The efficiency of coupling a plane wave into a single-mode fiber can be reduced by both the aperture obstruction of receivers and the turbulence-induced degradation of optical coherence. Using the Gaussian approximation to the mutual coherence function of the incident optical field, we derived an analytical solution for the fiber-coupling efficiency when a plane wave, propagating through atmospheric turbulence, is received by an annular-aperture receiver and coupled into a single-mode fiber. It is a function of the coupling geometry, the aperture-radius-to-coherence-radius ratio (ARCRR), and the aperture-obstruction parameter. It is found by the numerical optimization method that the optimal coupling geometry depends on both the ARCRR and the aperture-obstruction parameter. The results obtained are useful for analyzing and designing a fiber-coupling system influenced by atmospheric turbulence.
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