Abstract

Ag/Au bimetallic nanoparticles possess the combinatory advantages of Au and Ag nanoparticles and can also be utilized to tune the properties of localized surface plasmon resonance. Ag/Au bilayer nanorods were prepared by electron beam lithography, and their spectral properties were investigated. Compared with Ag monolayer nanorods, Ag/Au bilayer nanorods show broader localized surface plasmon resonance bands, and the longitudinal mode and transverse mode localized surface plasmon bands show blueshift and redshift, respectively. The maximum near-field intensity of the longitudinal mode of the Ag/Au nano rod is less than half that of the Ag/Au nanorod without gold layer. Shape-induced modification of Ag/Au bilayer nanorods on their spectral properties was also discussed.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2010 (2)

L. Touahir, A. T. A. Jenkins, R. Boukherroub, A. C. Gouget-Laemmel, J.-N. Chazalviel, J. Peretti, F. Ozanam, and S. Szunerits, “Surface plasmon-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy on silver based SPR substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 22582–22589 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu and X. Liu, “Optimization of the bimetallic gold and silver alloy nanoshell for biomedical applications in vivo,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 061904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

D. Philip, K. G. Gopchandran, C. Unni, and K. M. Nissamudeen, “Synthesis, characterization and SERS activity of Au-Ag nanorods,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 70, 780–784 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-M. Bok, K. L. Shuford, S. Kim, S. K. Kim, and S. Park, “Multiple surface plasmon modes for a colloidal solution of nanoporous gold nanorods and their comparison to smooth gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8, 2265–2270 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Evans, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, and R. J. Pollard, “Optical transmission measurements of silver, silver-gold alloy and silver-gold segmented nanorods in thin film alumina,” Nanotechnology 19, 465708 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Yu, P. Guan, D. Qin, G. Golden, and P. M. Wallace, “Inverted size-dependence of surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanohole and nanodisk arrays,” Nano Lett. 8, 1923–1928 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

O. Stranik, R. Nooney, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, “Optimization of nanoparticle size for plasmonic enhancement of fluorescence,” Plasmonics 2, 15–22 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Rashid, R. P. Bhattacharjee, and T. K. Mandal, “Organic ligand-mediated synthesis of shape-tunable gold nanoparticles: An application of their thin film as refractive index sensors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 9684–9693(2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

H. Takele, H. Greve, C. Pochstein, V. Zaporojtchenko, and F. Faupel, “Plasmonic properties of Ag nanoclusters in various polymer matrices,” Nanotechnology 17, 3499–3505(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6, 2060–2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, L. Xiong, J. Shi, and M. Nogami, “Aligned silver nanorod arrays for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nanotechnology 17, 2670–2674 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Liz-Marzan, “Tailoring surface plasmons through the morphology and assembly of metal nanoparticles,” Langmuir 22, 32–41 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sharma and B. D. Gupta, “Fibre-optic sensor based on surface plasmon resonance with Ag-Au alloy nanoparticle films,” Nanotechnology 17, 124–131 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

J. B. Jackson and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on tunable plasmonic nanoparticle substrates,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 17930–17935 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Y. Shen, Z. Gryczynski, and J. Lakowicz, “Multiphoton excitation of fluorescence near metallic particles: Enhanced and localized excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. 106, 2191–2195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Geddes and J. R. Lakowicz, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 12, 121–129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Meldrum, L. A. Boatner, and C. W. White, “Nanocomposites formed by ion implantation: Recent developments and future opportunities,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 178, 7–16 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. Nie and S. R. Emroy, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275, 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Schmid, H. West, H. Mehles, and A. Lehnert, “Hydrosilation reactions catalyzed by supported bimetallic colloids,” Inorg. Chem. 36, 891–895 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. Mulvaney, “Surface plasmon spectroscopy of nanosized metal particles,” Langmuir 12, 788–800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. J. Laserna, “Combining fingerprinting capability with trace analytical detection: surface-enhanced Raman spectrometry,” Anal. Chim. Acta 283, 607–622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, R.

P. R. Evans, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, and R. J. Pollard, “Optical transmission measurements of silver, silver-gold alloy and silver-gold segmented nanorods in thin film alumina,” Nanotechnology 19, 465708 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhattacharjee, R. P.

M. H. Rashid, R. P. Bhattacharjee, and T. K. Mandal, “Organic ligand-mediated synthesis of shape-tunable gold nanoparticles: An application of their thin film as refractive index sensors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 9684–9693(2007).
[CrossRef]

Boatner, L. A.

A. Meldrum, L. A. Boatner, and C. W. White, “Nanocomposites formed by ion implantation: Recent developments and future opportunities,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 178, 7–16 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bok, H.-M.

H.-M. Bok, K. L. Shuford, S. Kim, S. K. Kim, and S. Park, “Multiple surface plasmon modes for a colloidal solution of nanoporous gold nanorods and their comparison to smooth gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8, 2265–2270 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boukherroub, R.

L. Touahir, A. T. A. Jenkins, R. Boukherroub, A. C. Gouget-Laemmel, J.-N. Chazalviel, J. Peretti, F. Ozanam, and S. Szunerits, “Surface plasmon-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy on silver based SPR substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 22582–22589 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chazalviel, J.-N.

L. Touahir, A. T. A. Jenkins, R. Boukherroub, A. C. Gouget-Laemmel, J.-N. Chazalviel, J. Peretti, F. Ozanam, and S. Szunerits, “Surface plasmon-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy on silver based SPR substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 22582–22589 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Emroy, S. R.

S. Nie and S. R. Emroy, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275, 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, P. R.

P. R. Evans, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, and R. J. Pollard, “Optical transmission measurements of silver, silver-gold alloy and silver-gold segmented nanorods in thin film alumina,” Nanotechnology 19, 465708 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faupel, F.

H. Takele, H. Greve, C. Pochstein, V. Zaporojtchenko, and F. Faupel, “Plasmonic properties of Ag nanoclusters in various polymer matrices,” Nanotechnology 17, 3499–3505(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geddes, C. D.

C. D. Geddes and J. R. Lakowicz, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 12, 121–129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Golden, G.

Q. Yu, P. Guan, D. Qin, G. Golden, and P. M. Wallace, “Inverted size-dependence of surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanohole and nanodisk arrays,” Nano Lett. 8, 1923–1928 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gopchandran, K. G.

D. Philip, K. G. Gopchandran, C. Unni, and K. M. Nissamudeen, “Synthesis, characterization and SERS activity of Au-Ag nanorods,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 70, 780–784 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gouget-Laemmel, A. C.

L. Touahir, A. T. A. Jenkins, R. Boukherroub, A. C. Gouget-Laemmel, J.-N. Chazalviel, J. Peretti, F. Ozanam, and S. Szunerits, “Surface plasmon-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy on silver based SPR substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 22582–22589 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Greve, H.

H. Takele, H. Greve, C. Pochstein, V. Zaporojtchenko, and F. Faupel, “Plasmonic properties of Ag nanoclusters in various polymer matrices,” Nanotechnology 17, 3499–3505(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gryczynski, I.

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Y. Shen, Z. Gryczynski, and J. Lakowicz, “Multiphoton excitation of fluorescence near metallic particles: Enhanced and localized excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. 106, 2191–2195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gryczynski, Z.

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Y. Shen, Z. Gryczynski, and J. Lakowicz, “Multiphoton excitation of fluorescence near metallic particles: Enhanced and localized excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. 106, 2191–2195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guan, P.

Q. Yu, P. Guan, D. Qin, G. Golden, and P. M. Wallace, “Inverted size-dependence of surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanohole and nanodisk arrays,” Nano Lett. 8, 1923–1928 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, B. D.

A. K. Sharma and B. D. Gupta, “Fibre-optic sensor based on surface plasmon resonance with Ag-Au alloy nanoparticle films,” Nanotechnology 17, 124–131 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

J. B. Jackson and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on tunable plasmonic nanoparticle substrates,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 17930–17935 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendren, W. R.

P. R. Evans, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, and R. J. Pollard, “Optical transmission measurements of silver, silver-gold alloy and silver-gold segmented nanorods in thin film alumina,” Nanotechnology 19, 465708 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunter, W. R.

D. W. Lynch and W. R. Hunter, “Titanium (Ti),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E.D.Palik, ed. (Academic, 1998), pp. 240–249.

Jackson, J. B.

J. B. Jackson and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on tunable plasmonic nanoparticle substrates,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 17930–17935 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jenkins, A. T. A.

L. Touahir, A. T. A. Jenkins, R. Boukherroub, A. C. Gouget-Laemmel, J.-N. Chazalviel, J. Peretti, F. Ozanam, and S. Szunerits, “Surface plasmon-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy on silver based SPR substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 22582–22589 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jin, R.

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6, 2060–2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

Kim, S.

H.-M. Bok, K. L. Shuford, S. Kim, S. K. Kim, and S. Park, “Multiple surface plasmon modes for a colloidal solution of nanoporous gold nanorods and their comparison to smooth gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8, 2265–2270 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. K.

H.-M. Bok, K. L. Shuford, S. Kim, S. K. Kim, and S. Park, “Multiple surface plasmon modes for a colloidal solution of nanoporous gold nanorods and their comparison to smooth gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8, 2265–2270 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lakowicz, J.

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Y. Shen, Z. Gryczynski, and J. Lakowicz, “Multiphoton excitation of fluorescence near metallic particles: Enhanced and localized excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. 106, 2191–2195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, J. R.

C. D. Geddes and J. R. Lakowicz, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 12, 121–129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laserna, J. J.

J. J. Laserna, “Combining fingerprinting capability with trace analytical detection: surface-enhanced Raman spectrometry,” Anal. Chim. Acta 283, 607–622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lehnert, A.

G. Schmid, H. West, H. Mehles, and A. Lehnert, “Hydrosilation reactions catalyzed by supported bimetallic colloids,” Inorg. Chem. 36, 891–895 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

D. Wu and X. Liu, “Optimization of the bimetallic gold and silver alloy nanoshell for biomedical applications in vivo,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 061904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liz-Marzan, L. M.

L. M. Liz-Marzan, “Tailoring surface plasmons through the morphology and assembly of metal nanoparticles,” Langmuir 22, 32–41 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lynch, D. W.

D. W. Lynch and W. R. Hunter, “Titanium (Ti),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E.D.Palik, ed. (Academic, 1998), pp. 240–249.

MacCraith, B. D.

O. Stranik, R. Nooney, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, “Optimization of nanoparticle size for plasmonic enhancement of fluorescence,” Plasmonics 2, 15–22 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Malicka, J.

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Y. Shen, Z. Gryczynski, and J. Lakowicz, “Multiphoton excitation of fluorescence near metallic particles: Enhanced and localized excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. 106, 2191–2195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mandal, T. K.

M. H. Rashid, R. P. Bhattacharjee, and T. K. Mandal, “Organic ligand-mediated synthesis of shape-tunable gold nanoparticles: An application of their thin film as refractive index sensors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 9684–9693(2007).
[CrossRef]

McDonagh, C.

O. Stranik, R. Nooney, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, “Optimization of nanoparticle size for plasmonic enhancement of fluorescence,” Plasmonics 2, 15–22 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mehles, H.

G. Schmid, H. West, H. Mehles, and A. Lehnert, “Hydrosilation reactions catalyzed by supported bimetallic colloids,” Inorg. Chem. 36, 891–895 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meldrum, A.

A. Meldrum, L. A. Boatner, and C. W. White, “Nanocomposites formed by ion implantation: Recent developments and future opportunities,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 178, 7–16 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mirkin, C. A.

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6, 2060–2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Misawa, H.

Mizeikis, V.

Mulvaney, P.

P. Mulvaney, “Surface plasmon spectroscopy of nanosized metal particles,” Langmuir 12, 788–800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nie, S.

S. Nie and S. R. Emroy, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275, 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nissamudeen, K. M.

D. Philip, K. G. Gopchandran, C. Unni, and K. M. Nissamudeen, “Synthesis, characterization and SERS activity of Au-Ag nanorods,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 70, 780–784 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nogami, M.

Y. Yang, L. Xiong, J. Shi, and M. Nogami, “Aligned silver nanorod arrays for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nanotechnology 17, 2670–2674 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nooney, R.

O. Stranik, R. Nooney, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, “Optimization of nanoparticle size for plasmonic enhancement of fluorescence,” Plasmonics 2, 15–22 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ozanam, F.

L. Touahir, A. T. A. Jenkins, R. Boukherroub, A. C. Gouget-Laemmel, J.-N. Chazalviel, J. Peretti, F. Ozanam, and S. Szunerits, “Surface plasmon-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy on silver based SPR substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 22582–22589 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

H.-M. Bok, K. L. Shuford, S. Kim, S. K. Kim, and S. Park, “Multiple surface plasmon modes for a colloidal solution of nanoporous gold nanorods and their comparison to smooth gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8, 2265–2270 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peretti, J.

L. Touahir, A. T. A. Jenkins, R. Boukherroub, A. C. Gouget-Laemmel, J.-N. Chazalviel, J. Peretti, F. Ozanam, and S. Szunerits, “Surface plasmon-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy on silver based SPR substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 22582–22589 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Philip, D.

D. Philip, K. G. Gopchandran, C. Unni, and K. M. Nissamudeen, “Synthesis, characterization and SERS activity of Au-Ag nanorods,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 70, 780–784 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pochstein, C.

H. Takele, H. Greve, C. Pochstein, V. Zaporojtchenko, and F. Faupel, “Plasmonic properties of Ag nanoclusters in various polymer matrices,” Nanotechnology 17, 3499–3505(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollard, R. J.

P. R. Evans, W. R. Hendren, R. Atkinson, and R. J. Pollard, “Optical transmission measurements of silver, silver-gold alloy and silver-gold segmented nanorods in thin film alumina,” Nanotechnology 19, 465708 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, D.

Q. Yu, P. Guan, D. Qin, G. Golden, and P. M. Wallace, “Inverted size-dependence of surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanohole and nanodisk arrays,” Nano Lett. 8, 1923–1928 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rashid, M. H.

M. H. Rashid, R. P. Bhattacharjee, and T. K. Mandal, “Organic ligand-mediated synthesis of shape-tunable gold nanoparticles: An application of their thin film as refractive index sensors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 9684–9693(2007).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

Schatz, G. C.

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6, 2060–2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmid, G.

G. Schmid, H. West, H. Mehles, and A. Lehnert, “Hydrosilation reactions catalyzed by supported bimetallic colloids,” Inorg. Chem. 36, 891–895 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, A. K.

A. K. Sharma and B. D. Gupta, “Fibre-optic sensor based on surface plasmon resonance with Ag-Au alloy nanoparticle films,” Nanotechnology 17, 124–131 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y.

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Y. Shen, Z. Gryczynski, and J. Lakowicz, “Multiphoton excitation of fluorescence near metallic particles: Enhanced and localized excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. 106, 2191–2195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sherry, L. J.

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6, 2060–2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, J.

Y. Yang, L. Xiong, J. Shi, and M. Nogami, “Aligned silver nanorod arrays for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nanotechnology 17, 2670–2674 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shuford, K. L.

H.-M. Bok, K. L. Shuford, S. Kim, S. K. Kim, and S. Park, “Multiple surface plasmon modes for a colloidal solution of nanoporous gold nanorods and their comparison to smooth gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8, 2265–2270 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stranik, O.

O. Stranik, R. Nooney, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, “Optimization of nanoparticle size for plasmonic enhancement of fluorescence,” Plasmonics 2, 15–22 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Szunerits, S.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic pictures of (a) Ag monolayer and (b) Ag/Au bilayer NRs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of Ag/Au NRs with different R ( R = 1 , 2.2, 3.2, 4.3, 5).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental (Exp.) and simulated (Sim.) extinction spectra of Ag/Au NRs with different R ( R = 1 , 2.2, 3.2, 4.3, 5). (a) L mode, (b) T mode. The inset is the schematic picture of rod model with four circle corners with radius 30 nm (e.g., R 1 ).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental extinction spectra of Ag/Au and Ag NRs with different R ( R = 1 , 2.2, 3.2, 4.3, 5) under polarized irradiation. (a) L mode, (b) T mode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulated extinction spectra of Ag/Au and Ag NRs with different R ( R = 1 , 2.2, 3.2, 4.3, 5) under polarized irradiation. (a) L mode, (b) T mode.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Maps of near-field intensity distributions localized on isolated Ag/Au NR with different R ( R = 1 , 2.2, 3.2, 4.3, 5) at the wavelength at which the maximum near-field intensity occurs.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Maps of near-field intensity distributions localized on isolated Ag (thickness 30 nm ) NR with different R ( R = 1 , 2.2, 3.2, 4.3, 5) at the wavelength at which the maximum near-field intensity occurs.

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