Abstract

The Long Island Sound Coastal Observational platform (LISCO) near Northport, New York, has been recently established to support validation of ocean color radiometry (OCR) satellite data. LISCO is equipped with collocated multispectral, SeaPRISM, and hyperspectral, HyperSAS, above-water systems for OCR measurements. This combination offers the potential for improving validation activities of current and future OCR satellite missions, as well as for satellite intercomparisons and spectral characterization of coastal waters. Results of measurements made by both the multi and hyperspectral instruments, in operation since October 2009, are presented, evaluated and their associated uncertainties quantified based on observations for a period of over a year. Multi- and hyperspectral data processing as well as the data quality analysis are described and their uncertainties evaluated. The quantified intrinsic uncertainties of HyperSAS data exhibit satisfactory values, less than 5% over a large spectral range, from 340 to 740nm, and over a large range of diurnal daylight conditions, depending on the maximum sun elevation at the solar noon. Intercomparisons between HyperSAS and SeaPRISM data revealed that an overcorrection of the sun glint effect in the current SeaPRISM processing induces errors, which are amplified through the whole data processing, especially at the shorter wavelengths. The spectral-averaged uncertainties can be decomposed as follows: (i) sun glint removal generates 2% uncertainty, (ii) sky glint removal generates strong uncertainties of the order of 15% mainly induced by sun glint overcorrection, (iii) viewing angle dependence corrections improve the data intercomparison by reducing the dispersion by 2%, (iv) normalization of atmospheric effects generates approximately 4% uncertainty. Based on this study, improvements of the sun glint correction are expected to significantly reduce the uncertainty associated with the data processing down to the level of 1%. On the other hand, strong correlations between both datasets (R2>0.96) demonstrate the efficacy of the above-water retrieval concept and confirm that the collocated instrumentation constitutes an important aid to above-water data quality analysis, which makes LISCO a key element of the AERONET-OC network.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2011

2010

Z. P. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, C. Mobley, and R. Arnone, “Removal of surface-reflected light for the measurement of remote-sensing reflectance from an above-surface platform,” Opt. Express 18, 26313–26324 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, and S. W. Bailey, “Evaluation of shortwave infrared atmospheric correction for ocean color remote sensing of Chesapeake Bay,” Remote Sens. Environ. 114, 2238–2247 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hlaing, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, I. Ioannou, A. Tonizzo, A. Gilerson, and S. Ahmed, “Validation of ocean color satellite sensors using coastal observational platform in Long Island Sound,” Proc. SPIE 7825, , 782504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Tonizzo, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, S. Hlaing, I. Ioannou, A. Gilerson, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Sensitivity of the above water polarized reflectance to the water composition,” Proc. SPIE 7825, 78250F (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Aurin, H. M. Dierssen, M. S. Twardowski, and C. S. Roesler, “Optical complexity in Long Island Sound and implications for coastal ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C07011 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, and G. Schuster, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kay, J. D. Hedley, and S. Lavender, “Sun glint correction of high and low spatial resolution images of aquatic scenes: a review of methods for visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” Rem. Sens. 1, 697–730 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

D. Antoine, F. d'Ortenzio, S. B. Hooker, G. Bécu, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and A. J. Scott, “Assessment of uncertainty in the ocean reflectance determined by three satellite ocean color sensors (MERIS, SeaWiFS and MODIS-A) at an offshore site in the Mediterranean Sea (BOUSSOLE project),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, C07013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

2005

2004

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, and J. W. Brown, “Above-water radiometry in shallow coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4254–4268 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, D. D'Alimonte, and B. Holben, “An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 401–415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

K. Bogumil, J. Orphal, T. Homann, S. Voigt, P. Spietz, O. C. Fleischmann, A. Vogel, M. Hartmann, H. Kromminga, and H. Bovensmann, “Measurements of molecular absorption spectra with the SCIAMACHY pre-flight model: instrument characterization and reference data for atmospheric remote-sensing in the 230–2380 nm region,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A Chem. 157, 167–184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Hochberg, S. Andrefouet, and M. R. Tyler, “Sea surface correction of high spatial resolution Ikonos images to improve bottom mapping in near-shore environments,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1724–1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6289–6306(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, and S. McLean, “An evaluation of above-and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 486–515(2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. F. Berthon, and D. D'Alimonte, “Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: a field assessment experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 808–819 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Wang and H. R. Gordon, “Calibration of ocean color scanners: how much error is acceptable in the near infrared?” Remote Sens. Environ. 82, 497–504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

K. G. Ruddick, F. Ovidio, and M. Rijkeboer, “Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery for turbid coastal and inland waters,” Appl. Opt. 39, 897–912 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik and M. D. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20673–20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, and T. Nakajima, “AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081–17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1994

1989

G. W. Kattawar and C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere-ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix: effect of interface refractive index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1453–1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1983

T. Nakajima and M. Tanaka, “Effect of wind-generated waves on the transfer of solar radiation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 29, 521–537(1983).
[CrossRef]

1981

1979

1954

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun’s glitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 838–850 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Adams, C. N.

G. W. Kattawar and C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere-ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix: effect of interface refractive index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1453–1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, S.

S. Hlaing, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, I. Ioannou, A. Tonizzo, A. Gilerson, and S. Ahmed, “Validation of ocean color satellite sensors using coastal observational platform in Long Island Sound,” Proc. SPIE 7825, , 782504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Tonizzo, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, S. Hlaing, I. Ioannou, A. Gilerson, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Sensitivity of the above water polarized reflectance to the water composition,” Proc. SPIE 7825, 78250F (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, Y. H.

Andrefouet, S.

E. J. Hochberg, S. Andrefouet, and M. R. Tyler, “Sea surface correction of high spatial resolution Ikonos images to improve bottom mapping in near-shore environments,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1724–1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, D.

D. Antoine, F. d'Ortenzio, S. B. Hooker, G. Bécu, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and A. J. Scott, “Assessment of uncertainty in the ocean reflectance determined by three satellite ocean color sensors (MERIS, SeaWiFS and MODIS-A) at an offshore site in the Mediterranean Sea (BOUSSOLE project),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, C07013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6289–6306(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnone, R.

Z. P. Lee, K. Du, K. J. Voss, G. Zibordi, B. Lubac, R. Arnone, and A. Weidemann, “An inherent-optical-property-centered approach to correct the angular effects in water-leaving radiance,” Appl. Opt. 50, 3155–3167 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, C. Mobley, and R. Arnone, “Removal of surface-reflected light for the measurement of remote-sensing reflectance from an above-surface platform,” Opt. Express 18, 26313–26324 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, “Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Vol. III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” NASA/TM-2003-211621, (NASA, 2003).

Aurin, D. A.

D. A. Aurin, H. M. Dierssen, M. S. Twardowski, and C. S. Roesler, “Optical complexity in Long Island Sound and implications for coastal ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C07011 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S. W.

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, and S. W. Bailey, “Evaluation of shortwave infrared atmospheric correction for ocean color remote sensing of Chesapeake Bay,” Remote Sens. Environ. 114, 2238–2247 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5068–5082(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, “A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products,” Remote Sens. Environ. 102, 12–23 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bécu, G.

D. Antoine, F. d'Ortenzio, S. B. Hooker, G. Bécu, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and A. J. Scott, “Assessment of uncertainty in the ocean reflectance determined by three satellite ocean color sensors (MERIS, SeaWiFS and MODIS-A) at an offshore site in the Mediterranean Sea (BOUSSOLE project),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, C07013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berthon, J. F.

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, and G. Schuster, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, and J. W. Brown, “Above-water radiometry in shallow coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4254–4268 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. F. Berthon, and D. D'Alimonte, “Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: a field assessment experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 808–819 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bogumil, K.

K. Bogumil, J. Orphal, T. Homann, S. Voigt, P. Spietz, O. C. Fleischmann, A. Vogel, M. Hartmann, H. Kromminga, and H. Bovensmann, “Measurements of molecular absorption spectra with the SCIAMACHY pre-flight model: instrument characterization and reference data for atmospheric remote-sensing in the 230–2380 nm region,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A Chem. 157, 167–184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bovensmann, H.

K. Bogumil, J. Orphal, T. Homann, S. Voigt, P. Spietz, O. C. Fleischmann, A. Vogel, M. Hartmann, H. Kromminga, and H. Bovensmann, “Measurements of molecular absorption spectra with the SCIAMACHY pre-flight model: instrument characterization and reference data for atmospheric remote-sensing in the 230–2380 nm region,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A Chem. 157, 167–184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Broenkow, W.

D. K. Clark, M. A. Yarbrough, M. E. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, M. Yuen, and J. L. Mueller, “MOBY, a radiometric buoy for performance monitoring and vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color sensors: Measurement and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision (NASA, 2003).

Brown, J. W.

Brown, S. W.

D. K. Clark, M. A. Yarbrough, M. E. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, M. Yuen, and J. L. Mueller, “MOBY, a radiometric buoy for performance monitoring and vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color sensors: Measurement and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision (NASA, 2003).

Buis, J. P.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, and T. Nakajima, “AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, “Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Vol. III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” NASA/TM-2003-211621, (NASA, 2003).

Carder, K. L.

Chowdhary, J.

A. Tonizzo, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, S. Hlaing, I. Ioannou, A. Gilerson, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Sensitivity of the above water polarized reflectance to the water composition,” Proc. SPIE 7825, 78250F (2010).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon and D. K. Clark, “Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175–4180 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. K. Clark, M. A. Yarbrough, M. E. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, M. Yuen, and J. L. Mueller, “MOBY, a radiometric buoy for performance monitoring and vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color sensors: Measurement and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision (NASA, 2003).

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G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, and G. Schuster, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
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Foujols, T.

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D. Antoine, F. d'Ortenzio, S. B. Hooker, G. Bécu, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and A. J. Scott, “Assessment of uncertainty in the ocean reflectance determined by three satellite ocean color sensors (MERIS, SeaWiFS and MODIS-A) at an offshore site in the Mediterranean Sea (BOUSSOLE project),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, C07013 (2008).
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A. Tonizzo, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, S. Hlaing, I. Ioannou, A. Gilerson, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Sensitivity of the above water polarized reflectance to the water composition,” Proc. SPIE 7825, 78250F (2010).
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Herse, M.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
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S. Hlaing, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, I. Ioannou, A. Tonizzo, A. Gilerson, and S. Ahmed, “Validation of ocean color satellite sensors using coastal observational platform in Long Island Sound,” Proc. SPIE 7825, , 782504 (2010).
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A. Tonizzo, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, S. Hlaing, I. Ioannou, A. Gilerson, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Sensitivity of the above water polarized reflectance to the water composition,” Proc. SPIE 7825, 78250F (2010).
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G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, D. D'Alimonte, and B. Holben, “An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 401–415 (2004).
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Holben, B. N.

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, and G. Schuster, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, and T. Nakajima, “AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
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K. Bogumil, J. Orphal, T. Homann, S. Voigt, P. Spietz, O. C. Fleischmann, A. Vogel, M. Hartmann, H. Kromminga, and H. Bovensmann, “Measurements of molecular absorption spectra with the SCIAMACHY pre-flight model: instrument characterization and reference data for atmospheric remote-sensing in the 230–2380 nm region,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A Chem. 157, 167–184 (2003).
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J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, “Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Vol. III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” NASA/TM-2003-211621, (NASA, 2003).

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D. Antoine, F. d'Ortenzio, S. B. Hooker, G. Bécu, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and A. J. Scott, “Assessment of uncertainty in the ocean reflectance determined by three satellite ocean color sensors (MERIS, SeaWiFS and MODIS-A) at an offshore site in the Mediterranean Sea (BOUSSOLE project),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, C07013 (2008).
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G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, D. D'Alimonte, and B. Holben, “An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 401–415 (2004).
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S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, and J. W. Brown, “Above-water radiometry in shallow coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4254–4268 (2004).
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G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. F. Berthon, and D. D'Alimonte, “Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: a field assessment experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 808–819 (2002).
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S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, and S. McLean, “An evaluation of above-and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 486–515(2002).
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S. Hlaing, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, I. Ioannou, A. Tonizzo, A. Gilerson, and S. Ahmed, “Validation of ocean color satellite sensors using coastal observational platform in Long Island Sound,” Proc. SPIE 7825, , 782504 (2010).
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A. Tonizzo, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, S. Hlaing, I. Ioannou, A. Gilerson, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Sensitivity of the above water polarized reflectance to the water composition,” Proc. SPIE 7825, 78250F (2010).
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A. Tonizzo, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, S. Hlaing, I. Ioannou, A. Gilerson, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Sensitivity of the above water polarized reflectance to the water composition,” Proc. SPIE 7825, 78250F (2010).
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S. Hlaing, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, I. Ioannou, A. Tonizzo, A. Gilerson, and S. Ahmed, “Validation of ocean color satellite sensors using coastal observational platform in Long Island Sound,” Proc. SPIE 7825, , 782504 (2010).
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D. K. Clark, M. A. Yarbrough, M. E. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, M. Yuen, and J. L. Mueller, “MOBY, a radiometric buoy for performance monitoring and vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color sensors: Measurement and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision (NASA, 2003).

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S. Kay, J. D. Hedley, and S. Lavender, “Sun glint correction of high and low spatial resolution images of aquatic scenes: a review of methods for visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” Rem. Sens. 1, 697–730 (2009).
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D. K. Clark, M. A. Yarbrough, M. E. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, M. Yuen, and J. L. Mueller, “MOBY, a radiometric buoy for performance monitoring and vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color sensors: Measurement and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision (NASA, 2003).

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O. Dubovik and M. D. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20673–20696 (2000).
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Knobelspiesse, K. D.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, “Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Vol. III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” NASA/TM-2003-211621, (NASA, 2003).

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Kromminga, H.

K. Bogumil, J. Orphal, T. Homann, S. Voigt, P. Spietz, O. C. Fleischmann, A. Vogel, M. Hartmann, H. Kromminga, and H. Bovensmann, “Measurements of molecular absorption spectra with the SCIAMACHY pre-flight model: instrument characterization and reference data for atmospheric remote-sensing in the 230–2380 nm region,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A Chem. 157, 167–184 (2003).
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G. Thuillier, M. Herse, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
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Lavender, S.

S. Kay, J. D. Hedley, and S. Lavender, “Sun glint correction of high and low spatial resolution images of aquatic scenes: a review of methods for visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” Rem. Sens. 1, 697–730 (2009).
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Lazin, G.

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, and S. McLean, “An evaluation of above-and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 486–515(2002).
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Lee, Z.

Lee, Z. P.

Z. P. Lee, K. Du, K. J. Voss, G. Zibordi, B. Lubac, R. Arnone, and A. Weidemann, “An inherent-optical-property-centered approach to correct the angular effects in water-leaving radiance,” Appl. Opt. 50, 3155–3167 (2011).
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Lubac, B.

Mandel, H.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
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Matarrese, R.

McClain, C. R.

McLean, S.

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, and S. McLean, “An evaluation of above-and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 486–515(2002).
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J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, “Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Vol. III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” NASA/TM-2003-211621, (NASA, 2003).

Mélin, F.

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, and G. Schuster, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
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G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, D. D'Alimonte, and B. Holben, “An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 401–415 (2004).
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Miller, M.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, “Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Vol. III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” NASA/TM-2003-211621, (NASA, 2003).

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Mobley, C. D.

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Morel, A.

A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6289–6306(2002).
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A. Morel and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850–4862 (1996).
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J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, “Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Vol. III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” NASA/TM-2003-211621, (NASA, 2003).

Moshary, F.

A. Tonizzo, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, S. Hlaing, I. Ioannou, A. Gilerson, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Sensitivity of the above water polarized reflectance to the water composition,” Proc. SPIE 7825, 78250F (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, J. L.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, “Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Vol. III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” NASA/TM-2003-211621, (NASA, 2003).

D. K. Clark, M. A. Yarbrough, M. E. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, M. Yuen, and J. L. Mueller, “MOBY, a radiometric buoy for performance monitoring and vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color sensors: Measurement and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision (NASA, 2003).

Munk, W.

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun’s glitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 838–850 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, T.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, and T. Nakajima, “AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima and M. Tanaka, “Effect of wind-generated waves on the transfer of solar radiation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 29, 521–537(1983).
[CrossRef]

Orphal, J.

K. Bogumil, J. Orphal, T. Homann, S. Voigt, P. Spietz, O. C. Fleischmann, A. Vogel, M. Hartmann, H. Kromminga, and H. Bovensmann, “Measurements of molecular absorption spectra with the SCIAMACHY pre-flight model: instrument characterization and reference data for atmospheric remote-sensing in the 230–2380 nm region,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A Chem. 157, 167–184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ovidio, F.

Paltridge, G. W.

G. W. Paltridge and C. M. R. Platt, Radiative Processes in Meteorology and Climatology (Elsevier, 1977).

Park, Y.-J.

Peacock, T. G.

Peetermans, W.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pietras, C.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, “Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Vol. III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” NASA/TM-2003-211621, (NASA, 2003).

Platt, C. M. R.

G. W. Paltridge and C. M. R. Platt, Radiative Processes in Meteorology and Climatology (Elsevier, 1977).

Porter, J.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, “Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Vol. III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” NASA/TM-2003-211621, (NASA, 2003).

Reagan, J. A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, and T. Nakajima, “AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rijkeboer, M.

Roesler, C. S.

D. A. Aurin, H. M. Dierssen, M. S. Twardowski, and C. S. Roesler, “Optical complexity in Long Island Sound and implications for coastal ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C07011 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ruddick, K.

Ruddick, K. G.

Schuster, G.

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, and G. Schuster, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scott, A. J.

D. Antoine, F. d'Ortenzio, S. B. Hooker, G. Bécu, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and A. J. Scott, “Assessment of uncertainty in the ocean reflectance determined by three satellite ocean color sensors (MERIS, SeaWiFS and MODIS-A) at an offshore site in the Mediterranean Sea (BOUSSOLE project),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, C07013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Setzer, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, and T. Nakajima, “AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Simon, P. C.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Slutsker, I.

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, and G. Schuster, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, and T. Nakajima, “AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spietz, P.

K. Bogumil, J. Orphal, T. Homann, S. Voigt, P. Spietz, O. C. Fleischmann, A. Vogel, M. Hartmann, H. Kromminga, and H. Bovensmann, “Measurements of molecular absorption spectra with the SCIAMACHY pre-flight model: instrument characterization and reference data for atmospheric remote-sensing in the 230–2380 nm region,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A Chem. 157, 167–184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steward, R. G.

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, and C. O. Davis, “Model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732(1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, “Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Vol. III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” NASA/TM-2003-211621, (NASA, 2003).

Tailliez, D.

D. Antoine, F. d'Ortenzio, S. B. Hooker, G. Bécu, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and A. J. Scott, “Assessment of uncertainty in the ocean reflectance determined by three satellite ocean color sensors (MERIS, SeaWiFS and MODIS-A) at an offshore site in the Mediterranean Sea (BOUSSOLE project),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, C07013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

T. Nakajima and M. Tanaka, “Effect of wind-generated waves on the transfer of solar radiation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 29, 521–537(1983).
[CrossRef]

Tanre, D.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, and T. Nakajima, “AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanre, M. Herman, P. Y. Deschamps, and A. Deleffe, “Atmospheric modeling for space measurements of ground reflectances, including bidirectional properties,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3587–3594 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thuillier, G.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tonizzo, A.

A. Tonizzo, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, S. Hlaing, I. Ioannou, A. Gilerson, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Sensitivity of the above water polarized reflectance to the water composition,” Proc. SPIE 7825, 78250F (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hlaing, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, I. Ioannou, A. Tonizzo, A. Gilerson, and S. Ahmed, “Validation of ocean color satellite sensors using coastal observational platform in Long Island Sound,” Proc. SPIE 7825, , 782504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Twardowski, M. S.

D. A. Aurin, H. M. Dierssen, M. S. Twardowski, and C. S. Roesler, “Optical complexity in Long Island Sound and implications for coastal ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C07011 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tyler, M. R.

E. J. Hochberg, S. Andrefouet, and M. R. Tyler, “Sea surface correction of high spatial resolution Ikonos images to improve bottom mapping in near-shore environments,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1724–1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vandemark, D.

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, and G. Schuster, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, and T. Nakajima, “AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E. F.

Vogel, A.

K. Bogumil, J. Orphal, T. Homann, S. Voigt, P. Spietz, O. C. Fleischmann, A. Vogel, M. Hartmann, H. Kromminga, and H. Bovensmann, “Measurements of molecular absorption spectra with the SCIAMACHY pre-flight model: instrument characterization and reference data for atmospheric remote-sensing in the 230–2380 nm region,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A Chem. 157, 167–184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Voigt, S.

K. Bogumil, J. Orphal, T. Homann, S. Voigt, P. Spietz, O. C. Fleischmann, A. Vogel, M. Hartmann, H. Kromminga, and H. Bovensmann, “Measurements of molecular absorption spectra with the SCIAMACHY pre-flight model: instrument characterization and reference data for atmospheric remote-sensing in the 230–2380 nm region,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A Chem. 157, 167–184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, “Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Vol. III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” NASA/TM-2003-211621, (NASA, 2003).

Voss, K. J.

Wang, M. H.

M. H. Wang and H. R. Gordon, “Calibration of ocean color scanners: how much error is acceptable in the near infrared?” Remote Sens. Environ. 82, 497–504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weidemann, A.

Werdell, P. J.

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, and S. W. Bailey, “Evaluation of shortwave infrared atmospheric correction for ocean color remote sensing of Chesapeake Bay,” Remote Sens. Environ. 114, 2238–2247 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5068–5082(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, “A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products,” Remote Sens. Environ. 102, 12–23 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yarbrough, M. A.

D. K. Clark, M. A. Yarbrough, M. E. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, M. Yuen, and J. L. Mueller, “MOBY, a radiometric buoy for performance monitoring and vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color sensors: Measurement and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision (NASA, 2003).

Yuen, M.

D. K. Clark, M. A. Yarbrough, M. E. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, M. Yuen, and J. L. Mueller, “MOBY, a radiometric buoy for performance monitoring and vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color sensors: Measurement and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision (NASA, 2003).

Zibordi, G.

Z. P. Lee, K. Du, K. J. Voss, G. Zibordi, B. Lubac, R. Arnone, and A. Weidemann, “An inherent-optical-property-centered approach to correct the angular effects in water-leaving radiance,” Appl. Opt. 50, 3155–3167 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, and G. Schuster, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, D. D'Alimonte, and B. Holben, “An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 401–415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, and J. W. Brown, “Above-water radiometry in shallow coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4254–4268 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. F. Berthon, and D. D'Alimonte, “Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: a field assessment experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 808–819 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, and S. McLean, “An evaluation of above-and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 486–515(2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

H. R. Gordon and D. K. Clark, “Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175–4180 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850–4862 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Ruddick, F. Ovidio, and M. Rijkeboer, “Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery for turbid coastal and inland waters,” Appl. Opt. 39, 897–912 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5068–5082(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, “Estimation of the remote-sensing reflectance from above-surface measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7442–7455(1999).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, and J. W. Brown, “Above-water radiometry in shallow coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4254–4268 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6289–6306(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Tanre, M. Herman, P. Y. Deschamps, and A. Deleffe, “Atmospheric modeling for space measurements of ground reflectances, including bidirectional properties,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3587–3594 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Kotchenova, E. F. Vermote, R. Matarrese, and F. J. Klemm, “Validation of a vector version of the 6S radiative transfer code for atmospheric correction of satellite data. Part I: Path radiance,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6762–6774 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, and C. O. Davis, “Model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732(1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-J. Park and K. Ruddick, “Model of remote-sensing reflectance including bidirectional effects for case 1 and case 2 waters,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1236–1249 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. Du, K. J. Voss, G. Zibordi, B. Lubac, R. Arnone, and A. Weidemann, “An inherent-optical-property-centered approach to correct the angular effects in water-leaving radiance,” Appl. Opt. 50, 3155–3167 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Fougnie, R. Frouin, P. Lecomte, and P. Y. Deschamps, “Reduction of skylight reflection effects in the above-water measurement of diffuse marine reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3844–3856 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.

E. J. Hochberg, S. Andrefouet, and M. R. Tyler, “Sea surface correction of high spatial resolution Ikonos images to improve bottom mapping in near-shore environments,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1724–1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, D. D'Alimonte, and B. Holben, “An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 401–415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. F. Berthon, and D. D'Alimonte, “Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: a field assessment experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 808–819 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, and G. Schuster, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, and S. McLean, “An evaluation of above-and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 486–515(2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

D. Antoine, F. d'Ortenzio, S. B. Hooker, G. Bécu, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and A. J. Scott, “Assessment of uncertainty in the ocean reflectance determined by three satellite ocean color sensors (MERIS, SeaWiFS and MODIS-A) at an offshore site in the Mediterranean Sea (BOUSSOLE project),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, C07013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Aurin, H. M. Dierssen, M. S. Twardowski, and C. S. Roesler, “Optical complexity in Long Island Sound and implications for coastal ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C07011 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081–17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik and M. D. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20673–20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Res.

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Photochem. Photobiol. A Chem.

K. Bogumil, J. Orphal, T. Homann, S. Voigt, P. Spietz, O. C. Fleischmann, A. Vogel, M. Hartmann, H. Kromminga, and H. Bovensmann, “Measurements of molecular absorption spectra with the SCIAMACHY pre-flight model: instrument characterization and reference data for atmospheric remote-sensing in the 230–2380 nm region,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A Chem. 157, 167–184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

T. Nakajima and M. Tanaka, “Effect of wind-generated waves on the transfer of solar radiation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 29, 521–537(1983).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

G. W. Kattawar and C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere-ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix: effect of interface refractive index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1453–1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

S. Hlaing, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, I. Ioannou, A. Tonizzo, A. Gilerson, and S. Ahmed, “Validation of ocean color satellite sensors using coastal observational platform in Long Island Sound,” Proc. SPIE 7825, , 782504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Tonizzo, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, S. Hlaing, I. Ioannou, A. Gilerson, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Sensitivity of the above water polarized reflectance to the water composition,” Proc. SPIE 7825, 78250F (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rem. Sens.

S. Kay, J. D. Hedley, and S. Lavender, “Sun glint correction of high and low spatial resolution images of aquatic scenes: a review of methods for visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” Rem. Sens. 1, 697–730 (2009).
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Remote Sens. Environ.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, and T. Nakajima, “AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, “A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products,” Remote Sens. Environ. 102, 12–23 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, and S. W. Bailey, “Evaluation of shortwave infrared atmospheric correction for ocean color remote sensing of Chesapeake Bay,” Remote Sens. Environ. 114, 2238–2247 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Wang and H. R. Gordon, “Calibration of ocean color scanners: how much error is acceptable in the near infrared?” Remote Sens. Environ. 82, 497–504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Phys.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. W. Paltridge and C. M. R. Platt, Radiative Processes in Meteorology and Climatology (Elsevier, 1977).

IOCCG, “Minimum requirements for an operational, ocean-colour sensor for the open ocean,” in Reports of the International Ocean Colour Coordinating Group, No 1, A.Morel, ed. (IOCCG, 1997).

D. K. Clark, M. A. Yarbrough, M. E. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, M. Yuen, and J. L. Mueller, “MOBY, a radiometric buoy for performance monitoring and vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color sensors: Measurement and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision (NASA, 2003).

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, “Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Vol. III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” NASA/TM-2003-211621, (NASA, 2003).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) LISCO map (LISCO coordinates N 40.955 ° ; W 73.342 ° ). (b) LISCO site bathymetry derived from the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO) dataset.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Histogram of the ratio of the irradiance E s measured at 443 nm by HyperSAS to its theoretical clear-sky value computed from 6SV radiative transfer code. The value of this ratio must be between 0.85 and 1.1 (shaded area) for the corresponding data to be included in the data quality process. (b) Histogram of the relative standard deviation of sky radiances L s having passed the E s ratio filter. The values must be lower than 0.05 (shaded area) to pass the data quality process. Histograms and rejection rates have been established over the period from October 2009 to January 2011.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Absorption cross section of oxygen, σ O 2 , in cm 2 per molecule (red line, data from [32]) and average sun glint radiance L g in mW cm 2 sr 1 μ m 1 derived from the HyperSAS dataset (black line). Histograms of (b) the difference and (c) the ratio of the normalized water-leaving radiances L W N measured on and off the oxygen absorption peak centered on 760 nm . The shaded areas correspond to the range of acceptable values applied in the data quality process.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative standard deviation (Rel. Std.) of L W N as retrieved by HyperSAS system displayed with respect to the time of acquisition and all the HyperSAS spectral bands. This relative standard deviation is used as an estimator of the intrinsic uncertainties of HyperSAS. A squared pattern is used when no data are available.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative standard deviation (uncertainty estimator) of L W N as retrieved by HyperSAS system with respect to the solar zenith angle and the relative azimuth between the sun and the sensor (equal to 180 ° when the sun is behind the sensor) at (a) 443, (b) 560 and (c)  670 nm . A squared pattern is used when no data are available.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Examples of coincident HyperSAS (black dots) and SeaPRISM (red circles) exact normalized water-leaving radiance (in mW cm 2 sr 1 μ m 1 ) for Nov. 4, 2009.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Time series of daily average of the exact normalized water-leaving radiance (in mW cm 2 sr 1 μ m 1 ) retrieved with HyperSAS (red triangles) and SeaPRISM (gray circles) for two SeaPRISM bands centered on 551 and 491 nm . The vertical bars correspond to the daily standard deviations.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Intercomparisons of HyperSAS and SeaPRISM direct measurements (in mW cm 2 sr 1 μ m 1 ) of (a) sky-radiance L s , (b) total sea-radiance L T and (c) the lowest sea-radiance values of each measurement sequence L T * . N is the total number of the comparison, the bracketed value is the number of different measurement sequences used in the comparison. The bias is given in radiance unit.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Intercomparisons of HyperSAS and SeaPRISM intermediate product: (a) the water-leaving radiance L w (in mW cm 2 sr 1 μ m 1 ), (b) the water-leaving radiance corrected for the viewing angle dependency L w _ Q (in mW cm 2 sr 1 μ m 1 ), (c) the water-leaving radiance corrected for the atmospheric transmittance L w n (in mW cm 2 sr 1 μ m 1 ) and (d) the atmospheric transmittance t d . The same color convention as in Fig. 8 is used.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Intercomparison of the exact normalized water-leaving radiances (in mW cm 2 sr 1 μ m 1 ) derived from SeaPRISM and HyperSAS measurements. The same color convention as in Fig. 8 is used.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Same as Fig. 10 for the comparison of HyperSAS L W N with (a)  L W N , the water-leaving radiance derived from SeaPRISM measurements by replacing the SeaPRISM atmospheric transmittance by the HyperSAS one, (b) the water-leaving radiance L W N derived from SeaPRISM measurement by using L T instead of L T * , and (c)  L W N for a restricted HyperSAS-SeaPRISM relative azimuth range (see text for details).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Average of the sun glint contribution to the sea radiance (in mW cm 2 sr 1 μ m 1 ) derived from the HyperSAS (black line) and SeaPRISM (black dots) at LISCO site, and the following AERONET-OC sites (data level 2.0): AAOT (blue dots), Palgrunden (green dots), GDLT (red dots) and MVCO (gray dots). (b) Incoming direct solar irradiance at the sea surface (in mW cm 2 sr 1 μ m 1 ) calculated from the above-listed AERONET sites data. The vertical bars correspond to plus or minus the standard deviation calculated over the whole time series of each dataset.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Summary of HyperSAS and SeaPRISM Direct Measurement Intercomparison Over One Year Period at LISCO Site Corresponding to 128 Coincident Measurement Sequences

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Table 2 Similar to Table 1 but for the Water-Leaving Radiance L w , the Water-Leaving Radiance Corrected for the Viewing Angle Dependency L w _ Q and the Water-Leaving Radiance Corrected for the Atmospheric Transmittance L w n

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Table 3 Similar to Table 1 but for the Exact Normalized Water-Leaving Radiance L W N Derived from HyperSAS and SeaPRISM Measurements

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Table 4 Similar to Table 1 but for the Data Plotted Fig. 11

Equations (11)

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L g ( λ , θ 0 , θ , φ ) = L T ( λ , θ 0 , θ , φ ) L T * ( λ , θ 0 , θ , φ )
L W ( λ , θ , φ ) = L T * ( λ , θ , φ ) ρ ( θ 0 , θ , φ , w ) L s ( λ , θ , φ ) ,
L W N ( λ ) = L W ( λ , θ , φ ) C R Q ( λ , θ 0 , θ , φ , τ a , I O P , w ) C f / Q ( λ , θ 0 , τ a , I O P ) [ D 2 t d ( λ , θ 0 ) cos ( θ 0 ) ] 1 ,
t d _ SeaPRISM ( λ , θ 0 ) = exp ( [ 0.5 τ r ( λ ) + C a τ a ( λ ) + τ O 3 ( λ ) ] cos θ 0 ) ,
t d _ HyperSAS ( λ , θ 0 ) = E s ( λ ) D 2 cos θ 0 F 0 ( λ ) ,
L W N on peak = L W N ( 760.2 ) + L W N ( 763.6 ) 2
L W N off peak = L W N ( 753.6 ) + L W N ( 756.9 ) + L W N ( 770.2 ) + L W N ( 773.6 ) 4 ,
σ rel = 1 L W N est 1 N T * 1 i = 1 N T * ( L W N ( i ) L W N est ) 2 ,
URPD = 200 × 1 N i = 1 N y i x i x i + y i ,
bias = 1 N i = 1 N y i x i .
E s \_ d i r e c t ( λ ) = exp ( τ r ( λ ) + τ a ( λ ) + τ gaz ( λ ) cos θ 0 ) F 0 ( λ ) ,

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