Abstract

Diffractive light trapping in 1.5μm thick crystal silicon films is studied experimentally through hemispherical reflection measurements and theoretically through rigorous coupled-wave analysis modeling. The gratings were fabricated by nanoimprinting of dielectric precursor films. The model data, which match the experimental results well without the use of any fitting parameters, are used to extract the light trapping efficiency. Diffractive light trapping is studied as a function of incidence angle, and an enhancement of light absorption is found for incidence angles up to 50° for both TE and TM polarizations.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15, 16986–17000 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
  5. D. N. Weiss, H.-C. Yuan, B. G. Lee, H. M. Branz, S. T. Meyers, A. Grenville, and D. A. Keszler, “Nanoimprinting for diffractive light trapping in solar cells,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, C6M98 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. M. Branz, C. W. Teplin, M. J. Romero, I. T. Martin, Q. Wang, K. Alberi, D. L. Young, and P. Stradins, “Hot-wire chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial film crystal silicon for photovoltaics,” Thin Solid Films 519, 4545–4550 (2011).
  7. C. Eisele, C. E. Nebel, and M. Stutzmann, “Periodic light coupler gratings in amorphous thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7722–7726 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Stiebig, N. Senoussaoui, T. Brammer, and J. Müller, “The application of grating couplers in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 3031–3040 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (3)

D. N. Weiss, H.-C. Yuan, B. G. Lee, H. M. Branz, S. T. Meyers, A. Grenville, and D. A. Keszler, “Nanoimprinting for diffractive light trapping in solar cells,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, C6M98 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Söderström, F. J. Haug, J. Escarré, O. Cubero, and C. Ballif, “Photocurrent increase in n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells by guided mode excitation via grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 213508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Weiss, S. T. Meyers, and D. A. Keszler, “All-inorganic thermal nanoimprint process,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 28, 823–828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

H. F. Shih, S. J. Hsieh, and W. Y. Liao, “Improvement of the light-trapping effect using a subwavelength-structured optical disk,” Appl. Opt. 48, F49–F54 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

I. Gordon, L. Carnel, D. Van Gestel, G. Beaucarne, and J. Poortmans, “Fabrication and characterization of highly efficient thin-film polycrystalline-silicon solar cells based on aluminium-induced crystallization,” Thin Solid Films 516, 6984–6988 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15, 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Haase and H. Stiebig, “Thin-film silicon solar cells with efficient periodic light trapping texture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 15, 415–423(2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

C. W. Teplin, D. S. Ginley, and H. M. Branz, “A new approach to thin film crystal silicon on glass: biaxially-textured silicon on foreign template layers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 984–988(2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Stiebig, N. Senoussaoui, T. Brammer, and J. Müller, “The application of grating couplers in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 3031–3040 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Young, P. Stradins, Y. Q. Xu, L. Gedvilas, B. Reedy, A. H. Mahan, H. M. Branz, Q. Wang, and D. L. Williamson, “Rapid solid-phase crystallization of high-rate, hot-wire chemical-vapor-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

F. Llopis and I. Tobias, “The role of rear surface in thin silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 481–492 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. Eisele, C. E. Nebel, and M. Stutzmann, “Periodic light coupler gratings in amorphous thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7722–7726 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1990 (1)

M. Gale, B. Curtis, H. Kiess, and R. H. Morf, “Design and fabrication of submicron grating structrures for light trapping in silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 1272, 60–66 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

P. Sheng, A. N. Bloch, and R. S. Stepleman, “Wavelength-selective absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 579–581 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Deckman, C. B. Roxlo, and E. Yablonovitch, “Maximum statistical increase of optical absorption in textured semiconductor films,” Opt. Lett. 8, 491–493 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

E. Yablonovitch and G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 29, 300–305 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Alamariu, B. A.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Alberi, K.

H. M. Branz, C. W. Teplin, M. J. Romero, I. T. Martin, Q. Wang, K. Alberi, D. L. Young, and P. Stradins, “Hot-wire chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial film crystal silicon for photovoltaics,” Thin Solid Films 519, 4545–4550 (2011).

Arafune, K.

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 15, 415–423(2007).
[CrossRef]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, “Optical properties,” in Properties of Crystalline Silicon, R.Hull, ed. (INSPEC, 1999), pp. 677–696.

Atwater, H. A.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ballif, C.

K. Söderström, F. J. Haug, J. Escarré, O. Cubero, and C. Ballif, “Photocurrent increase in n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells by guided mode excitation via grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 213508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beaucarne, G.

I. Gordon, L. Carnel, D. Van Gestel, G. Beaucarne, and J. Poortmans, “Fabrication and characterization of highly efficient thin-film polycrystalline-silicon solar cells based on aluminium-induced crystallization,” Thin Solid Films 516, 6984–6988 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bermel, P.

Bloch, A. N.

P. Sheng, A. N. Bloch, and R. S. Stepleman, “Wavelength-selective absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 579–581 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Brammer, T.

H. Stiebig, N. Senoussaoui, T. Brammer, and J. Müller, “The application of grating couplers in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 3031–3040 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Branz, H. M.

D. N. Weiss, H.-C. Yuan, B. G. Lee, H. M. Branz, S. T. Meyers, A. Grenville, and D. A. Keszler, “Nanoimprinting for diffractive light trapping in solar cells,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, C6M98 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Teplin, D. S. Ginley, and H. M. Branz, “A new approach to thin film crystal silicon on glass: biaxially-textured silicon on foreign template layers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 984–988(2006).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Young, P. Stradins, Y. Q. Xu, L. Gedvilas, B. Reedy, A. H. Mahan, H. M. Branz, Q. Wang, and D. L. Williamson, “Rapid solid-phase crystallization of high-rate, hot-wire chemical-vapor-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Branz, C. W. Teplin, M. J. Romero, I. T. Martin, Q. Wang, K. Alberi, D. L. Young, and P. Stradins, “Hot-wire chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial film crystal silicon for photovoltaics,” Thin Solid Films 519, 4545–4550 (2011).

Carnel, L.

I. Gordon, L. Carnel, D. Van Gestel, G. Beaucarne, and J. Poortmans, “Fabrication and characterization of highly efficient thin-film polycrystalline-silicon solar cells based on aluminium-induced crystallization,” Thin Solid Films 516, 6984–6988 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cody, G. D.

E. Yablonovitch and G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 29, 300–305 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cubero, O.

K. Söderström, F. J. Haug, J. Escarré, O. Cubero, and C. Ballif, “Photocurrent increase in n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells by guided mode excitation via grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 213508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, B.

M. Gale, B. Curtis, H. Kiess, and R. H. Morf, “Design and fabrication of submicron grating structrures for light trapping in silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 1272, 60–66 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Deckman, H. W.

Duan, X.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eisele, C.

C. Eisele, C. E. Nebel, and M. Stutzmann, “Periodic light coupler gratings in amorphous thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7722–7726 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Escarré, J.

K. Söderström, F. J. Haug, J. Escarré, O. Cubero, and C. Ballif, “Photocurrent increase in n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells by guided mode excitation via grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 213508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, V. E.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gale, M.

M. Gale, B. Curtis, H. Kiess, and R. H. Morf, “Design and fabrication of submicron grating structrures for light trapping in silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 1272, 60–66 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gedvilas, L.

D. L. Young, P. Stradins, Y. Q. Xu, L. Gedvilas, B. Reedy, A. H. Mahan, H. M. Branz, Q. Wang, and D. L. Williamson, “Rapid solid-phase crystallization of high-rate, hot-wire chemical-vapor-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ginley, D. S.

C. W. Teplin, D. S. Ginley, and H. M. Branz, “A new approach to thin film crystal silicon on glass: biaxially-textured silicon on foreign template layers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 984–988(2006).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, I.

I. Gordon, L. Carnel, D. Van Gestel, G. Beaucarne, and J. Poortmans, “Fabrication and characterization of highly efficient thin-film polycrystalline-silicon solar cells based on aluminium-induced crystallization,” Thin Solid Films 516, 6984–6988 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grenville, A.

D. N. Weiss, H.-C. Yuan, B. G. Lee, H. M. Branz, S. T. Meyers, A. Grenville, and D. A. Keszler, “Nanoimprinting for diffractive light trapping in solar cells,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, C6M98 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Haase, C.

C. Haase and H. Stiebig, “Thin-film silicon solar cells with efficient periodic light trapping texture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haug, F. J.

K. Söderström, F. J. Haug, J. Escarré, O. Cubero, and C. Ballif, “Photocurrent increase in n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells by guided mode excitation via grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 213508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Heine, C.

Hong, C.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, S. J.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Kanamori, Y.

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 15, 415–423(2007).
[CrossRef]

Keszler, D. A.

D. N. Weiss, H.-C. Yuan, B. G. Lee, H. M. Branz, S. T. Meyers, A. Grenville, and D. A. Keszler, “Nanoimprinting for diffractive light trapping in solar cells,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, C6M98 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Weiss, S. T. Meyers, and D. A. Keszler, “All-inorganic thermal nanoimprint process,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 28, 823–828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kiess, H.

M. Gale, B. Curtis, H. Kiess, and R. H. Morf, “Design and fabrication of submicron grating structrures for light trapping in silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 1272, 60–66 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15, 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. G.

D. N. Weiss, H.-C. Yuan, B. G. Lee, H. M. Branz, S. T. Meyers, A. Grenville, and D. A. Keszler, “Nanoimprinting for diffractive light trapping in solar cells,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, C6M98 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liao, W. Y.

Liu, J.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Llopis, F.

F. Llopis and I. Tobias, “The role of rear surface in thin silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 481–492 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, C.

Mahan, A. H.

D. L. Young, P. Stradins, Y. Q. Xu, L. Gedvilas, B. Reedy, A. H. Mahan, H. M. Branz, Q. Wang, and D. L. Williamson, “Rapid solid-phase crystallization of high-rate, hot-wire chemical-vapor-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martin, I. T.

H. M. Branz, C. W. Teplin, M. J. Romero, I. T. Martin, Q. Wang, K. Alberi, D. L. Young, and P. Stradins, “Hot-wire chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial film crystal silicon for photovoltaics,” Thin Solid Films 519, 4545–4550 (2011).

Meyers, S. T.

D. N. Weiss, H.-C. Yuan, B. G. Lee, H. M. Branz, S. T. Meyers, A. Grenville, and D. A. Keszler, “Nanoimprinting for diffractive light trapping in solar cells,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, C6M98 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Weiss, S. T. Meyers, and D. A. Keszler, “All-inorganic thermal nanoimprint process,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 28, 823–828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Meyers, Ph. D. thesis (Oregon State University, 2008).

Morf, R. H.

C. Heine and R. H. Morf, “Submicrometer gratings for solar-energy applications,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2476–2482 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gale, B. Curtis, H. Kiess, and R. H. Morf, “Design and fabrication of submicron grating structrures for light trapping in silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 1272, 60–66 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Morf, “Solar cell,” International Patent WO 92/14270 (1992).

Müller, J.

H. Stiebig, N. Senoussaoui, T. Brammer, and J. Müller, “The application of grating couplers in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 3031–3040 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nebel, C. E.

C. Eisele, C. E. Nebel, and M. Stutzmann, “Periodic light coupler gratings in amorphous thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7722–7726 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ohshita, Y.

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 15, 415–423(2007).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poortmans, J.

I. Gordon, L. Carnel, D. Van Gestel, G. Beaucarne, and J. Poortmans, “Fabrication and characterization of highly efficient thin-film polycrystalline-silicon solar cells based on aluminium-induced crystallization,” Thin Solid Films 516, 6984–6988 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reedy, B.

D. L. Young, P. Stradins, Y. Q. Xu, L. Gedvilas, B. Reedy, A. H. Mahan, H. M. Branz, Q. Wang, and D. L. Williamson, “Rapid solid-phase crystallization of high-rate, hot-wire chemical-vapor-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Romero, M. J.

H. M. Branz, C. W. Teplin, M. J. Romero, I. T. Martin, Q. Wang, K. Alberi, D. L. Young, and P. Stradins, “Hot-wire chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial film crystal silicon for photovoltaics,” Thin Solid Films 519, 4545–4550 (2011).

Roxlo, C. B.

Sai, H.

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 15, 415–423(2007).
[CrossRef]

Schropp, R. E. I.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Senoussaoui, N.

H. Stiebig, N. Senoussaoui, T. Brammer, and J. Müller, “The application of grating couplers in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 3031–3040 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, P.

P. Sheng, A. N. Bloch, and R. S. Stepleman, “Wavelength-selective absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 579–581 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Shih, H. F.

Söderström, K.

K. Söderström, F. J. Haug, J. Escarré, O. Cubero, and C. Ballif, “Photocurrent increase in n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells by guided mode excitation via grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 213508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stepleman, R. S.

P. Sheng, A. N. Bloch, and R. S. Stepleman, “Wavelength-selective absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 579–581 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Stiebig, H.

C. Haase and H. Stiebig, “Thin-film silicon solar cells with efficient periodic light trapping texture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Stiebig, N. Senoussaoui, T. Brammer, and J. Müller, “The application of grating couplers in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 3031–3040 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stradins, P.

D. L. Young, P. Stradins, Y. Q. Xu, L. Gedvilas, B. Reedy, A. H. Mahan, H. M. Branz, Q. Wang, and D. L. Williamson, “Rapid solid-phase crystallization of high-rate, hot-wire chemical-vapor-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Branz, C. W. Teplin, M. J. Romero, I. T. Martin, Q. Wang, K. Alberi, D. L. Young, and P. Stradins, “Hot-wire chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial film crystal silicon for photovoltaics,” Thin Solid Films 519, 4545–4550 (2011).

Stutzmann, M.

C. Eisele, C. E. Nebel, and M. Stutzmann, “Periodic light coupler gratings in amorphous thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7722–7726 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Teplin, C. W.

C. W. Teplin, D. S. Ginley, and H. M. Branz, “A new approach to thin film crystal silicon on glass: biaxially-textured silicon on foreign template layers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 984–988(2006).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Branz, C. W. Teplin, M. J. Romero, I. T. Martin, Q. Wang, K. Alberi, D. L. Young, and P. Stradins, “Hot-wire chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial film crystal silicon for photovoltaics,” Thin Solid Films 519, 4545–4550 (2011).

Tobias, I.

F. Llopis and I. Tobias, “The role of rear surface in thin silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 481–492 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Van Gestel, D.

I. Gordon, L. Carnel, D. Van Gestel, G. Beaucarne, and J. Poortmans, “Fabrication and characterization of highly efficient thin-film polycrystalline-silicon solar cells based on aluminium-induced crystallization,” Thin Solid Films 516, 6984–6988 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Verschuuren, M. A.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

D. L. Young, P. Stradins, Y. Q. Xu, L. Gedvilas, B. Reedy, A. H. Mahan, H. M. Branz, Q. Wang, and D. L. Williamson, “Rapid solid-phase crystallization of high-rate, hot-wire chemical-vapor-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Branz, C. W. Teplin, M. J. Romero, I. T. Martin, Q. Wang, K. Alberi, D. L. Young, and P. Stradins, “Hot-wire chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial film crystal silicon for photovoltaics,” Thin Solid Films 519, 4545–4550 (2011).

Weiss, D. N.

D. N. Weiss, H.-C. Yuan, B. G. Lee, H. M. Branz, S. T. Meyers, A. Grenville, and D. A. Keszler, “Nanoimprinting for diffractive light trapping in solar cells,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, C6M98 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Weiss, S. T. Meyers, and D. A. Keszler, “All-inorganic thermal nanoimprint process,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 28, 823–828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, D. L.

D. L. Young, P. Stradins, Y. Q. Xu, L. Gedvilas, B. Reedy, A. H. Mahan, H. M. Branz, Q. Wang, and D. L. Williamson, “Rapid solid-phase crystallization of high-rate, hot-wire chemical-vapor-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y. Q.

D. L. Young, P. Stradins, Y. Q. Xu, L. Gedvilas, B. Reedy, A. H. Mahan, H. M. Branz, Q. Wang, and D. L. Williamson, “Rapid solid-phase crystallization of high-rate, hot-wire chemical-vapor-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

H. W. Deckman, C. B. Roxlo, and E. Yablonovitch, “Maximum statistical increase of optical absorption in textured semiconductor films,” Opt. Lett. 8, 491–493 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch and G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 29, 300–305 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 15, 415–423(2007).
[CrossRef]

Yi, Y.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Young, D. L.

D. L. Young, P. Stradins, Y. Q. Xu, L. Gedvilas, B. Reedy, A. H. Mahan, H. M. Branz, Q. Wang, and D. L. Williamson, “Rapid solid-phase crystallization of high-rate, hot-wire chemical-vapor-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Branz, C. W. Teplin, M. J. Romero, I. T. Martin, Q. Wang, K. Alberi, D. L. Young, and P. Stradins, “Hot-wire chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial film crystal silicon for photovoltaics,” Thin Solid Films 519, 4545–4550 (2011).

Yuan, H.-C.

D. N. Weiss, H.-C. Yuan, B. G. Lee, H. M. Branz, S. T. Meyers, A. Grenville, and D. A. Keszler, “Nanoimprinting for diffractive light trapping in solar cells,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, C6M98 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, L.

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15, 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

P. Sheng, A. N. Bloch, and R. S. Stepleman, “Wavelength-selective absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 579–581 (1983).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Söderström, F. J. Haug, J. Escarré, O. Cubero, and C. Ballif, “Photocurrent increase in n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells by guided mode excitation via grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 213508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Haase and H. Stiebig, “Thin-film silicon solar cells with efficient periodic light trapping texture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Young, P. Stradins, Y. Q. Xu, L. Gedvilas, B. Reedy, A. H. Mahan, H. M. Branz, Q. Wang, and D. L. Williamson, “Rapid solid-phase crystallization of high-rate, hot-wire chemical-vapor-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

E. Yablonovitch and G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 29, 300–305 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Eisele, C. E. Nebel, and M. Stutzmann, “Periodic light coupler gratings in amorphous thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7722–7726 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

C. W. Teplin, D. S. Ginley, and H. M. Branz, “A new approach to thin film crystal silicon on glass: biaxially-textured silicon on foreign template layers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 984–988(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

D. N. Weiss, H.-C. Yuan, B. G. Lee, H. M. Branz, S. T. Meyers, A. Grenville, and D. A. Keszler, “Nanoimprinting for diffractive light trapping in solar cells,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, C6M98 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B (1)

D. N. Weiss, S. T. Meyers, and D. A. Keszler, “All-inorganic thermal nanoimprint process,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 28, 823–828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Gale, B. Curtis, H. Kiess, and R. H. Morf, “Design and fabrication of submicron grating structrures for light trapping in silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 1272, 60–66 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovoltaics (1)

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 15, 415–423(2007).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (2)

F. Llopis and I. Tobias, “The role of rear surface in thin silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 481–492 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Stiebig, N. Senoussaoui, T. Brammer, and J. Müller, “The application of grating couplers in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 3031–3040 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

I. Gordon, L. Carnel, D. Van Gestel, G. Beaucarne, and J. Poortmans, “Fabrication and characterization of highly efficient thin-film polycrystalline-silicon solar cells based on aluminium-induced crystallization,” Thin Solid Films 516, 6984–6988 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

H. M. Branz, C. W. Teplin, M. J. Romero, I. T. Martin, Q. Wang, K. Alberi, D. L. Young, and P. Stradins, “Hot-wire chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial film crystal silicon for photovoltaics,” Thin Solid Films 519, 4545–4550 (2011).

R. H. Morf, “Solar cell,” International Patent WO 92/14270 (1992).

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, “Reference solar spectral irradiance: Air Mass 1.5,” http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/spectra/am1.5/.

S. T. Meyers, Ph. D. thesis (Oregon State University, 2008).

D. E. Aspnes, “Optical properties,” in Properties of Crystalline Silicon, R.Hull, ed. (INSPEC, 1999), pp. 677–696.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of crystal-Si film on glass superstrate, with imprinted dielectric grating and silver reflector. The directions of the electric field vector for TE and TM polarized light are indicated. (b) SEM micrograph of 600 nm imprinted dielectric grating on Si wafer substrate, without metal reflector, top view. The grating has a period of 600 nm and a grating height and average width of both 225 ± 5 nm ; the residual layer, defined as the continuous layer between the grating valley and the substrate/dielectric interface, is 30 ± 2 nm thick. (c) As (b), 88 ° side view.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimental hemispherical reflection data for a 1.45 c-Si film on glass superstrate, with grating and flat reference reflector, TE and TM polarizations, 8 ° incidence angle (averaged data). Inset: raw data for grating (black curve) and flat (blue curve) reflector, TE polarization only. (b) Simulated data using RCWA method, for grating and flat reflectors, 8 ° incidence angle (averaged data). Inset: raw data for grating (black curve) and flat (blue curve) reflector, TE polarization only. (c) Comparison of experimental and simulated data for gratings, TE and TM polarizations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Light absorption in the Si layer for grating and flat reflectors from the simulation in Fig. 2b. (b) Terrestrial standard AM 1.5G solar photon flux and absorbed photon flux (gray area under curve, example for grating reflector, TE polarization). Absorption is less than 100% at all wavelengths because of reflective losses at the glass surface and the glass/Si interface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental (solid curves) and simulated (dashed curves) hemispherical reflection data for the film in Fig. 2 for different incidence angles, to surface normal (averaged data, TE polarization only): (a)  20 ° , (b)  30 ° , (c)  40 ° , (d)  50 ° .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Improvement factors for the simulated short-circuit current density due to the grating reflector versus flat reflector for a 1.45 μm Si film device. TE and TM polarizations and the polarization-averaged improvement factors are shown (lines are a guide for the eye).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulated diffraction efficiencies for grating reflector: (a) TE polarization and (b) TM polarization (RCWA). First- and second-order diffraction efficiencies contain both ± 1 st and ± 2 nd orders. The third order is too weak to be displayed on this scale. The sum of all total diffraction efficiencies (curve marked “total”) is identical to the reflectivity of the interface. The light wave is launched inside the Si layer, with an incidence angle of 0 ° .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental hemispherical reflection data for 1.50 ± 0.05 μm c-Si films in substrate geometry, with grating and flat reference reflectors, TE and TM polarizations, 8 ° incidence angle. (a)  606 nm grating period, (b)  833 nm grating period. Inset: schematic of the substrate stack configuration.

Equations (1)

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J sc = e 350 nm 1100 nm A s ( λ ) Φ ( λ ) d λ ,

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