International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, “Release on the refractive index of ordinary water substance as a function of wavelength, temperature and pressure,” (1997), http://www.iapws.org/relguide/rindex.pdf.
P. Laven, “Mieplot Software,” http://www.philiplaven.com/mieplot.htm.
M. Theusner, “3rd and 4th order rainbows,” http://atoptics.wordpress.com/2011/06/12/3rd-and-4th-order-rainbows/.
W. Tape and J. Moilanen, Atmospheric Halos and the Search for Angle x (American Geophysical Union, 2005), pp. 200–201.
Named after a hypothetical zero-order rainbow, i.e., a rainbow without any internal reflection. This possibility has caused some rumors in history. However, due to the monotonic character of the deflection function of zero-order scattering, a zero-order rainbow does not exist . Nonetheless in the Sun facing hemisphere, zero-order scattered light is dominating.
This estimation is somehow difficult because of the intensity singularity at the angle of extreme deviation for the tertiary rainbow. Such singularities are typical features for caustics within geometric optics calculations.
P. Laven, 9 Russells Crescent, Horley, Surrey, RH6 7DJ, United Kingdom (personal communication, 2011).
W. R. Corliss, Rare Halos, Mirages, Anomalous Rainbows and Related Electromagnetic Phenomena (1984), pp. 30–31.
R. L. Lee, Jr. and A. B. Fraser, The Rainbow Bridge: Rainbows in Art, Myth, and Science (Bellingham, 2001), pp. 290–295.
L. Cowley, “Twinned rainbows,” http://www.atoptics.co.uk/rainbows/twin1.htm.
L. Cowley, “Reflection rainbows,” http://www.atoptics.co.uk/rainbows/reflect.htm.
R. Greenler, Rainbows, Halos, and Glories (Cambridge, 1980), pp. 6–7.
Arbeitskreis Meteore e.V. http://www.meteoros.de/indexe.htm.
M. Großmann, “Regenbogen 3. Ordnung 15.05.2011,” http://www.meteoros.de/php/viewtopic.php?t=8463.
M. Großmann, “Natural tertiary rainbow 3rd order,” http://atoptics.wordpress.com/2011/06/01/rainbow-3th-order-3/.
as quoted from by Cowley in http://www.atoptics.co.uk/rainbows/ord34.htm.
Our method is based on the well-known transformation routines from one angular coordinate system into another, e.g., from declination and right ascension into elevation and azimuth for astronomical purposes. Here, we have to deal with four such coordinate systems, having their individual poles at (1) the center of the star field image, (2) the zenith, (3) the center of the rainbow image, and (4) the Sun.
A. Haußmann, “Die rechnerische Bestimmung von Winkeldistanzen und Positionen durch die Vermessung von Fotos,” http://www.meteoros.de/download/haussmann/NLC-Haussmann.zip.
W. Tape and J. Moilanen, Atmospheric Halos and the Search for Angle x (American Geophysical Union, 2005), pp. 203–210.
C. Mauer, “Measurement of the spectral response of digital cameras with a set of interference filters,” Diploma thesis (University of Applied Sciences Cologne, 2009).