Abstract

A technique to study the drying of paints, based on phase-shifting digital holography, is presented. The technique is applied to the drying process of solvent-based paint on a three-dimensional surface at different substrate temperatures. For processing the data, a cross-correlation function and phase change derived from reconstructed complex amplitudes are calculated to visualize and to evaluate the local variations in the dryness of paint. The relationship between the optical signal obtained by the holographic method and the actual microscopic variations occurring in the paint film is also investigated using the gravimetric technique and a microscope. It is shown that the holographic technique can determine the stationary state of a painted surface corresponding to the end of the falling rate period in the drying process. The holographic technique detects mainly the activity on the surface and is applicable to assessment of the early drying process of paint.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Croll, “Drying of latex paint,” J. Coat. Technol. 58, 41–49(1986).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Yasuda, T. Iwata, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “Improvement of minimum paint film thickness for THz paint meters by multiple-regression analysis,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7518–7526 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Imhof, C. Whitters, and D. Birch, “Opto-thermal non-destructive examination of surface coatings,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 5, 113–117 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Amalvy, C. Lasquibar, R. Arizaga, H. Rabal, and M. Trivi, “Application of dynamic speckle interferometry to the drying of coatings,” Prog. Org. Coat. 42, 89–99 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Arizaga, E. Grumel, N. Cap, and M. Trivi, “Following the drying of spray paints using space and time contrast of dynamic speckle,” J. Coat. Technol. Res. 3, 295–299 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Faccia, O. Pardini, J. Amalvy, N. Cap, E. Grumel, R. Arizaga, and M. Trivi, “Differentiation of the drying time of paints by dynamic speckle interferometry,” Prog. Org. Coat. 64, 350–355 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Romero, E. Alanis, and H. Rabal, “Statistics of the dynamic speckle produced by a rotating diffuser and its application to the assessment of paint drying,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1652–1658(2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Limia, A. Nunez, H. Rabal, and M. Trivi, “Wavelet transform analysis of dynamic speckle patterns texture,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6745–6750 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Yokota, T. Adachi, and I. Yamaguchi, “Monitoring and evaluation of drying of paint by using phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Eng. 49, 015801 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. U. Schnars, and W. Juptner, “Direct recording of holograms by a CCD target and numerical reconstruction,” Appl. Opt. 33, 179–181 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. I. Yamaguchi and T. Zhang, “Phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1268–1270 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. I. Yamaguchi, J. Kato, S. Ohata, and J. Mizuno, “Image formation in phase-shifting digital holography and applications to microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6177–6186 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2010

M. Yokota, T. Adachi, and I. Yamaguchi, “Monitoring and evaluation of drying of paint by using phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Eng. 49, 015801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

P. Faccia, O. Pardini, J. Amalvy, N. Cap, E. Grumel, R. Arizaga, and M. Trivi, “Differentiation of the drying time of paints by dynamic speckle interferometry,” Prog. Org. Coat. 64, 350–355 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

I. Yamaguchi, M. Yokota, T. Ida, M. Sunaga, and K. Kobayashi, “Monitoring of paint drying process by digital speckle correlation,” Opt. Rev. 14, 362–364 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Yasuda, T. Iwata, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “Improvement of minimum paint film thickness for THz paint meters by multiple-regression analysis,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7518–7526 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

R. Arizaga, E. Grumel, N. Cap, and M. Trivi, “Following the drying of spray paints using space and time contrast of dynamic speckle,” J. Coat. Technol. Res. 3, 295–299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2002

2001

I. Yamaguchi, J. Kato, S. Ohata, and J. Mizuno, “Image formation in phase-shifting digital holography and applications to microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6177–6186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Amalvy, C. Lasquibar, R. Arizaga, H. Rabal, and M. Trivi, “Application of dynamic speckle interferometry to the drying of coatings,” Prog. Org. Coat. 42, 89–99 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

G. Romero, E. Alanis, and H. Rabal, “Statistics of the dynamic speckle produced by a rotating diffuser and its application to the assessment of paint drying,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1652–1658(2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

1994

1990

R. Imhof, C. Whitters, and D. Birch, “Opto-thermal non-destructive examination of surface coatings,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 5, 113–117 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986

S. Croll, “Drying of latex paint,” J. Coat. Technol. 58, 41–49(1986).

Adachi, T.

M. Yokota, T. Adachi, and I. Yamaguchi, “Monitoring and evaluation of drying of paint by using phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Eng. 49, 015801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alanis, E.

G. Romero, E. Alanis, and H. Rabal, “Statistics of the dynamic speckle produced by a rotating diffuser and its application to the assessment of paint drying,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1652–1658(2000).
[CrossRef]

Amalvy, J.

P. Faccia, O. Pardini, J. Amalvy, N. Cap, E. Grumel, R. Arizaga, and M. Trivi, “Differentiation of the drying time of paints by dynamic speckle interferometry,” Prog. Org. Coat. 64, 350–355 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Amalvy, C. Lasquibar, R. Arizaga, H. Rabal, and M. Trivi, “Application of dynamic speckle interferometry to the drying of coatings,” Prog. Org. Coat. 42, 89–99 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Araki, T.

Arizaga, R.

P. Faccia, O. Pardini, J. Amalvy, N. Cap, E. Grumel, R. Arizaga, and M. Trivi, “Differentiation of the drying time of paints by dynamic speckle interferometry,” Prog. Org. Coat. 64, 350–355 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Arizaga, E. Grumel, N. Cap, and M. Trivi, “Following the drying of spray paints using space and time contrast of dynamic speckle,” J. Coat. Technol. Res. 3, 295–299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Amalvy, C. Lasquibar, R. Arizaga, H. Rabal, and M. Trivi, “Application of dynamic speckle interferometry to the drying of coatings,” Prog. Org. Coat. 42, 89–99 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Birch, D.

R. Imhof, C. Whitters, and D. Birch, “Opto-thermal non-destructive examination of surface coatings,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 5, 113–117 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cap, N.

P. Faccia, O. Pardini, J. Amalvy, N. Cap, E. Grumel, R. Arizaga, and M. Trivi, “Differentiation of the drying time of paints by dynamic speckle interferometry,” Prog. Org. Coat. 64, 350–355 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Arizaga, E. Grumel, N. Cap, and M. Trivi, “Following the drying of spray paints using space and time contrast of dynamic speckle,” J. Coat. Technol. Res. 3, 295–299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Croll, S.

S. Croll, “Drying of latex paint,” J. Coat. Technol. 58, 41–49(1986).

Faccia, P.

P. Faccia, O. Pardini, J. Amalvy, N. Cap, E. Grumel, R. Arizaga, and M. Trivi, “Differentiation of the drying time of paints by dynamic speckle interferometry,” Prog. Org. Coat. 64, 350–355 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grumel, E.

P. Faccia, O. Pardini, J. Amalvy, N. Cap, E. Grumel, R. Arizaga, and M. Trivi, “Differentiation of the drying time of paints by dynamic speckle interferometry,” Prog. Org. Coat. 64, 350–355 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Arizaga, E. Grumel, N. Cap, and M. Trivi, “Following the drying of spray paints using space and time contrast of dynamic speckle,” J. Coat. Technol. Res. 3, 295–299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ida, T.

I. Yamaguchi, M. Yokota, T. Ida, M. Sunaga, and K. Kobayashi, “Monitoring of paint drying process by digital speckle correlation,” Opt. Rev. 14, 362–364 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Imhof, R.

R. Imhof, C. Whitters, and D. Birch, “Opto-thermal non-destructive examination of surface coatings,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 5, 113–117 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Iwata, T.

Juptner, W.

Kato, J.

Kobayashi, K.

I. Yamaguchi, M. Yokota, T. Ida, M. Sunaga, and K. Kobayashi, “Monitoring of paint drying process by digital speckle correlation,” Opt. Rev. 14, 362–364 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lasquibar, C.

J. Amalvy, C. Lasquibar, R. Arizaga, H. Rabal, and M. Trivi, “Application of dynamic speckle interferometry to the drying of coatings,” Prog. Org. Coat. 42, 89–99 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Limia, M.

Mizuno, J.

Nunez, A.

Ohata, S.

Pardini, O.

P. Faccia, O. Pardini, J. Amalvy, N. Cap, E. Grumel, R. Arizaga, and M. Trivi, “Differentiation of the drying time of paints by dynamic speckle interferometry,” Prog. Org. Coat. 64, 350–355 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rabal, H.

M. Limia, A. Nunez, H. Rabal, and M. Trivi, “Wavelet transform analysis of dynamic speckle patterns texture,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6745–6750 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Amalvy, C. Lasquibar, R. Arizaga, H. Rabal, and M. Trivi, “Application of dynamic speckle interferometry to the drying of coatings,” Prog. Org. Coat. 42, 89–99 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Romero, E. Alanis, and H. Rabal, “Statistics of the dynamic speckle produced by a rotating diffuser and its application to the assessment of paint drying,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1652–1658(2000).
[CrossRef]

Romero, G.

G. Romero, E. Alanis, and H. Rabal, “Statistics of the dynamic speckle produced by a rotating diffuser and its application to the assessment of paint drying,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1652–1658(2000).
[CrossRef]

Sawada, K.

Schnars, U.

Sunaga, M.

I. Yamaguchi, M. Yokota, T. Ida, M. Sunaga, and K. Kobayashi, “Monitoring of paint drying process by digital speckle correlation,” Opt. Rev. 14, 362–364 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Trivi, M.

P. Faccia, O. Pardini, J. Amalvy, N. Cap, E. Grumel, R. Arizaga, and M. Trivi, “Differentiation of the drying time of paints by dynamic speckle interferometry,” Prog. Org. Coat. 64, 350–355 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Arizaga, E. Grumel, N. Cap, and M. Trivi, “Following the drying of spray paints using space and time contrast of dynamic speckle,” J. Coat. Technol. Res. 3, 295–299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Limia, A. Nunez, H. Rabal, and M. Trivi, “Wavelet transform analysis of dynamic speckle patterns texture,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6745–6750 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Amalvy, C. Lasquibar, R. Arizaga, H. Rabal, and M. Trivi, “Application of dynamic speckle interferometry to the drying of coatings,” Prog. Org. Coat. 42, 89–99 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Whitters, C.

R. Imhof, C. Whitters, and D. Birch, “Opto-thermal non-destructive examination of surface coatings,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 5, 113–117 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, I.

M. Yokota, T. Adachi, and I. Yamaguchi, “Monitoring and evaluation of drying of paint by using phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Eng. 49, 015801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Yamaguchi, M. Yokota, T. Ida, M. Sunaga, and K. Kobayashi, “Monitoring of paint drying process by digital speckle correlation,” Opt. Rev. 14, 362–364 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Yamaguchi, J. Kato, S. Ohata, and J. Mizuno, “Image formation in phase-shifting digital holography and applications to microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6177–6186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Yamaguchi and T. Zhang, “Phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1268–1270 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yasuda, T.

Yasui, T.

Yokota, M.

M. Yokota, T. Adachi, and I. Yamaguchi, “Monitoring and evaluation of drying of paint by using phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Eng. 49, 015801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Yamaguchi, M. Yokota, T. Ida, M. Sunaga, and K. Kobayashi, “Monitoring of paint drying process by digital speckle correlation,” Opt. Rev. 14, 362–364 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, T.

Appl. Opt.

J. Coat. Technol.

S. Croll, “Drying of latex paint,” J. Coat. Technol. 58, 41–49(1986).

J. Coat. Technol. Res.

R. Arizaga, E. Grumel, N. Cap, and M. Trivi, “Following the drying of spray paints using space and time contrast of dynamic speckle,” J. Coat. Technol. Res. 3, 295–299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B

R. Imhof, C. Whitters, and D. Birch, “Opto-thermal non-destructive examination of surface coatings,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 5, 113–117 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

M. Yokota, T. Adachi, and I. Yamaguchi, “Monitoring and evaluation of drying of paint by using phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Eng. 49, 015801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Romero, E. Alanis, and H. Rabal, “Statistics of the dynamic speckle produced by a rotating diffuser and its application to the assessment of paint drying,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1652–1658(2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Rev.

I. Yamaguchi, M. Yokota, T. Ida, M. Sunaga, and K. Kobayashi, “Monitoring of paint drying process by digital speckle correlation,” Opt. Rev. 14, 362–364 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Org. Coat.

J. Amalvy, C. Lasquibar, R. Arizaga, H. Rabal, and M. Trivi, “Application of dynamic speckle interferometry to the drying of coatings,” Prog. Org. Coat. 42, 89–99 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Faccia, O. Pardini, J. Amalvy, N. Cap, E. Grumel, R. Arizaga, and M. Trivi, “Differentiation of the drying time of paints by dynamic speckle interferometry,” Prog. Org. Coat. 64, 350–355 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configuration: (a) configuration of the object, (b) experimental setup. LD, laser diode; CCD, charge coupled device; PC, personal computer; TEC, thermoelectric cooler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reconstructed intensity images and phase difference images of the painted aluminum surface at different locations and temperatures with a variation of time: (a) intensity images for Z 1 = 330 mm and T s 1 = 25 ° C , (b) intensity images for Z 2 = 400 mm and T s 2 = 35 ° C , (c) phase difference images for Z 1 = 330 mm and T s 1 = 25 ° C , (d) phase difference images for Z 2 = 400 mm and T s 2 = 35 ° C .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time dependence of the peak value of cross-correlation function C p and the standard deviation of the phase difference σ at different positions and temperatures: (a)  C p , (b) σ.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time dependence of the value of a moving standard deviation σ m calculated from the standard deviation σ of phase difference in the areas shown in the dotted rectangles in Fig. 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Local variation of the drying process in each object: (a)  Z 1 = 330 mm and T s 1 = 25 ° C , (b)  Z 2 = 400 mm and T s 2 = 35 ° C .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Time dependence of the value of a moving standard deviation σ m calculated from the standard deviation σ of the phase difference in the different areas shown in the numbered squares in Fig. 2: (a)  Z 1 = 330 mm and T s 1 = 25 ° C , (b)  Z 2 = 400 mm and T s 2 = 35 ° C .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Configuration of the combination monitoring method using a microscope and an electric balance.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Microscopic images of the painted surface at various time lapses. The magnification factor of the microscope is 700 . The measurement was conducted in a closed room with room temperature T r = 19.0 ° C and humidity H = 42 % .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Typical results of the variations of the peak value of cross-correlation function C p 2 for the subsequent microscope images and weight M p of the paint. The temperature T r and relative humidity H of surroundings: (a)  T r = 19.0 ° C , H = 42 % , (b)  T r = 19.5 ° C , H = 22 % .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Typical results of weight loss Δ M p of the paint. The temperature T r and relative humidity H of surroundings: (a)  T r = 19.0 ° C , H = 42 % , (b)  T r = 19.5 ° C , H = 22 % .

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Content of the Main Ingredients in the Paint

Tables Icon

Table 2 Time for Stationary State of Areas 1, 2, and 3 in Fig. 2 Evaluated from the Criteria of C p > 0.99 and σ m < 0.02 a

Equations (4)

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U ( X , Y ; t ) = exp { i π λ Z ( X 2 + Y 2 ) } U o ( x , y ; t ) exp { i π λ Z ( x 2 + y 2 ) } exp { i 2 π λ Z ( x X + y Y ) } d x d y ,
C t ( X , Y ) = I t ( X , Y ) I t + T ( X + X , Y + Y ) d X d Y = F 1 [ I ^ t ( ξ , η ) I ^ t + T * ( ξ , η ) ] ,
σ t = X , Y D ( Δ ϕ t ( X , Y ) Δ ϕ t ¯ ) 2 N ,
σ m ( k ) = i = k k + 9 { σ ( i ) σ ¯ k , k + 9 } 2 10 ,

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