Abstract

We report what is believed to be the first photographic recording of a quaternary rainbow in nature. It appears on the Sun side of the sky with its red arc at a radius of about 45° from the Sun. The original pictures have been subjected to various forms of image processing to reveal the tertiary rainbow as well as the quaternary rainbow, which are separated by only a few degrees with their colors reversed and their red arcs adjacent to each other.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Vollmer, Lichtspiele in der Luft (Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, 2006).
  2. R. L. Lee, Jr., and P. Laven, “Visibility of natural tertiary rainbows,” Appl. Opt. 50, F152–F161 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  5. M. Großmann, “Natural tertiary rainbow 3rd order,” http://atoptics.wordpress.com/2011/06/01/rainbow-3th-order-3/.
  6. USNO, “Data services—Naval Oceanography Portal,” http://www.usno.navy.mil/USNO/astronomical-applications/data-services.
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  8. W. Landsman, “The IDL Astronomy User’s Library,” http://idlastro.gsfc.nasa.gov/contents.html.
  9. C. Buil, “Canon 40D, 50D, 5D, 5D Mark II Comparison,” http://astrosurf.com/buil/50d/test.htm.
  10. P. Laven, “MiePlot (v4.2),” http://www.philiplaven.com/mieplot.htm.
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    [CrossRef]
  12. G. P. Können, Sophialaan 4, NL-3761DK Soest, The Netherlands (personal communication, August 2011).

2011 (2)

1998 (1)

Buil, C.

C. Buil, “Canon 40D, 50D, 5D, 5D Mark II Comparison,” http://astrosurf.com/buil/50d/test.htm.

Fraser, A. B.

R. L. Lee, Jr., and A. B. Fraser, The Rainbow Bridge: Rainbows in Art, Myth, and Science (Pennsylvania State University, 2001).

Großmann, M.

M. Großmann, E. Schmidt, and A. Haußmann, “Photographic evidence for the third order rainbow,” Appl. Opt. 50,F134–F141 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Großmann, “Natural tertiary rainbow 3rd order,” http://atoptics.wordpress.com/2011/06/01/rainbow-3th-order-3/.

M. Großmann, “Regenbogen 3. Ordnung 15.05.2011,” http://www.meteoros.de/php/viewtopic.php?t=8463.

Haußmann, A.

Können, G. P.

G. P. Können, Sophialaan 4, NL-3761DK Soest, The Netherlands (personal communication, August 2011).

Landsman, W.

W. Landsman, “The IDL Astronomy User’s Library,” http://idlastro.gsfc.nasa.gov/contents.html.

Laven, P.

Lee, R. L.

Schmidt, E.

Vollmer, M.

M. Vollmer, Lichtspiele in der Luft (Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, 2006).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Other (9)

M. Großmann, “Regenbogen 3. Ordnung 15.05.2011,” http://www.meteoros.de/php/viewtopic.php?t=8463.

M. Großmann, “Natural tertiary rainbow 3rd order,” http://atoptics.wordpress.com/2011/06/01/rainbow-3th-order-3/.

USNO, “Data services—Naval Oceanography Portal,” http://www.usno.navy.mil/USNO/astronomical-applications/data-services.

R. L. Lee, Jr., and A. B. Fraser, The Rainbow Bridge: Rainbows in Art, Myth, and Science (Pennsylvania State University, 2001).

W. Landsman, “The IDL Astronomy User’s Library,” http://idlastro.gsfc.nasa.gov/contents.html.

C. Buil, “Canon 40D, 50D, 5D, 5D Mark II Comparison,” http://astrosurf.com/buil/50d/test.htm.

P. Laven, “MiePlot (v4.2),” http://www.philiplaven.com/mieplot.htm.

M. Vollmer, Lichtspiele in der Luft (Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, 2006).

G. P. Können, Sophialaan 4, NL-3761DK Soest, The Netherlands (personal communication, August 2011).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The stacked image (cropped) gener ated from the image series of June 11, 2011, 18:19 UTC. (b) Processed version (unsharp masking, increased saturation, Gaussian smoothing), which shows two rainbow-like arcs with reversed colors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Distance in degrees of the pixels from the location of the Sun as computed from the astrometric solution and compensating for lens distortion. The circles trace the shapes of the tertiary and quaternary rainbows. (b) Area of the image where pixels were averaged along each Sun-centered circle at 0.05 ° increments. Pixel rows 930 to 2070, and Sun-centered radii between 35 ° and 51 ° were used.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Brightness data of the RGB channels (top to bottom, respectively) of the stacked image (Fig. 1) for the area highlighted in Fig. 2b. (a) Original data. (b) Individual polynomial subtracted. The two dashed vertical lines in each graph mark, for the centroid wavelength of the channel, the positions of the third- and fourth-order rainbow angles as given in Table 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured (solid lines) and modeled (centroid wavelengths; dashed lines) radii of the third- and fourth-order rainbows. Some dust specks (D) and trails of sunlit raindrops (R) are marked.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Composite image made by using different masks to retain the natural look of the foreground while still showing the contrast-enhanced tertiary and quaternary rainbows in the sky. The white streaks are individual raindrops.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured and Predicted Radii for the Peak and Centroid Wavelengths of the RGB Channels

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