Abstract

We propose an optical-sensitivity-enhanced external electro-optic (EO) measurement system using a poled polymer as an EO sensor. A pumping laser is used to induce the photoisomerization effect in a prepoled EO polymer to both enhance and maintain the noncentrosymmetric molecular orientation. This approach increases the EO coefficient and, hence, enhances the EO measurement sensitivity. Experimental results of an EO sensor made of DR1/PMMA show that this method can improve the sensitivity by at least a factor of 2.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. S. Heutmaker and G. T. Harvey, “Electro-optic sampling of high-speed silicon integrated circuits using a GaAs probe tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 146–148 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  2. X. Wu, D. Conn, J. Song, and K. Nickerson, “Invasiveness of LiTaO3 and GaAs probe in external E-O sampling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 448–454 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Y. Frankel, “Optoelectronic techniques for ultrafast device network analysis to 700 GHz,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 783–800 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. Takahashi, S.-I. Aoshinma, and Y. Tsuchiya, “Sampling and real-time methods in electro-optic probing system,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 965–971 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Yaita and T. Nagatsuma, “Optical sampling of electrical signals in poled polymeric media,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E76-C, 222–228 (1993).
  6. P. M. Ferm, C. W. Knapp, C. J. Wu, J. T. Yardley, B. B. Hu, X. C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Femtosecond response of electro-optic poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2651–2653(1991).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. I. Thackara, D. M. Bloom, and B. A. Auld, “Electro-optic sampling of poled organic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1159–1161 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. A. Deibel and J. F. Whitaker, “A fiber-mounted polymer electro-optic-sampling field sensor,” in Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2003, Vol. 2 (IEEE, 2003), pp. 786–787.
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Nagatsuma, M. Yaita, M. Shinagawa, M. Amano, and Y. Shuto, “Organic patch sensor for electro-optic measurement of electrical signals in integrated circuits,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1159–1161 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. M. Zhang, M. B. Yi, X. J. Tian, W. Sun, A. L. Hou, J. Z. Sun, Y. G. Ma, W. J. Tian, and J. C. Shen, “External electro-optic measurement utilizing poled polymer-based asymmetric Fabry-Perot reflection film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6184–6188(1999).
    [Crossref]
  11. Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, and W. Knoll, “Reorientation mechanism of azobenzenes within the trans⇒cis photoisomerization,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17226–17234(1995).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Bauer, “Poled polymer for sensor and photonic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 5531–5558 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  13. Z. Sekkat and M. Bumont, “Photoassisted poling of azo dye doped polymeric films at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 486–489 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. H. Yu and L. J. Fina, “Electric field-induced dipole reorientation in oriented nylon 11 by in situ infrared spectroscopy,” J. Polym. Sci. B Polym. Phys. 34, 781–788 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  15. C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734–1736 (1990).
    [Crossref]

1999 (1)

D. M. Zhang, M. B. Yi, X. J. Tian, W. Sun, A. L. Hou, J. Z. Sun, Y. G. Ma, W. J. Tian, and J. C. Shen, “External electro-optic measurement utilizing poled polymer-based asymmetric Fabry-Perot reflection film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6184–6188(1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (3)

M. Y. Frankel, “Optoelectronic techniques for ultrafast device network analysis to 700 GHz,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 783–800 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. Bauer, “Poled polymer for sensor and photonic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 5531–5558 (1996).
[Crossref]

H. H. Yu and L. J. Fina, “Electric field-induced dipole reorientation in oriented nylon 11 by in situ infrared spectroscopy,” J. Polym. Sci. B Polym. Phys. 34, 781–788 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

H. Takahashi, S.-I. Aoshinma, and Y. Tsuchiya, “Sampling and real-time methods in electro-optic probing system,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 965–971 (1995).
[Crossref]

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, and W. Knoll, “Reorientation mechanism of azobenzenes within the trans⇒cis photoisomerization,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17226–17234(1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

X. Wu, D. Conn, J. Song, and K. Nickerson, “Invasiveness of LiTaO3 and GaAs probe in external E-O sampling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 448–454 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. Yaita and T. Nagatsuma, “Optical sampling of electrical signals in poled polymeric media,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E76-C, 222–228 (1993).

1992 (1)

Z. Sekkat and M. Bumont, “Photoassisted poling of azo dye doped polymeric films at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 486–489 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (4)

P. M. Ferm, C. W. Knapp, C. J. Wu, J. T. Yardley, B. B. Hu, X. C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Femtosecond response of electro-optic poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2651–2653(1991).
[Crossref]

J. I. Thackara, D. M. Bloom, and B. A. Auld, “Electro-optic sampling of poled organic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1159–1161 (1991).
[Crossref]

T. Nagatsuma, M. Yaita, M. Shinagawa, M. Amano, and Y. Shuto, “Organic patch sensor for electro-optic measurement of electrical signals in integrated circuits,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1159–1161 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. S. Heutmaker and G. T. Harvey, “Electro-optic sampling of high-speed silicon integrated circuits using a GaAs probe tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 146–148 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734–1736 (1990).
[Crossref]

Amano, M.

T. Nagatsuma, M. Yaita, M. Shinagawa, M. Amano, and Y. Shuto, “Organic patch sensor for electro-optic measurement of electrical signals in integrated circuits,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1159–1161 (1991).
[Crossref]

Aoshinma, S.-I.

H. Takahashi, S.-I. Aoshinma, and Y. Tsuchiya, “Sampling and real-time methods in electro-optic probing system,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 965–971 (1995).
[Crossref]

Auld, B. A.

J. I. Thackara, D. M. Bloom, and B. A. Auld, “Electro-optic sampling of poled organic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1159–1161 (1991).
[Crossref]

Auston, D. H.

P. M. Ferm, C. W. Knapp, C. J. Wu, J. T. Yardley, B. B. Hu, X. C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Femtosecond response of electro-optic poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2651–2653(1991).
[Crossref]

Bauer, S.

S. Bauer, “Poled polymer for sensor and photonic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 5531–5558 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bloom, D. M.

J. I. Thackara, D. M. Bloom, and B. A. Auld, “Electro-optic sampling of poled organic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1159–1161 (1991).
[Crossref]

Bumont, M.

Z. Sekkat and M. Bumont, “Photoassisted poling of azo dye doped polymeric films at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 486–489 (1992).
[Crossref]

Conn, D.

X. Wu, D. Conn, J. Song, and K. Nickerson, “Invasiveness of LiTaO3 and GaAs probe in external E-O sampling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 448–454 (1993).
[Crossref]

Deibel, J. A.

J. A. Deibel and J. F. Whitaker, “A fiber-mounted polymer electro-optic-sampling field sensor,” in Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2003, Vol. 2 (IEEE, 2003), pp. 786–787.
[Crossref]

Ferm, P. M.

P. M. Ferm, C. W. Knapp, C. J. Wu, J. T. Yardley, B. B. Hu, X. C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Femtosecond response of electro-optic poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2651–2653(1991).
[Crossref]

Fina, L. J.

H. H. Yu and L. J. Fina, “Electric field-induced dipole reorientation in oriented nylon 11 by in situ infrared spectroscopy,” J. Polym. Sci. B Polym. Phys. 34, 781–788 (1996).
[Crossref]

Frankel, M. Y.

M. Y. Frankel, “Optoelectronic techniques for ultrafast device network analysis to 700 GHz,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 783–800 (1996).
[Crossref]

Harvey, G. T.

M. S. Heutmaker and G. T. Harvey, “Electro-optic sampling of high-speed silicon integrated circuits using a GaAs probe tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 146–148 (1991).
[Crossref]

Heutmaker, M. S.

M. S. Heutmaker and G. T. Harvey, “Electro-optic sampling of high-speed silicon integrated circuits using a GaAs probe tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 146–148 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hou, A. L.

D. M. Zhang, M. B. Yi, X. J. Tian, W. Sun, A. L. Hou, J. Z. Sun, Y. G. Ma, W. J. Tian, and J. C. Shen, “External electro-optic measurement utilizing poled polymer-based asymmetric Fabry-Perot reflection film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6184–6188(1999).
[Crossref]

Hu, B. B.

P. M. Ferm, C. W. Knapp, C. J. Wu, J. T. Yardley, B. B. Hu, X. C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Femtosecond response of electro-optic poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2651–2653(1991).
[Crossref]

Knapp, C. W.

P. M. Ferm, C. W. Knapp, C. J. Wu, J. T. Yardley, B. B. Hu, X. C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Femtosecond response of electro-optic poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2651–2653(1991).
[Crossref]

Knoll, W.

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, and W. Knoll, “Reorientation mechanism of azobenzenes within the trans⇒cis photoisomerization,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17226–17234(1995).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y. G.

D. M. Zhang, M. B. Yi, X. J. Tian, W. Sun, A. L. Hou, J. Z. Sun, Y. G. Ma, W. J. Tian, and J. C. Shen, “External electro-optic measurement utilizing poled polymer-based asymmetric Fabry-Perot reflection film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6184–6188(1999).
[Crossref]

Man, H. T.

C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734–1736 (1990).
[Crossref]

Nagatsuma, T.

M. Yaita and T. Nagatsuma, “Optical sampling of electrical signals in poled polymeric media,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E76-C, 222–228 (1993).

T. Nagatsuma, M. Yaita, M. Shinagawa, M. Amano, and Y. Shuto, “Organic patch sensor for electro-optic measurement of electrical signals in integrated circuits,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1159–1161 (1991).
[Crossref]

Nickerson, K.

X. Wu, D. Conn, J. Song, and K. Nickerson, “Invasiveness of LiTaO3 and GaAs probe in external E-O sampling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 448–454 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sekkat, Z.

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, and W. Knoll, “Reorientation mechanism of azobenzenes within the trans⇒cis photoisomerization,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17226–17234(1995).
[Crossref]

Z. Sekkat and M. Bumont, “Photoassisted poling of azo dye doped polymeric films at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 486–489 (1992).
[Crossref]

Shen, J. C.

D. M. Zhang, M. B. Yi, X. J. Tian, W. Sun, A. L. Hou, J. Z. Sun, Y. G. Ma, W. J. Tian, and J. C. Shen, “External electro-optic measurement utilizing poled polymer-based asymmetric Fabry-Perot reflection film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6184–6188(1999).
[Crossref]

Shinagawa, M.

T. Nagatsuma, M. Yaita, M. Shinagawa, M. Amano, and Y. Shuto, “Organic patch sensor for electro-optic measurement of electrical signals in integrated circuits,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1159–1161 (1991).
[Crossref]

Shuto, Y.

T. Nagatsuma, M. Yaita, M. Shinagawa, M. Amano, and Y. Shuto, “Organic patch sensor for electro-optic measurement of electrical signals in integrated circuits,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1159–1161 (1991).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

X. Wu, D. Conn, J. Song, and K. Nickerson, “Invasiveness of LiTaO3 and GaAs probe in external E-O sampling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 448–454 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sun, J. Z.

D. M. Zhang, M. B. Yi, X. J. Tian, W. Sun, A. L. Hou, J. Z. Sun, Y. G. Ma, W. J. Tian, and J. C. Shen, “External electro-optic measurement utilizing poled polymer-based asymmetric Fabry-Perot reflection film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6184–6188(1999).
[Crossref]

Sun, W.

D. M. Zhang, M. B. Yi, X. J. Tian, W. Sun, A. L. Hou, J. Z. Sun, Y. G. Ma, W. J. Tian, and J. C. Shen, “External electro-optic measurement utilizing poled polymer-based asymmetric Fabry-Perot reflection film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6184–6188(1999).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, H.

H. Takahashi, S.-I. Aoshinma, and Y. Tsuchiya, “Sampling and real-time methods in electro-optic probing system,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 965–971 (1995).
[Crossref]

Teng, C. C.

C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734–1736 (1990).
[Crossref]

Thackara, J. I.

J. I. Thackara, D. M. Bloom, and B. A. Auld, “Electro-optic sampling of poled organic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1159–1161 (1991).
[Crossref]

Tian, W. J.

D. M. Zhang, M. B. Yi, X. J. Tian, W. Sun, A. L. Hou, J. Z. Sun, Y. G. Ma, W. J. Tian, and J. C. Shen, “External electro-optic measurement utilizing poled polymer-based asymmetric Fabry-Perot reflection film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6184–6188(1999).
[Crossref]

Tian, X. J.

D. M. Zhang, M. B. Yi, X. J. Tian, W. Sun, A. L. Hou, J. Z. Sun, Y. G. Ma, W. J. Tian, and J. C. Shen, “External electro-optic measurement utilizing poled polymer-based asymmetric Fabry-Perot reflection film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6184–6188(1999).
[Crossref]

Tsuchiya, Y.

H. Takahashi, S.-I. Aoshinma, and Y. Tsuchiya, “Sampling and real-time methods in electro-optic probing system,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 965–971 (1995).
[Crossref]

Whitaker, J. F.

J. A. Deibel and J. F. Whitaker, “A fiber-mounted polymer electro-optic-sampling field sensor,” in Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2003, Vol. 2 (IEEE, 2003), pp. 786–787.
[Crossref]

Wood, J.

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, and W. Knoll, “Reorientation mechanism of azobenzenes within the trans⇒cis photoisomerization,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17226–17234(1995).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. J.

P. M. Ferm, C. W. Knapp, C. J. Wu, J. T. Yardley, B. B. Hu, X. C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Femtosecond response of electro-optic poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2651–2653(1991).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

X. Wu, D. Conn, J. Song, and K. Nickerson, “Invasiveness of LiTaO3 and GaAs probe in external E-O sampling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 448–454 (1993).
[Crossref]

Yaita, M.

M. Yaita and T. Nagatsuma, “Optical sampling of electrical signals in poled polymeric media,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E76-C, 222–228 (1993).

T. Nagatsuma, M. Yaita, M. Shinagawa, M. Amano, and Y. Shuto, “Organic patch sensor for electro-optic measurement of electrical signals in integrated circuits,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1159–1161 (1991).
[Crossref]

Yardley, J. T.

P. M. Ferm, C. W. Knapp, C. J. Wu, J. T. Yardley, B. B. Hu, X. C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Femtosecond response of electro-optic poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2651–2653(1991).
[Crossref]

Yi, M. B.

D. M. Zhang, M. B. Yi, X. J. Tian, W. Sun, A. L. Hou, J. Z. Sun, Y. G. Ma, W. J. Tian, and J. C. Shen, “External electro-optic measurement utilizing poled polymer-based asymmetric Fabry-Perot reflection film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6184–6188(1999).
[Crossref]

Yu, H. H.

H. H. Yu and L. J. Fina, “Electric field-induced dipole reorientation in oriented nylon 11 by in situ infrared spectroscopy,” J. Polym. Sci. B Polym. Phys. 34, 781–788 (1996).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D. M.

D. M. Zhang, M. B. Yi, X. J. Tian, W. Sun, A. L. Hou, J. Z. Sun, Y. G. Ma, W. J. Tian, and J. C. Shen, “External electro-optic measurement utilizing poled polymer-based asymmetric Fabry-Perot reflection film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6184–6188(1999).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. C.

P. M. Ferm, C. W. Knapp, C. J. Wu, J. T. Yardley, B. B. Hu, X. C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Femtosecond response of electro-optic poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2651–2653(1991).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Z. Sekkat and M. Bumont, “Photoassisted poling of azo dye doped polymeric films at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 486–489 (1992).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734–1736 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. S. Heutmaker and G. T. Harvey, “Electro-optic sampling of high-speed silicon integrated circuits using a GaAs probe tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 146–148 (1991).
[Crossref]

P. M. Ferm, C. W. Knapp, C. J. Wu, J. T. Yardley, B. B. Hu, X. C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Femtosecond response of electro-optic poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2651–2653(1991).
[Crossref]

J. I. Thackara, D. M. Bloom, and B. A. Auld, “Electro-optic sampling of poled organic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1159–1161 (1991).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Nagatsuma, M. Yaita, M. Shinagawa, M. Amano, and Y. Shuto, “Organic patch sensor for electro-optic measurement of electrical signals in integrated circuits,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1159–1161 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

H. Takahashi, S.-I. Aoshinma, and Y. Tsuchiya, “Sampling and real-time methods in electro-optic probing system,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 965–971 (1995).
[Crossref]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

M. Yaita and T. Nagatsuma, “Optical sampling of electrical signals in poled polymeric media,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E76-C, 222–228 (1993).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. M. Zhang, M. B. Yi, X. J. Tian, W. Sun, A. L. Hou, J. Z. Sun, Y. G. Ma, W. J. Tian, and J. C. Shen, “External electro-optic measurement utilizing poled polymer-based asymmetric Fabry-Perot reflection film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6184–6188(1999).
[Crossref]

S. Bauer, “Poled polymer for sensor and photonic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 5531–5558 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

X. Wu, D. Conn, J. Song, and K. Nickerson, “Invasiveness of LiTaO3 and GaAs probe in external E-O sampling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 448–454 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, and W. Knoll, “Reorientation mechanism of azobenzenes within the trans⇒cis photoisomerization,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17226–17234(1995).
[Crossref]

J. Polym. Sci. B Polym. Phys. (1)

H. H. Yu and L. J. Fina, “Electric field-induced dipole reorientation in oriented nylon 11 by in situ infrared spectroscopy,” J. Polym. Sci. B Polym. Phys. 34, 781–788 (1996).
[Crossref]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Y. Frankel, “Optoelectronic techniques for ultrafast device network analysis to 700 GHz,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 783–800 (1996).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

J. A. Deibel and J. F. Whitaker, “A fiber-mounted polymer electro-optic-sampling field sensor,” in Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2003, Vol. 2 (IEEE, 2003), pp. 786–787.
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Complete poling voltage and temperature curves.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption spectra of the finished DR1/PMMA film sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experiment setup for EO effect measurement.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured EO signal (a) magnitude and (b) phase curves when pump is on and off.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

EO-polymer-on-glass is attached to a holding glass plate to form an EO probe, and device under test is a microstrip line structure.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured EO signals using the polymer probe when pump is on and off.

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