Abstract

The overlap profile, also known as crossover function or geometric form factor, is often a source of uncertainty for lidar measurements. This paper describes a method for measuring the overlap by presenting the lidar with a virtual cloud through the use of an imaging system. Results show good agreement with horizontal hard target lidar measurements and with geometric overlap calculated for the ideal aberration-free case.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Ligda, “Meteorological observations with a pulsed laser radar,” in Proceedings 1st Conference on Laser Technology (U.S. Office of Naval Research, 1963), pp. 63–72.
  2. G. Fiocco and G. Grams, “Observations of the aerosol layer at 20 km by optical radar,” J. Atmos. Sci. 21, 323–324 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  3. U. Wandinger, “Introduction to lidar,” in LIDAR: Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, C.Weitkamp, ed. (Springer, 2005), pp. 1–18.
  4. J. D. Klett, “Stable analytical inversion solution for processing lidar returns,” Appl. Opt. 20, 211–220 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. V. Kovalev and W. Eichinger, Elastic Lidar: Theory, Practice, and Analysis Methods (Wiley, 2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Simeonov, G. Larcheveque, P. Quaglia, H. van den Bergh, and B. Calpini, “Influence of the photomultiplier tube spatial uniformity on lidar signals,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5186–5190 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. M. Patterson, D. W. Roberts, and G. G. Gimmestad, “Initial measurements using a 1.54 μm eyesafe Raman shifted lidar,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4978–4981 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. E. W. Pettifer, G. J. Jenkins, P. G. Healey, and J. H. Convery, “A large coaxial lidar for elastic and inelastic scattering studies of the stratosphere,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 409–423 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Münkel, N. Eresmaa, J. Räsänen, and A. Karppinen, “Retrieval of mixing height and dust concentration with lidar ceilometer,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 124, 117–128 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott, and I. H. Hwang, “Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observation at atmospheric radiation measurement program sites: instruments and data processing,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 431–442(2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Sasano, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, and M. Okuda, “Geometrical form factor in the laser radar equation: an experimental determination,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3908–3910 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. Halldórsson and J. Langerholc, “Geometrical form factors for the lidar function,” Appl. Opt. 17, 240–244 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. Sassen and G. C. Dodd, “Lidar crossover function and misalignment effects,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3162–3165 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. M. Ancellet, M. J. Kavaya, R. T. Menzies, and A. M. Brothers, “Lidar telescope overlap function and effects of misalignment for unstable resonator transmitter and coherent receiver,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2886–2890 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Kuze, H. Kinjo, Y. Sakurada, and N. Takeuchi, “Field-of-view dependence of lidar signals by use of Newtonian and Cassegrainian telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3128–3132(1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Dell’Aglio, S. Chudzynski, T. Stacewicz, and L. Wöste, “Analytical function for lidar geometrical compression form-factor calculations,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1323–1331(2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. Velotta, B. Bartoli, R. Capobianco, L. Fiorani, and N. Spinelli, “Analysis of the receiver response in lidar measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6999–7007 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Kokkalis, G. Georgoussis, A. Papayannis, D. Hatzidimitriou, J. Porteneuve, R. E. Mamouri, and G. Tsaknakis, “Optimization-through optical design-of a multi-wavelength fiber-based Raman-lidar system in the near-field for vertical aerosol measurements in the troposphere,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, A.Apituley, H.W. J.Russchenberg, and W.A. A.Monna, eds. (ISTP, 2009), paper S06-P01.
  19. I. Berezhnyy, “A combined diffraction and geometrical optics approach for lidar overlap function computation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 855–859 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. U. Wandinger and A. Ansmann, “Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 511–514 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. K. Tomine, C. Hirayama, K. Michimoto, and N. Takeuchi, “Experimental determination of the crossover function in the laser radar equation for days with a light mist,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2194–2195 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. W. Dho, Y. J. Park, and H. J. Kong, “Experimental determination of a geometric form factor in a lidar equation for an inhomogeneous atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6009–6010 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Wu, C. Li, and H. Hu, “Geometrical form factor determination with Raman backscattering signals,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1879–1881 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, M. J. Costa, D. Bortoli, A. M. Silva, H. Lyamani, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Infrared lidar overlap function: an experimental determination,” Opt. Express 18, 20350–20359 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (SPIE, 2008).

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

I. Berezhnyy, “A combined diffraction and geometrical optics approach for lidar overlap function computation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 855–859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

C. Münkel, N. Eresmaa, J. Räsänen, and A. Karppinen, “Retrieval of mixing height and dust concentration with lidar ceilometer,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 124, 117–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2002 (2)

U. Wandinger and A. Ansmann, “Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 511–514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott, and I. H. Hwang, “Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observation at atmospheric radiation measurement program sites: instruments and data processing,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 431–442(2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

1989 (2)

1986 (1)

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

1976 (1)

R. E. W. Pettifer, G. J. Jenkins, P. G. Healey, and J. H. Convery, “A large coaxial lidar for elastic and inelastic scattering studies of the stratosphere,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 409–423 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

G. Fiocco and G. Grams, “Observations of the aerosol layer at 20 km by optical radar,” J. Atmos. Sci. 21, 323–324 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Alados-Arboledas, L.

Ancellet, G. M.

Ansmann, A.

Bartoli, B.

Berezhnyy, I.

I. Berezhnyy, “A combined diffraction and geometrical optics approach for lidar overlap function computation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 855–859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bortoli, D.

Brothers, A. M.

Calpini, B.

Campbell, J. R.

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott, and I. H. Hwang, “Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observation at atmospheric radiation measurement program sites: instruments and data processing,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 431–442(2002).
[CrossRef]

Capobianco, R.

Chudzynski, S.

Convery, J. H.

R. E. W. Pettifer, G. J. Jenkins, P. G. Healey, and J. H. Convery, “A large coaxial lidar for elastic and inelastic scattering studies of the stratosphere,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 409–423 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Costa, M. J.

Dell’Aglio, M.

Dho, S. W.

Dodd, G. C.

Eichinger, W.

V. Kovalev and W. Eichinger, Elastic Lidar: Theory, Practice, and Analysis Methods (Wiley, 2004).
[CrossRef]

Eresmaa, N.

C. Münkel, N. Eresmaa, J. Räsänen, and A. Karppinen, “Retrieval of mixing height and dust concentration with lidar ceilometer,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 124, 117–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fiocco, G.

G. Fiocco and G. Grams, “Observations of the aerosol layer at 20 km by optical radar,” J. Atmos. Sci. 21, 323–324 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Fiorani, L.

Flynn, C. J.

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott, and I. H. Hwang, “Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observation at atmospheric radiation measurement program sites: instruments and data processing,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 431–442(2002).
[CrossRef]

Georgoussis, G.

P. Kokkalis, G. Georgoussis, A. Papayannis, D. Hatzidimitriou, J. Porteneuve, R. E. Mamouri, and G. Tsaknakis, “Optimization-through optical design-of a multi-wavelength fiber-based Raman-lidar system in the near-field for vertical aerosol measurements in the troposphere,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, A.Apituley, H.W. J.Russchenberg, and W.A. A.Monna, eds. (ISTP, 2009), paper S06-P01.

Gimmestad, G. G.

Grams, G.

G. Fiocco and G. Grams, “Observations of the aerosol layer at 20 km by optical radar,” J. Atmos. Sci. 21, 323–324 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Guerrero-Rascado, J. L.

Halldórsson, T.

Hatzidimitriou, D.

P. Kokkalis, G. Georgoussis, A. Papayannis, D. Hatzidimitriou, J. Porteneuve, R. E. Mamouri, and G. Tsaknakis, “Optimization-through optical design-of a multi-wavelength fiber-based Raman-lidar system in the near-field for vertical aerosol measurements in the troposphere,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, A.Apituley, H.W. J.Russchenberg, and W.A. A.Monna, eds. (ISTP, 2009), paper S06-P01.

Healey, P. G.

R. E. W. Pettifer, G. J. Jenkins, P. G. Healey, and J. H. Convery, “A large coaxial lidar for elastic and inelastic scattering studies of the stratosphere,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 409–423 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hirayama, C.

Hlavka, D. L.

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott, and I. H. Hwang, “Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observation at atmospheric radiation measurement program sites: instruments and data processing,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 431–442(2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

Hu, S.

Hwang, I. H.

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott, and I. H. Hwang, “Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observation at atmospheric radiation measurement program sites: instruments and data processing,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 431–442(2002).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, G. J.

R. E. W. Pettifer, G. J. Jenkins, P. G. Healey, and J. H. Convery, “A large coaxial lidar for elastic and inelastic scattering studies of the stratosphere,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 409–423 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Karppinen, A.

C. Münkel, N. Eresmaa, J. Räsänen, and A. Karppinen, “Retrieval of mixing height and dust concentration with lidar ceilometer,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 124, 117–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kavaya, M. J.

Kinjo, H.

Klett, J. D.

Kokkalis, P.

P. Kokkalis, G. Georgoussis, A. Papayannis, D. Hatzidimitriou, J. Porteneuve, R. E. Mamouri, and G. Tsaknakis, “Optimization-through optical design-of a multi-wavelength fiber-based Raman-lidar system in the near-field for vertical aerosol measurements in the troposphere,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, A.Apituley, H.W. J.Russchenberg, and W.A. A.Monna, eds. (ISTP, 2009), paper S06-P01.

Kong, H. J.

Kovalev, V.

V. Kovalev and W. Eichinger, Elastic Lidar: Theory, Practice, and Analysis Methods (Wiley, 2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuze, H.

Langerholc, J.

Larcheveque, G.

Li, C.

Ligda, M.

M. Ligda, “Meteorological observations with a pulsed laser radar,” in Proceedings 1st Conference on Laser Technology (U.S. Office of Naval Research, 1963), pp. 63–72.

Lyamani, H.

Mamouri, R. E.

P. Kokkalis, G. Georgoussis, A. Papayannis, D. Hatzidimitriou, J. Porteneuve, R. E. Mamouri, and G. Tsaknakis, “Optimization-through optical design-of a multi-wavelength fiber-based Raman-lidar system in the near-field for vertical aerosol measurements in the troposphere,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, A.Apituley, H.W. J.Russchenberg, and W.A. A.Monna, eds. (ISTP, 2009), paper S06-P01.

Menzies, R. T.

Michimoto, K.

Münkel, C.

C. Münkel, N. Eresmaa, J. Räsänen, and A. Karppinen, “Retrieval of mixing height and dust concentration with lidar ceilometer,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 124, 117–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Okuda, M.

Papayannis, A.

P. Kokkalis, G. Georgoussis, A. Papayannis, D. Hatzidimitriou, J. Porteneuve, R. E. Mamouri, and G. Tsaknakis, “Optimization-through optical design-of a multi-wavelength fiber-based Raman-lidar system in the near-field for vertical aerosol measurements in the troposphere,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, A.Apituley, H.W. J.Russchenberg, and W.A. A.Monna, eds. (ISTP, 2009), paper S06-P01.

Park, Y. J.

Patterson, E. M.

Pettifer, R. E. W.

R. E. W. Pettifer, G. J. Jenkins, P. G. Healey, and J. H. Convery, “A large coaxial lidar for elastic and inelastic scattering studies of the stratosphere,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 409–423 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Porteneuve, J.

P. Kokkalis, G. Georgoussis, A. Papayannis, D. Hatzidimitriou, J. Porteneuve, R. E. Mamouri, and G. Tsaknakis, “Optimization-through optical design-of a multi-wavelength fiber-based Raman-lidar system in the near-field for vertical aerosol measurements in the troposphere,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, A.Apituley, H.W. J.Russchenberg, and W.A. A.Monna, eds. (ISTP, 2009), paper S06-P01.

Quaglia, P.

Räsänen, J.

C. Münkel, N. Eresmaa, J. Räsänen, and A. Karppinen, “Retrieval of mixing height and dust concentration with lidar ceilometer,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 124, 117–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, D. W.

Sakurada, Y.

Sasano, Y.

Sassen, K.

Scott, V. S.

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott, and I. H. Hwang, “Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observation at atmospheric radiation measurement program sites: instruments and data processing,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 431–442(2002).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, H.

Silva, A. M.

Simeonov, V.

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (SPIE, 2008).

Spinelli, N.

Spinhirne, J. D.

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott, and I. H. Hwang, “Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observation at atmospheric radiation measurement program sites: instruments and data processing,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 431–442(2002).
[CrossRef]

Stacewicz, T.

Stelmaszczyk, K.

Takeuchi, N.

Tomine, K.

Tsaknakis, G.

P. Kokkalis, G. Georgoussis, A. Papayannis, D. Hatzidimitriou, J. Porteneuve, R. E. Mamouri, and G. Tsaknakis, “Optimization-through optical design-of a multi-wavelength fiber-based Raman-lidar system in the near-field for vertical aerosol measurements in the troposphere,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, A.Apituley, H.W. J.Russchenberg, and W.A. A.Monna, eds. (ISTP, 2009), paper S06-P01.

Turner, D. D.

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott, and I. H. Hwang, “Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observation at atmospheric radiation measurement program sites: instruments and data processing,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 431–442(2002).
[CrossRef]

van den Bergh, H.

Velotta, R.

Wandinger, U.

U. Wandinger and A. Ansmann, “Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 511–514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Wandinger, “Introduction to lidar,” in LIDAR: Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, C.Weitkamp, ed. (Springer, 2005), pp. 1–18.

Wang, X.

Welton, E. J.

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott, and I. H. Hwang, “Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observation at atmospheric radiation measurement program sites: instruments and data processing,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 431–442(2002).
[CrossRef]

Wöste, L.

Wu, Y.

Appl. Opt. (13)

J. D. Klett, “Stable analytical inversion solution for processing lidar returns,” Appl. Opt. 20, 211–220 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Simeonov, G. Larcheveque, P. Quaglia, H. van den Bergh, and B. Calpini, “Influence of the photomultiplier tube spatial uniformity on lidar signals,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5186–5190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Patterson, D. W. Roberts, and G. G. Gimmestad, “Initial measurements using a 1.54 μm eyesafe Raman shifted lidar,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4978–4981 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sasano, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, and M. Okuda, “Geometrical form factor in the laser radar equation: an experimental determination,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3908–3910 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Halldórsson and J. Langerholc, “Geometrical form factors for the lidar function,” Appl. Opt. 17, 240–244 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sassen and G. C. Dodd, “Lidar crossover function and misalignment effects,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3162–3165 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Ancellet, M. J. Kavaya, R. T. Menzies, and A. M. Brothers, “Lidar telescope overlap function and effects of misalignment for unstable resonator transmitter and coherent receiver,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2886–2890 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kuze, H. Kinjo, Y. Sakurada, and N. Takeuchi, “Field-of-view dependence of lidar signals by use of Newtonian and Cassegrainian telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3128–3132(1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Dell’Aglio, S. Chudzynski, T. Stacewicz, and L. Wöste, “Analytical function for lidar geometrical compression form-factor calculations,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1323–1331(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Velotta, B. Bartoli, R. Capobianco, L. Fiorani, and N. Spinelli, “Analysis of the receiver response in lidar measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6999–7007 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger and A. Ansmann, “Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 511–514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tomine, C. Hirayama, K. Michimoto, and N. Takeuchi, “Experimental determination of the crossover function in the laser radar equation for days with a light mist,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2194–2195 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Dho, Y. J. Park, and H. J. Kong, “Experimental determination of a geometric form factor in a lidar equation for an inhomogeneous atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6009–6010 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boundary-Layer Meteorol. (1)

C. Münkel, N. Eresmaa, J. Räsänen, and A. Karppinen, “Retrieval of mixing height and dust concentration with lidar ceilometer,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 124, 117–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott, and I. H. Hwang, “Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observation at atmospheric radiation measurement program sites: instruments and data processing,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 431–442(2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

G. Fiocco and G. Grams, “Observations of the aerosol layer at 20 km by optical radar,” J. Atmos. Sci. 21, 323–324 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

I. Berezhnyy, “A combined diffraction and geometrical optics approach for lidar overlap function computation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 855–859 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. E. W. Pettifer, G. J. Jenkins, P. G. Healey, and J. H. Convery, “A large coaxial lidar for elastic and inelastic scattering studies of the stratosphere,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 409–423 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

U. Wandinger, “Introduction to lidar,” in LIDAR: Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, C.Weitkamp, ed. (Springer, 2005), pp. 1–18.

V. Kovalev and W. Eichinger, Elastic Lidar: Theory, Practice, and Analysis Methods (Wiley, 2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Kokkalis, G. Georgoussis, A. Papayannis, D. Hatzidimitriou, J. Porteneuve, R. E. Mamouri, and G. Tsaknakis, “Optimization-through optical design-of a multi-wavelength fiber-based Raman-lidar system in the near-field for vertical aerosol measurements in the troposphere,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, A.Apituley, H.W. J.Russchenberg, and W.A. A.Monna, eds. (ISTP, 2009), paper S06-P01.

M. Ligda, “Meteorological observations with a pulsed laser radar,” in Proceedings 1st Conference on Laser Technology (U.S. Office of Naval Research, 1963), pp. 63–72.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (SPIE, 2008).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Imaging system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Compound imaging system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the lidar system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Receiver geometry.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured and calculated overlap of the prototype lidar instrument.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental setup.

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P ( R ) = K G ( R ) β ( R ) T ( R ) ,
G ( R ) = O ( R ) R 2 ,
G ( R ) = O ( R ) R p 2 ,
R ( a o ) = ω + | f a a o a o f a | ,
s p = f a ω ω f a .
R p = | s p a o | .
O ( R ) = C P ( R ) R p 2 ,
R = ω + f a a o f a a o ,
a o = f b + s p b o f b b o f b .
O ( R ) = C P ( R ) ,
O ( s ) = + + R s ( x , y ) T s ( x , y ) d x d y ,
R s ( x , y ) = R 0 + + D ( f ε s , f υ s ) A R ( x x 0 ε , y υ ) d ε d υ .
A R ( x l , y l ) = 1 x l 2 + y l 2 < r l 2 , x l > 0 = 0 otherwise .
D ( x f , y f ) = 1 x f 2 + y f 2 < r d 2 = 0 otherwise .
T s ( x , y ) = T 0 + + L ( f ε s , f υ s ) A T ( x + x 0 ε , y υ ) d ε d υ ,
A T ( x l , y l ) = e 1 4 [ ( x l x g σ x ) 2 + ( y 1 σ y ) 2 ] x l 2 + y l 2 < r l 2 , x l < 0 = 0 otherwise .
L ( x f , y f ) = 1 | x f | < L 2 , W 2 < y f < + W 2 = 1 | x f | < L 2 , W 2 < y f S < + W 2 = 1 | x f | < L 2 , W 2 < y f + S < + W 2 = 0 otherwise ,

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