Abstract

By taking net surface charge into consideration, the scattering field of particles illuminated by dual laser beams of phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) is computed based on Mie’s theory, and the effect of net surface charge on the phase–diameter relationship and the phase ratio is studied. It is found that the phase–diameter relationship and the relationship between the phase ratio and the refractive index of charged particles could be significantly different from those of uncharged particles, which would lead to errors in particle sizing and the measurement of refractive indices. A method of recognizing charged particles and determining the value of their surface conductivity, which is related to net surface charge, is proposed by utilizing the effect of net surface charge on the measurement of refractive indices using PDA.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. A. Gunaraj, “Study of the effect of the particle–particle interactions in the particulate flow,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Cincinnati, 1997).
  2. W. Tabakoff, “Review—Turbomachinery performance deterioration exposed to solid particulates environment,” J. Fluids Eng. 106, 125–134 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. L. Soo, H. K. Ihrig, and A. F. El Kouh, “Experimental determination of statistical properties of two-phase turbulent motion,” J. Basic Eng. 82D, 609–621 (1960).
  4. K. Min, “Intensity of particle motion in solid-gas suspension flow,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 564–567 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Tsuji, Y. Morikawa, and H. Shiomi, “LDV measurements of an air-solid two-phase flow in a vertical pipe,” J. Fluid Mech. 139, 417–434 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Moon, J. Choi, K. Yeom, and C. Bae, “Measurements of droplet size distribution and in-cylinder mixture formation from a slit injector in a direct-injection gasoline engine,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 85, 012004 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Ommi, E. Movahednejad, and K. Nekofar, “Theoretical and experimental study of multi-phase flow in the intake port of a port fuel injection engine,” Leonardo J. Sci. 8, 31–49 (2009).
  8. J. Ma, S. C. M. Yu, H. W. Ng, and Y. C. Lam, “Some observations on particle size and velocity measurements using phase Doppler anemometry in plasma spray,” Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 24, 85–115 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. A. Naqwi and F. Durst, “Light scattering applied to LDA and PDA measurements. Part 1: Theory and numerical treatments,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 8, 245–258 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. A. Naqwi and F. Durst, “Light scattering applied to LDA and PDA measurements. Part 2: Computational results and their discussion,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 9, 66–80(1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. A. Naqwi, F. Durst, and X. Z. Liu, “Extended phase-Doppler system for characterization of multiphase flows,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 8, 16–22 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Gréhan, G. Gouesbet, A. A. Naqwi, and F. Durst, “Particle trajector effects in phase Doppler systems: computations and experiments,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 10, 332–338(1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Durst, G. Brenn, and T. H. Xu, “A review of the development and characteristics of planar phase-Doppler anemometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1203–1221 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. F. Bohren and A. J. Hunt, “Scattering of electromagnetic waves by a charged sphere,” Can. J. Phys. 55, 1930–1935(1977).
  15. Y. H. Zhou, Q. S. He, and X. J. Zheng, “Attenuation of electromagnetic wave propagation in sandstorms incorporating charged sand particles,” Eur. Phys. J. E 17, 181–187 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Klacka and M. Kocifaj, “Scattering of electromagnetic waves by charged particles spheres and some physical consequences,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 170–183(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).
  18. X. J. Zheng, N. Huang, and Y. H. Zhou, “Laboratory measurement of electrification of wind-blown sands and simulation of its effect on and saltation movement,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4322 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. S. McCarty and G. M. Whitesides, “Electrostatic charging due to separation of ions at interfaces: contact electrification of ionic electrets,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 47, 2188–2207 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

F. Ommi, E. Movahednejad, and K. Nekofar, “Theoretical and experimental study of multi-phase flow in the intake port of a port fuel injection engine,” Leonardo J. Sci. 8, 31–49 (2009).

2008 (1)

L. S. McCarty and G. M. Whitesides, “Electrostatic charging due to separation of ions at interfaces: contact electrification of ionic electrets,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 47, 2188–2207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. Klacka and M. Kocifaj, “Scattering of electromagnetic waves by charged particles spheres and some physical consequences,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 170–183(2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Moon, J. Choi, K. Yeom, and C. Bae, “Measurements of droplet size distribution and in-cylinder mixture formation from a slit injector in a direct-injection gasoline engine,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 85, 012004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Y. Tsuji, Y. Morikawa, and H. Shiomi, “LDV measurements of an air-solid two-phase flow in a vertical pipe,” J. Fluid Mech. 139, 417–434 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Y. H. Zhou, Q. S. He, and X. J. Zheng, “Attenuation of electromagnetic wave propagation in sandstorms incorporating charged sand particles,” Eur. Phys. J. E 17, 181–187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Ma, S. C. M. Yu, H. W. Ng, and Y. C. Lam, “Some observations on particle size and velocity measurements using phase Doppler anemometry in plasma spray,” Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 24, 85–115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

X. J. Zheng, N. Huang, and Y. H. Zhou, “Laboratory measurement of electrification of wind-blown sands and simulation of its effect on and saltation movement,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4322 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

F. Durst, G. Brenn, and T. H. Xu, “A review of the development and characteristics of planar phase-Doppler anemometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1203–1221 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

G. Gréhan, G. Gouesbet, A. A. Naqwi, and F. Durst, “Particle trajector effects in phase Doppler systems: computations and experiments,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 10, 332–338(1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. A. Naqwi and F. Durst, “Light scattering applied to LDA and PDA measurements. Part 2: Computational results and their discussion,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 9, 66–80(1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

A. A. Naqwi, F. Durst, and X. Z. Liu, “Extended phase-Doppler system for characterization of multiphase flows,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 8, 16–22 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Naqwi and F. Durst, “Light scattering applied to LDA and PDA measurements. Part 1: Theory and numerical treatments,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 8, 245–258 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

W. Tabakoff, “Review—Turbomachinery performance deterioration exposed to solid particulates environment,” J. Fluids Eng. 106, 125–134 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

C. F. Bohren and A. J. Hunt, “Scattering of electromagnetic waves by a charged sphere,” Can. J. Phys. 55, 1930–1935(1977).

1967 (1)

K. Min, “Intensity of particle motion in solid-gas suspension flow,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 564–567 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

S. L. Soo, H. K. Ihrig, and A. F. El Kouh, “Experimental determination of statistical properties of two-phase turbulent motion,” J. Basic Eng. 82D, 609–621 (1960).

Bae, C.

S. Moon, J. Choi, K. Yeom, and C. Bae, “Measurements of droplet size distribution and in-cylinder mixture formation from a slit injector in a direct-injection gasoline engine,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 85, 012004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C.

C. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and A. J. Hunt, “Scattering of electromagnetic waves by a charged sphere,” Can. J. Phys. 55, 1930–1935(1977).

Brenn, G.

F. Durst, G. Brenn, and T. H. Xu, “A review of the development and characteristics of planar phase-Doppler anemometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1203–1221 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

S. Moon, J. Choi, K. Yeom, and C. Bae, “Measurements of droplet size distribution and in-cylinder mixture formation from a slit injector in a direct-injection gasoline engine,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 85, 012004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Durst, F.

F. Durst, G. Brenn, and T. H. Xu, “A review of the development and characteristics of planar phase-Doppler anemometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1203–1221 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Gréhan, G. Gouesbet, A. A. Naqwi, and F. Durst, “Particle trajector effects in phase Doppler systems: computations and experiments,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 10, 332–338(1993).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Naqwi and F. Durst, “Light scattering applied to LDA and PDA measurements. Part 2: Computational results and their discussion,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 9, 66–80(1992).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Naqwi and F. Durst, “Light scattering applied to LDA and PDA measurements. Part 1: Theory and numerical treatments,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 8, 245–258 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Naqwi, F. Durst, and X. Z. Liu, “Extended phase-Doppler system for characterization of multiphase flows,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 8, 16–22 (1991).
[CrossRef]

El Kouh, A. F.

S. L. Soo, H. K. Ihrig, and A. F. El Kouh, “Experimental determination of statistical properties of two-phase turbulent motion,” J. Basic Eng. 82D, 609–621 (1960).

Gouesbet, G.

G. Gréhan, G. Gouesbet, A. A. Naqwi, and F. Durst, “Particle trajector effects in phase Doppler systems: computations and experiments,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 10, 332–338(1993).
[CrossRef]

Gréhan, G.

G. Gréhan, G. Gouesbet, A. A. Naqwi, and F. Durst, “Particle trajector effects in phase Doppler systems: computations and experiments,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 10, 332–338(1993).
[CrossRef]

Gunaraj, J. A.

J. A. Gunaraj, “Study of the effect of the particle–particle interactions in the particulate flow,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Cincinnati, 1997).

He, Q. S.

Y. H. Zhou, Q. S. He, and X. J. Zheng, “Attenuation of electromagnetic wave propagation in sandstorms incorporating charged sand particles,” Eur. Phys. J. E 17, 181–187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, N.

X. J. Zheng, N. Huang, and Y. H. Zhou, “Laboratory measurement of electrification of wind-blown sands and simulation of its effect on and saltation movement,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4322 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Hunt, A. J.

C. F. Bohren and A. J. Hunt, “Scattering of electromagnetic waves by a charged sphere,” Can. J. Phys. 55, 1930–1935(1977).

Ihrig, H. K.

S. L. Soo, H. K. Ihrig, and A. F. El Kouh, “Experimental determination of statistical properties of two-phase turbulent motion,” J. Basic Eng. 82D, 609–621 (1960).

Klacka, J.

J. Klacka and M. Kocifaj, “Scattering of electromagnetic waves by charged particles spheres and some physical consequences,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 170–183(2007).
[CrossRef]

Kocifaj, M.

J. Klacka and M. Kocifaj, “Scattering of electromagnetic waves by charged particles spheres and some physical consequences,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 170–183(2007).
[CrossRef]

Lam, Y. C.

J. Ma, S. C. M. Yu, H. W. Ng, and Y. C. Lam, “Some observations on particle size and velocity measurements using phase Doppler anemometry in plasma spray,” Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 24, 85–115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. Z.

A. A. Naqwi, F. Durst, and X. Z. Liu, “Extended phase-Doppler system for characterization of multiphase flows,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 8, 16–22 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J.

J. Ma, S. C. M. Yu, H. W. Ng, and Y. C. Lam, “Some observations on particle size and velocity measurements using phase Doppler anemometry in plasma spray,” Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 24, 85–115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McCarty, L. S.

L. S. McCarty and G. M. Whitesides, “Electrostatic charging due to separation of ions at interfaces: contact electrification of ionic electrets,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 47, 2188–2207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Min, K.

K. Min, “Intensity of particle motion in solid-gas suspension flow,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 564–567 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Moon, S.

S. Moon, J. Choi, K. Yeom, and C. Bae, “Measurements of droplet size distribution and in-cylinder mixture formation from a slit injector in a direct-injection gasoline engine,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 85, 012004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morikawa, Y.

Y. Tsuji, Y. Morikawa, and H. Shiomi, “LDV measurements of an air-solid two-phase flow in a vertical pipe,” J. Fluid Mech. 139, 417–434 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Movahednejad, E.

F. Ommi, E. Movahednejad, and K. Nekofar, “Theoretical and experimental study of multi-phase flow in the intake port of a port fuel injection engine,” Leonardo J. Sci. 8, 31–49 (2009).

Naqwi, A. A.

G. Gréhan, G. Gouesbet, A. A. Naqwi, and F. Durst, “Particle trajector effects in phase Doppler systems: computations and experiments,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 10, 332–338(1993).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Naqwi and F. Durst, “Light scattering applied to LDA and PDA measurements. Part 2: Computational results and their discussion,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 9, 66–80(1992).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Naqwi, F. Durst, and X. Z. Liu, “Extended phase-Doppler system for characterization of multiphase flows,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 8, 16–22 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Naqwi and F. Durst, “Light scattering applied to LDA and PDA measurements. Part 1: Theory and numerical treatments,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 8, 245–258 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nekofar, K.

F. Ommi, E. Movahednejad, and K. Nekofar, “Theoretical and experimental study of multi-phase flow in the intake port of a port fuel injection engine,” Leonardo J. Sci. 8, 31–49 (2009).

Ng, H. W.

J. Ma, S. C. M. Yu, H. W. Ng, and Y. C. Lam, “Some observations on particle size and velocity measurements using phase Doppler anemometry in plasma spray,” Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 24, 85–115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ommi, F.

F. Ommi, E. Movahednejad, and K. Nekofar, “Theoretical and experimental study of multi-phase flow in the intake port of a port fuel injection engine,” Leonardo J. Sci. 8, 31–49 (2009).

Shiomi, H.

Y. Tsuji, Y. Morikawa, and H. Shiomi, “LDV measurements of an air-solid two-phase flow in a vertical pipe,” J. Fluid Mech. 139, 417–434 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Soo, S. L.

S. L. Soo, H. K. Ihrig, and A. F. El Kouh, “Experimental determination of statistical properties of two-phase turbulent motion,” J. Basic Eng. 82D, 609–621 (1960).

Tabakoff, W.

W. Tabakoff, “Review—Turbomachinery performance deterioration exposed to solid particulates environment,” J. Fluids Eng. 106, 125–134 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tsuji, Y.

Y. Tsuji, Y. Morikawa, and H. Shiomi, “LDV measurements of an air-solid two-phase flow in a vertical pipe,” J. Fluid Mech. 139, 417–434 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

L. S. McCarty and G. M. Whitesides, “Electrostatic charging due to separation of ions at interfaces: contact electrification of ionic electrets,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 47, 2188–2207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, T. H.

F. Durst, G. Brenn, and T. H. Xu, “A review of the development and characteristics of planar phase-Doppler anemometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1203–1221 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yeom, K.

S. Moon, J. Choi, K. Yeom, and C. Bae, “Measurements of droplet size distribution and in-cylinder mixture formation from a slit injector in a direct-injection gasoline engine,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 85, 012004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S. C. M.

J. Ma, S. C. M. Yu, H. W. Ng, and Y. C. Lam, “Some observations on particle size and velocity measurements using phase Doppler anemometry in plasma spray,” Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 24, 85–115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X. J.

Y. H. Zhou, Q. S. He, and X. J. Zheng, “Attenuation of electromagnetic wave propagation in sandstorms incorporating charged sand particles,” Eur. Phys. J. E 17, 181–187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Zheng, N. Huang, and Y. H. Zhou, “Laboratory measurement of electrification of wind-blown sands and simulation of its effect on and saltation movement,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4322 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y. H.

Y. H. Zhou, Q. S. He, and X. J. Zheng, “Attenuation of electromagnetic wave propagation in sandstorms incorporating charged sand particles,” Eur. Phys. J. E 17, 181–187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Zheng, N. Huang, and Y. H. Zhou, “Laboratory measurement of electrification of wind-blown sands and simulation of its effect on and saltation movement,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4322 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

L. S. McCarty and G. M. Whitesides, “Electrostatic charging due to separation of ions at interfaces: contact electrification of ionic electrets,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 47, 2188–2207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

C. F. Bohren and A. J. Hunt, “Scattering of electromagnetic waves by a charged sphere,” Can. J. Phys. 55, 1930–1935(1977).

Eur. Phys. J. E (1)

Y. H. Zhou, Q. S. He, and X. J. Zheng, “Attenuation of electromagnetic wave propagation in sandstorms incorporating charged sand particles,” Eur. Phys. J. E 17, 181–187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Min, “Intensity of particle motion in solid-gas suspension flow,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 564–567 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Basic Eng. (1)

S. L. Soo, H. K. Ihrig, and A. F. El Kouh, “Experimental determination of statistical properties of two-phase turbulent motion,” J. Basic Eng. 82D, 609–621 (1960).

J. Fluid Mech. (1)

Y. Tsuji, Y. Morikawa, and H. Shiomi, “LDV measurements of an air-solid two-phase flow in a vertical pipe,” J. Fluid Mech. 139, 417–434 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluids Eng. (1)

W. Tabakoff, “Review—Turbomachinery performance deterioration exposed to solid particulates environment,” J. Fluids Eng. 106, 125–134 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

X. J. Zheng, N. Huang, and Y. H. Zhou, “Laboratory measurement of electrification of wind-blown sands and simulation of its effect on and saltation movement,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4322 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. (1)

S. Moon, J. Choi, K. Yeom, and C. Bae, “Measurements of droplet size distribution and in-cylinder mixture formation from a slit injector in a direct-injection gasoline engine,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 85, 012004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

J. Klacka and M. Kocifaj, “Scattering of electromagnetic waves by charged particles spheres and some physical consequences,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 170–183(2007).
[CrossRef]

Leonardo J. Sci. (1)

F. Ommi, E. Movahednejad, and K. Nekofar, “Theoretical and experimental study of multi-phase flow in the intake port of a port fuel injection engine,” Leonardo J. Sci. 8, 31–49 (2009).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

F. Durst, G. Brenn, and T. H. Xu, “A review of the development and characteristics of planar phase-Doppler anemometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1203–1221 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Part. Part. Syst. Charact. (4)

A. A. Naqwi and F. Durst, “Light scattering applied to LDA and PDA measurements. Part 1: Theory and numerical treatments,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 8, 245–258 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Naqwi and F. Durst, “Light scattering applied to LDA and PDA measurements. Part 2: Computational results and their discussion,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 9, 66–80(1992).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Naqwi, F. Durst, and X. Z. Liu, “Extended phase-Doppler system for characterization of multiphase flows,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 8, 16–22 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Gréhan, G. Gouesbet, A. A. Naqwi, and F. Durst, “Particle trajector effects in phase Doppler systems: computations and experiments,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 10, 332–338(1993).
[CrossRef]

Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. (1)

J. Ma, S. C. M. Yu, H. W. Ng, and Y. C. Lam, “Some observations on particle size and velocity measurements using phase Doppler anemometry in plasma spray,” Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 24, 85–115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. A. Gunaraj, “Study of the effect of the particle–particle interactions in the particulate flow,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Cincinnati, 1997).

C. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

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