Abstract

A tunable fiber ring laser based on an in-line two-taper Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) filter was realized, and the effect of beam waists of the tapers on performance of the laser was investigated with different beam waists of 70μm, 49μm, and 33μm. Experimental results show that the tunable laser with MZI length of 1m and beam waist of 49μm can cover 16.1nm with tuning steps of 0.070.5nm, a bandwidth of 10pm, and a side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of 4050dB. Tuning range is not only determined by the number of the cladding modes but is also affected by the filter loss. Tuning step is determined by the differences of the effective refractive indexes between the cladding modes and the core mode. SMSR is determined by the balance between the extinction ratio of the filter and the cavity loss of the laser due to MZI filter.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (5)

2009 (2)

P. Lu, L. Men, K. Sooley, and Q. Chen, “Tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 131110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Y. Li, and X. Bao, “Tunable ring laser using a tapered single mode fiber tip,” Appl. Opt. 48, 6827–6831 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

1999 (2)

1991 (2)

L. C. Bobb, H. D. Krumboltz, and P. M. Shankar, “Pressure sensor that uses bent biconically tapered single-mode fibers,” Opt. Lett. 16, 112–114 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc: Optoelectronics 138, 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

L. C. Bobb, P. M. Shankar, and H. D. Krumboltz, “Bending effects in biconically tapered single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1084–1090 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. Stone and L. W. Stulz, “Pigtailed high-finesse tunable fibre Fabry-Perot interferometers with large, medium and small free spectral ranges,” Electron. Lett. 23, 781–783(1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

R. J. Black and R. Bourbonnais, “Core-mode cutoff for finite-cladding lightguides,” Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. 133, 377–384(1986).

Albert, J.

Alvarez-Chavez, J.

Antonio-Lopez, J. E.

Araújo, F. M.

Bao, X.

Barnes, J.

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Black, R. J.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc: Optoelectronics 138, 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Black and R. Bourbonnais, “Core-mode cutoff for finite-cladding lightguides,” Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. 133, 377–384(1986).

Bobb, L. C.

L. C. Bobb, H. D. Krumboltz, and P. M. Shankar, “Pressure sensor that uses bent biconically tapered single-mode fibers,” Opt. Lett. 16, 112–114 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. Bobb, P. M. Shankar, and H. D. Krumboltz, “Bending effects in biconically tapered single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1084–1090 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bock, W.

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bourbonnais, R.

R. J. Black and R. Bourbonnais, “Core-mode cutoff for finite-cladding lightguides,” Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. 133, 377–384(1986).

Castillo-Guzman, A.

Chan, C. C.

X. Dong, P. Shum, X. Yang, M. F. Lim, and C. C. Chan, “Bandwidth-tunable filter and spacing-tunable comb filter with chirped-fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 259, 645–648(2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

P. Lu, L. Men, K. Sooley, and Q. Chen, “Tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 131110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chisholm, K. E.

Chung, Y.

G. Sun, Y. Zhou, Y. Hu, and Y. Chung, “Broadly tunable fiber laser based on merged sagnac and intermodal interferences in few-mode high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 766–768 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. C.

Derickson, D.

D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice Hall PTR, 1998).

Dong, X.

X. Dong, P. Shum, X. Yang, M. F. Lim, and C. C. Chan, “Bandwidth-tunable filter and spacing-tunable comb filter with chirped-fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 259, 645–648(2006).
[CrossRef]

Edinger, K.

Estudillo-Ayala, J.

Everall, L. A.

Fabris, J. L.

Falate, R.

Ferreira, L. A.

Fielding, A. J.

Fraser, J. M.

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Frazão, O.

Gonthier, F.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc: Optoelectronics 138, 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Greig, P.

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Henry, W. M.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc: Optoelectronics 138, 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

G. Sun, Y. Zhou, Y. Hu, and Y. Chung, “Broadly tunable fiber laser based on merged sagnac and intermodal interferences in few-mode high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 766–768 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hui, R.

R. Hui and M. O’Sullivan, Fiber Optic Measurement Techniques (Elsevier, 2009).

Iocco, A.

Johnson, E.

Kieu, K.

Krumboltz, H. D.

L. C. Bobb, H. D. Krumboltz, and P. M. Shankar, “Pressure sensor that uses bent biconically tapered single-mode fibers,” Opt. Lett. 16, 112–114 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. Bobb, P. M. Shankar, and H. D. Krumboltz, “Bending effects in biconically tapered single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1084–1090 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lacroix, S.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc: Optoelectronics 138, 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

LiKamWa, P.

Lim, M. F.

X. Dong, P. Shum, X. Yang, M. F. Lim, and C. C. Chan, “Bandwidth-tunable filter and spacing-tunable comb filter with chirped-fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 259, 645–648(2006).
[CrossRef]

Limberger, H. G.

Loock, H. P.

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Love, J. D.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc: Optoelectronics 138, 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

P. Lu, L. Men, K. Sooley, and Q. Chen, “Tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 131110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mansuripur, M.

Martinez-Rios, A.

May-Arrioja, D.

May-Arrioja, D. A.

Mehta, A.

Men, L.

P. Lu, L. Men, K. Sooley, and Q. Chen, “Tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 131110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O’Sullivan, M.

R. Hui and M. O’Sullivan, Fiber Optic Measurement Techniques (Elsevier, 2009).

Oleschuk, R. D.

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Salathe, R. P.

Santos, J. L.

Selvas, R.

Selvas-Aguilar, R.

Shankar, P. M.

L. C. Bobb, H. D. Krumboltz, and P. M. Shankar, “Pressure sensor that uses bent biconically tapered single-mode fibers,” Opt. Lett. 16, 112–114 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. Bobb, P. M. Shankar, and H. D. Krumboltz, “Bending effects in biconically tapered single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1084–1090 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shao, L.-Y.

Shum, P.

X. Dong, P. Shum, X. Yang, M. F. Lim, and C. C. Chan, “Bandwidth-tunable filter and spacing-tunable comb filter with chirped-fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 259, 645–648(2006).
[CrossRef]

Sooley, K.

P. Lu, L. Men, K. Sooley, and Q. Chen, “Tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 131110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc: Optoelectronics 138, 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stone, J.

J. Stone and L. W. Stulz, “Pigtailed high-finesse tunable fibre Fabry-Perot interferometers with large, medium and small free spectral ranges,” Electron. Lett. 23, 781–783(1987).
[CrossRef]

Stulz, L. W.

J. Stone and L. W. Stulz, “Pigtailed high-finesse tunable fibre Fabry-Perot interferometers with large, medium and small free spectral ranges,” Electron. Lett. 23, 781–783(1987).
[CrossRef]

Sun, G.

G. Sun, Y. Zhou, Y. Hu, and Y. Chung, “Broadly tunable fiber laser based on merged sagnac and intermodal interferences in few-mode high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 766–768 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Z.

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Torres-Gomez, I.

Wang, X.

Williams, J. A. R.

Yam, S. S. H.

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

X. Dong, P. Shum, X. Yang, M. F. Lim, and C. C. Chan, “Bandwidth-tunable filter and spacing-tunable comb filter with chirped-fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 259, 645–648(2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

G. Sun, Y. Zhou, Y. Hu, and Y. Chung, “Broadly tunable fiber laser based on merged sagnac and intermodal interferences in few-mode high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 766–768 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Lu, L. Men, K. Sooley, and Q. Chen, “Tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 131110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Stone and L. W. Stulz, “Pigtailed high-finesse tunable fibre Fabry-Perot interferometers with large, medium and small free spectral ranges,” Electron. Lett. 23, 781–783(1987).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc: Optoelectronics (1)

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc: Optoelectronics 138, 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

G. Sun, Y. Zhou, Y. Hu, and Y. Chung, “Broadly tunable fiber laser based on merged sagnac and intermodal interferences in few-mode high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 766–768 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Opt. Commun. (1)

X. Dong, P. Shum, X. Yang, M. F. Lim, and C. C. Chan, “Bandwidth-tunable filter and spacing-tunable comb filter with chirped-fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 259, 645–648(2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. (1)

R. J. Black and R. Bourbonnais, “Core-mode cutoff for finite-cladding lightguides,” Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. 133, 377–384(1986).

Other (2)

R. Hui and M. O’Sullivan, Fiber Optic Measurement Techniques (Elsevier, 2009).

D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice Hall PTR, 1998).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of an in-line two-taper MZI. D, diameter of SMF; d, diameter of the taper waist; L, the inter ferometer length.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Microscope image of the taper with waist diameter of (a)  70 μm , (b)  49 μm , and (c)  33 μm . The scale bar is 50 μm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup of the tunable fiber ring laser based on an in-line two-taper MZI filter. WDM: wavelength division multiplexing; EDF: Erbium-doped fiber; PC: polarization controller; OSA: optical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Tuning characteristics of laser with d = 49 μm , L = 100 cm , and I EDF = 400 mA .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The laser spectrum evolution when d = 49 μm , L = 35 cm , and δ z = 1 mm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SMSR of laser output versus pump current when δ z = 1 mm and L = 35 cm .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The transmission spectrum of in-line two-taper MZI filter.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Bandwidth measurement setup using self-homodyne technique. PD: photo detector with a bandwidth of 20 GHz . ESA: electrical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Laser bandwidth measurement using self-homodyne technique. (a)  d = 70 μm , L = 35 cm ; (b)  d = 49 μm , L = 35 cm ; (c)  d = 33 μm , L = 35 cm ; (d)  d = 49 μm , L = 100 cm ; (e)  d = 33 μm , L = 100 cm ; (f) normalized fitting result.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Effective index values for the six LP m n modes. Calculations are performed by varying cladding diameter at wavelength λ = 1.555 μm .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The evolution of loss when moving the stage along z axis.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

The differences of the effective refractive index between the first 15 cladding modes and fundamental mode at wavelength λ = 1.555 μm .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Laser Characteristics Using MZIs with Different Tapers and Interferometer Length

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V co / cl = 2 π λ d 2 S n co 2 n cl 2 2 ln S { 1 + 0.26 ln S } 1 / 2 ,
ϕ = 2 π ( n co , eff n cl , eff ) L / λ ,
λ m = Δ n L m = ( n co , eff n cl , eff ) L m .
δ λ m = ( Δ n ± δ n cl , eff ) L / m Δ n L / m = ± δ n cl , eff L / m .

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