisk arrays and photoresponsive liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 20, 3528–3532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Hou, J. Xu, P. Wang, and D. Yu, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy on coupled two-layer nanorings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Chem. Rev. 111, 3828–3857 (2011).
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R. K. Roy, S. K. Mandal, and A. K. Pal, “Effect of interfacial alloying on the surface plasmon resonance of nanocrystalline Au-Ag multilayer thin films,” Eur. Phys. J. B 33, 109–114(2003).
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A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 10596–10604(2002).
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Y. B. Zheng, B. K. Juluri, X. Mao, T. R. Walker, and T. J. Huang, “Systematic investigation of localized surface plasmon resonance of long range ordered Au nanodisk arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 014308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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N. E. Motl, E. Ewusi-Ann, I. T. Sines, L. Jensen, and R. E. Schaak, “Au-Cu alloy nanoparticles with tunable compositions and plasmonic properties: experimental determination of composition and correlation with theory,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 19263–19269 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Zheng, L. Jensen, W. Yan, and T. R. Walker, B. K. Juluri, L. Jensen, and T. J. Huang, “Chemically tuning the localized surface plasmon resonances of gold nanostructure arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 7019–7024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Nano Lett. (3)

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sonnichsen, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering,” Nano Lett. 3, 935–938(2003).
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A. D. Van McFarland and R. P. Duyne, “Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 3, 1057–1062 (2003).
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Nat. Mater. (1)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Small (1)

T. Sannomiya, P. K. Sahoo, D. I. Mahcicek, H. H. Solak, C. Hafner, D. Grieshaber, and J. Voros, “Biosensing by densely packed and optically coupled plasmonic particle arrays,” Small 5, 1889–1896 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fabrication of Ag/Au bimetallic nanodots arrays by LIL and thermal annealing: (a) PR spin coating; (b) PR exposure by LIL; (c) PR developing; (d) Cr, Ag, and Au metallic thin film deposition; (e) lift-off; and (f) thermal annealing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of Ag 0.75 / Au 0.25 bimetallic nanodisk arrays fabricated by LIL (a) before and (b) after thermal annealing, and (c) their measured extinction spectra.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Extinction spectra of bimetallic Ag/Au nanodisk arrays formed by the combination of LIL and thermal annealing at different Au concentrations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Experimental extinction spectra of the Ag 0.75 / Au 0.25 nanodot arrays in different environments: air, methanol, and ethanol ( n = 1 , 1.3290, and 1.3614), and (b) peak shift of the Ag 0.75 / Au 0.25 nanodot arrays in different environments.

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