Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate a photon-counting, single-pixel, laser radar camera for 3D imaging where transverse spatial resolution is obtained through compressive sensing without scanning. We use this technique to image through partially obscuring objects, such as camouflage netting. Our implementation improves upon pixel-array based designs with a compact, resource-efficient design and highly scalable resolution.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. J. Kane, W. J. Kozlovsky, R. L. Byer, and C. E. Byvik, “Coherent laser radar at 1.06 μm using nd:yag lasers,” Opt. Lett. 12, 239–241 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. A. Albota, “Three-dimensional imaging laser radars with geiger-mode avalange photodiode arrays,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 351–367 (2002).
  3. B. W. Schilling, D. N. Barr, G. C. Templeton, L. J. Mizerka, and C. W. Trussell, “Multiple-return laser radar for three-dimensional imaging through obscurations,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2791–2799 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Degnan, R. Machan, E. Leventhal, D. Lawrence, G. Jodor, and C. Field, “Inflight performance of a second-generation photon-counting 3d imaging lidar,” Proc. SPIE 6950, 695007 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. For example, see www.advancedscientificconcepts.com or www.selex-comms.com.
  6. R. M. Marino and W. R. Davis, Jr., “Real-time 3d ladar imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 15, 23–35 (2005).
  7. V. C. Coffey, “Seeing in the dark: Defense applications of IR imaging,” Opt. Photon. News 22(4), 27–31 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. A. Itzler, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, S. Rangwala, P. F. Zalud, T. Senko, J. Tower, and J. Ferraro, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays for three-dimensional imaging ladar,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 78080C (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Smith, J. Donnelly, K. McIntosh, E. Duerr, D. Shaver, S. Verghese, J. Funk, L. Mahoney, K. Molvar, D. Chapman, and D. Oakley, “Reliable large format arrays of geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” in 20th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 2008 (IPRM 2008) (2008), pp. 1–3.
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. McIntosh, “Arrays of gieger-mode avalanche photodiodes for ladar and laser communications,” in Applications of Lasers for Sensing and Free Space Communications (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. LSWC1.
  11. M. Duarte, M. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. Laska, T. Sun, K. Kelly, and R. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25, 83–91(2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Baraniuk, “Compressive sensing [lecture notes],” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 24, 118–121 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Donoho, “Compressed sensing,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 1289–1306 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Candes and M. Wakin, “An introduction to compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25, 21–30 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Figueiredo, R. Nowak, and S. Wright, “Gradient projection for sparse reconstruction: Application to compressed sensing and other inverse problems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 1, 586–597 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Cands and J. Romberg, “Sparsity and incoherence in compressive sampling,” Inverse Probl. 23, 969–985 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. Candes, J. Romberg, and T. Tao, “Robust uncertainty principles: exact signal reconstruction from highly incomplete frequency information,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 489–509(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Dudley, W. M. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirror device (dmd) applications,” Proc. SPIE 4985,  14–25 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2011

V. C. Coffey, “Seeing in the dark: Defense applications of IR imaging,” Opt. Photon. News 22(4), 27–31 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

M. A. Itzler, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, S. Rangwala, P. F. Zalud, T. Senko, J. Tower, and J. Ferraro, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays for three-dimensional imaging ladar,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 78080C (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. Duarte, M. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. Laska, T. Sun, K. Kelly, and R. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25, 83–91(2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Candes and M. Wakin, “An introduction to compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25, 21–30 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Degnan, R. Machan, E. Leventhal, D. Lawrence, G. Jodor, and C. Field, “Inflight performance of a second-generation photon-counting 3d imaging lidar,” Proc. SPIE 6950, 695007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Figueiredo, R. Nowak, and S. Wright, “Gradient projection for sparse reconstruction: Application to compressed sensing and other inverse problems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 1, 586–597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Cands and J. Romberg, “Sparsity and incoherence in compressive sampling,” Inverse Probl. 23, 969–985 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Baraniuk, “Compressive sensing [lecture notes],” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 24, 118–121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. Donoho, “Compressed sensing,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 1289–1306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Candes, J. Romberg, and T. Tao, “Robust uncertainty principles: exact signal reconstruction from highly incomplete frequency information,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 489–509(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

R. M. Marino and W. R. Davis, Jr., “Real-time 3d ladar imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 15, 23–35 (2005).

2003

D. Dudley, W. M. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirror device (dmd) applications,” Proc. SPIE 4985,  14–25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

1987

Albota, M. A.

M. A. Albota, “Three-dimensional imaging laser radars with geiger-mode avalange photodiode arrays,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 351–367 (2002).

Baraniuk, R.

M. Duarte, M. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. Laska, T. Sun, K. Kelly, and R. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25, 83–91(2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Baraniuk, “Compressive sensing [lecture notes],” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 24, 118–121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barr, D. N.

Byer, R. L.

Byvik, C. E.

Candes, E.

E. Candes and M. Wakin, “An introduction to compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25, 21–30 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Candes, J. Romberg, and T. Tao, “Robust uncertainty principles: exact signal reconstruction from highly incomplete frequency information,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 489–509(2006).
[CrossRef]

Cands, E.

E. Cands and J. Romberg, “Sparsity and incoherence in compressive sampling,” Inverse Probl. 23, 969–985 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, D.

G. Smith, J. Donnelly, K. McIntosh, E. Duerr, D. Shaver, S. Verghese, J. Funk, L. Mahoney, K. Molvar, D. Chapman, and D. Oakley, “Reliable large format arrays of geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” in 20th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 2008 (IPRM 2008) (2008), pp. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

Coffey, V. C.

V. C. Coffey, “Seeing in the dark: Defense applications of IR imaging,” Opt. Photon. News 22(4), 27–31 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Davenport, M.

M. Duarte, M. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. Laska, T. Sun, K. Kelly, and R. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25, 83–91(2008).
[CrossRef]

Davis, W. R.

R. M. Marino and W. R. Davis, Jr., “Real-time 3d ladar imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 15, 23–35 (2005).

Degnan, J.

J. Degnan, R. Machan, E. Leventhal, D. Lawrence, G. Jodor, and C. Field, “Inflight performance of a second-generation photon-counting 3d imaging lidar,” Proc. SPIE 6950, 695007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, J.

G. Smith, J. Donnelly, K. McIntosh, E. Duerr, D. Shaver, S. Verghese, J. Funk, L. Mahoney, K. Molvar, D. Chapman, and D. Oakley, “Reliable large format arrays of geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” in 20th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 2008 (IPRM 2008) (2008), pp. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

Donoho, D.

D. Donoho, “Compressed sensing,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 1289–1306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duarte, M.

M. Duarte, M. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. Laska, T. Sun, K. Kelly, and R. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25, 83–91(2008).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, D.

D. Dudley, W. M. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirror device (dmd) applications,” Proc. SPIE 4985,  14–25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Duerr, E.

G. Smith, J. Donnelly, K. McIntosh, E. Duerr, D. Shaver, S. Verghese, J. Funk, L. Mahoney, K. Molvar, D. Chapman, and D. Oakley, “Reliable large format arrays of geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” in 20th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 2008 (IPRM 2008) (2008), pp. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

Duncan, W. M.

D. Dudley, W. M. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirror device (dmd) applications,” Proc. SPIE 4985,  14–25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Entwistle, M.

M. A. Itzler, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, S. Rangwala, P. F. Zalud, T. Senko, J. Tower, and J. Ferraro, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays for three-dimensional imaging ladar,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 78080C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, J.

M. A. Itzler, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, S. Rangwala, P. F. Zalud, T. Senko, J. Tower, and J. Ferraro, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays for three-dimensional imaging ladar,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 78080C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Field, C.

J. Degnan, R. Machan, E. Leventhal, D. Lawrence, G. Jodor, and C. Field, “Inflight performance of a second-generation photon-counting 3d imaging lidar,” Proc. SPIE 6950, 695007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Figueiredo, M.

M. Figueiredo, R. Nowak, and S. Wright, “Gradient projection for sparse reconstruction: Application to compressed sensing and other inverse problems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 1, 586–597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Funk, J.

G. Smith, J. Donnelly, K. McIntosh, E. Duerr, D. Shaver, S. Verghese, J. Funk, L. Mahoney, K. Molvar, D. Chapman, and D. Oakley, “Reliable large format arrays of geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” in 20th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 2008 (IPRM 2008) (2008), pp. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

Itzler, M. A.

M. A. Itzler, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, S. Rangwala, P. F. Zalud, T. Senko, J. Tower, and J. Ferraro, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays for three-dimensional imaging ladar,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 78080C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

M. A. Itzler, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, S. Rangwala, P. F. Zalud, T. Senko, J. Tower, and J. Ferraro, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays for three-dimensional imaging ladar,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 78080C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jodor, G.

J. Degnan, R. Machan, E. Leventhal, D. Lawrence, G. Jodor, and C. Field, “Inflight performance of a second-generation photon-counting 3d imaging lidar,” Proc. SPIE 6950, 695007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kane, T. J.

Kelly, K.

M. Duarte, M. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. Laska, T. Sun, K. Kelly, and R. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25, 83–91(2008).
[CrossRef]

Kozlovsky, W. J.

Laska, J.

M. Duarte, M. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. Laska, T. Sun, K. Kelly, and R. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25, 83–91(2008).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, D.

J. Degnan, R. Machan, E. Leventhal, D. Lawrence, G. Jodor, and C. Field, “Inflight performance of a second-generation photon-counting 3d imaging lidar,” Proc. SPIE 6950, 695007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leventhal, E.

J. Degnan, R. Machan, E. Leventhal, D. Lawrence, G. Jodor, and C. Field, “Inflight performance of a second-generation photon-counting 3d imaging lidar,” Proc. SPIE 6950, 695007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Machan, R.

J. Degnan, R. Machan, E. Leventhal, D. Lawrence, G. Jodor, and C. Field, “Inflight performance of a second-generation photon-counting 3d imaging lidar,” Proc. SPIE 6950, 695007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mahoney, L.

G. Smith, J. Donnelly, K. McIntosh, E. Duerr, D. Shaver, S. Verghese, J. Funk, L. Mahoney, K. Molvar, D. Chapman, and D. Oakley, “Reliable large format arrays of geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” in 20th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 2008 (IPRM 2008) (2008), pp. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

Marino, R. M.

R. M. Marino and W. R. Davis, Jr., “Real-time 3d ladar imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 15, 23–35 (2005).

McIntosh, A.

A. McIntosh, “Arrays of gieger-mode avalanche photodiodes for ladar and laser communications,” in Applications of Lasers for Sensing and Free Space Communications (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. LSWC1.

McIntosh, K.

G. Smith, J. Donnelly, K. McIntosh, E. Duerr, D. Shaver, S. Verghese, J. Funk, L. Mahoney, K. Molvar, D. Chapman, and D. Oakley, “Reliable large format arrays of geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” in 20th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 2008 (IPRM 2008) (2008), pp. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

Mizerka, L. J.

Molvar, K.

G. Smith, J. Donnelly, K. McIntosh, E. Duerr, D. Shaver, S. Verghese, J. Funk, L. Mahoney, K. Molvar, D. Chapman, and D. Oakley, “Reliable large format arrays of geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” in 20th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 2008 (IPRM 2008) (2008), pp. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

Nowak, R.

M. Figueiredo, R. Nowak, and S. Wright, “Gradient projection for sparse reconstruction: Application to compressed sensing and other inverse problems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 1, 586–597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oakley, D.

G. Smith, J. Donnelly, K. McIntosh, E. Duerr, D. Shaver, S. Verghese, J. Funk, L. Mahoney, K. Molvar, D. Chapman, and D. Oakley, “Reliable large format arrays of geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” in 20th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 2008 (IPRM 2008) (2008), pp. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

Owens, M.

M. A. Itzler, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, S. Rangwala, P. F. Zalud, T. Senko, J. Tower, and J. Ferraro, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays for three-dimensional imaging ladar,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 78080C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Patel, K.

M. A. Itzler, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, S. Rangwala, P. F. Zalud, T. Senko, J. Tower, and J. Ferraro, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays for three-dimensional imaging ladar,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 78080C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rangwala, S.

M. A. Itzler, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, S. Rangwala, P. F. Zalud, T. Senko, J. Tower, and J. Ferraro, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays for three-dimensional imaging ladar,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 78080C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Romberg, J.

E. Cands and J. Romberg, “Sparsity and incoherence in compressive sampling,” Inverse Probl. 23, 969–985 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Candes, J. Romberg, and T. Tao, “Robust uncertainty principles: exact signal reconstruction from highly incomplete frequency information,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 489–509(2006).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, B. W.

Senko, T.

M. A. Itzler, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, S. Rangwala, P. F. Zalud, T. Senko, J. Tower, and J. Ferraro, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays for three-dimensional imaging ladar,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 78080C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shaver, D.

G. Smith, J. Donnelly, K. McIntosh, E. Duerr, D. Shaver, S. Verghese, J. Funk, L. Mahoney, K. Molvar, D. Chapman, and D. Oakley, “Reliable large format arrays of geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” in 20th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 2008 (IPRM 2008) (2008), pp. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

Slaughter, J.

D. Dudley, W. M. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirror device (dmd) applications,” Proc. SPIE 4985,  14–25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Slomkowski, K.

M. A. Itzler, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, S. Rangwala, P. F. Zalud, T. Senko, J. Tower, and J. Ferraro, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays for three-dimensional imaging ladar,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 78080C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G.

G. Smith, J. Donnelly, K. McIntosh, E. Duerr, D. Shaver, S. Verghese, J. Funk, L. Mahoney, K. Molvar, D. Chapman, and D. Oakley, “Reliable large format arrays of geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” in 20th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 2008 (IPRM 2008) (2008), pp. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

Sun, T.

M. Duarte, M. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. Laska, T. Sun, K. Kelly, and R. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25, 83–91(2008).
[CrossRef]

Takhar, D.

M. Duarte, M. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. Laska, T. Sun, K. Kelly, and R. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25, 83–91(2008).
[CrossRef]

Tao, T.

E. Candes, J. Romberg, and T. Tao, “Robust uncertainty principles: exact signal reconstruction from highly incomplete frequency information,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 489–509(2006).
[CrossRef]

Templeton, G. C.

Tower, J.

M. A. Itzler, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, S. Rangwala, P. F. Zalud, T. Senko, J. Tower, and J. Ferraro, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays for three-dimensional imaging ladar,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 78080C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Trussell, C. W.

Verghese, S.

G. Smith, J. Donnelly, K. McIntosh, E. Duerr, D. Shaver, S. Verghese, J. Funk, L. Mahoney, K. Molvar, D. Chapman, and D. Oakley, “Reliable large format arrays of geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” in 20th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 2008 (IPRM 2008) (2008), pp. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

Wakin, M.

E. Candes and M. Wakin, “An introduction to compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25, 21–30 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wright, S.

M. Figueiredo, R. Nowak, and S. Wright, “Gradient projection for sparse reconstruction: Application to compressed sensing and other inverse problems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 1, 586–597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zalud, P. F.

M. A. Itzler, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, S. Rangwala, P. F. Zalud, T. Senko, J. Tower, and J. Ferraro, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays for three-dimensional imaging ladar,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 78080C (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process.

M. Figueiredo, R. Nowak, and S. Wright, “Gradient projection for sparse reconstruction: Application to compressed sensing and other inverse problems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 1, 586–597 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Signal Process. Mag.

E. Candes and M. Wakin, “An introduction to compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25, 21–30 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Duarte, M. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. Laska, T. Sun, K. Kelly, and R. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25, 83–91(2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Baraniuk, “Compressive sensing [lecture notes],” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 24, 118–121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory

D. Donoho, “Compressed sensing,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 1289–1306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Candes, J. Romberg, and T. Tao, “Robust uncertainty principles: exact signal reconstruction from highly incomplete frequency information,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 489–509(2006).
[CrossRef]

Inverse Probl.

E. Cands and J. Romberg, “Sparsity and incoherence in compressive sampling,” Inverse Probl. 23, 969–985 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lincoln Lab. J.

M. A. Albota, “Three-dimensional imaging laser radars with geiger-mode avalange photodiode arrays,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13, 351–367 (2002).

R. M. Marino and W. R. Davis, Jr., “Real-time 3d ladar imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 15, 23–35 (2005).

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Photon. News

V. C. Coffey, “Seeing in the dark: Defense applications of IR imaging,” Opt. Photon. News 22(4), 27–31 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

M. A. Itzler, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, S. Rangwala, P. F. Zalud, T. Senko, J. Tower, and J. Ferraro, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays for three-dimensional imaging ladar,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 78080C (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Degnan, R. Machan, E. Leventhal, D. Lawrence, G. Jodor, and C. Field, “Inflight performance of a second-generation photon-counting 3d imaging lidar,” Proc. SPIE 6950, 695007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Dudley, W. M. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirror device (dmd) applications,” Proc. SPIE 4985,  14–25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

For example, see www.advancedscientificconcepts.com or www.selex-comms.com.

G. Smith, J. Donnelly, K. McIntosh, E. Duerr, D. Shaver, S. Verghese, J. Funk, L. Mahoney, K. Molvar, D. Chapman, and D. Oakley, “Reliable large format arrays of geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” in 20th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 2008 (IPRM 2008) (2008), pp. 1–3.
[CrossRef]

A. McIntosh, “Arrays of gieger-mode avalanche photodiodes for ladar and laser communications,” in Applications of Lasers for Sensing and Free Space Communications (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. LSWC1.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for ranged imaging.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reconstructions for objects ‘U’ and ‘R’ at depths 1.75 m and 2.10 m . (a) and (b) consider only ‘U’ and ‘R’, respectively, while (c) considers a range including both. Timing histogram (d) peaks represent ‘U’, ‘R’, and the room wall in left-to-right order.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reconstructions for object ‘U’ for increasing measurement number m. An increase in m causes a corresponding increase in reconstruction quality, but information about the entire scene is obtained even for small m, demonstrating the progressive nature of CS.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

64 × 64 reconstructions for an object ‘UR’ obscured by burlap camouflage material. (a) Includes both object and obscurant while (b) includes the object only. (c) Gives a conventional CCD picture. Timing histogram (d) peaks represent the burlap, ‘UR’ object, and room wall in left-to-right order.

Equations (2)

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y = Ax + ϕ .
min x 1 2 y Ax 2 2 + τ x 1 ,

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